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--r| THE 

LIFE 



OF 



EDWARD iENNER, M.D. 

"^^ LL. D., F. R. S. 

I PHYSICIAN EXTRAORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY GEO. IV. 
FOREIGN ASSOCIATE OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE, 
1 &C. &C. &C. 

WITH 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF HIS DOCTRINES, 

AND 

SELECTIONS FROM HIS CORRESPONDENCE. 

BY 

JOHN BARON, M.D., F.R.S. 

LATE SENIOR PHYSICIAN TO THE GENERAL INFIRMARY, AND CONSULTING 

PHYSICIAN TO THE LUNATIC ASYLUM AT GLOUCESTER, FELLOW OF THE 

ROYAL MEDICAL AND CHIRURGICAL SOCIETY OF LO^TDON, &C. 6i.C. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 



1>- 



LONDON : 
HENRY COLBURN. PUBLISHER, 

GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 

1838. 



/ 



^ 



R 
J5B5 

V, A 




'• B. .NICHOLS AND SON, 25, PAEHAMENT 



STREET. 



/ 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



Those who have done me the favour of perusing 
the former Volume, are aware of the inducements 
which prompted me to publish it before the com- 
pletion of the work. The part now brought forth 
finishes my undertaking. It has been in manu- 
script for several years. The reasons which have 
retarded the publication are so much of a private 
and personal nature as to render it unnecessary to 
specify them. This delay has been irksome to my- 
self ; but I hope it has not been injurious, either 
to the cause of vaccination, or to the character of 
its author. 

The feelings avowed in the first volume have 
never been absent from my mind during any part 
of the progress of the work. I am deeply con- 
scious of its many imperfections, and should have 
been well contented to have seen the whole subject 
handled by some one possessed of more leisure and 
greater powers than belong to me. The labour has 
been carried on amid many hindrances; and had not 
the kind individuals whose names I have mentioned 



IV ADVERTISEMENT. 

in the introduction, given me their aid, I must have 
abandoned it entirely. I have great pleasure in again 
recording their good offices, especially those of 
Richard Gamble, my oldest friend, whose attach- 
ment to me has been '^ closer than that of a brother :" 

SED NEC ILLA EXTINCTA SUNT, ALUNTURQUE PO" 
TIUS ET AUGENTUR COGITATIONE ET MEMORIA. 

He laboured with me in the examination of the 
voluminous papers with a devotion to the name of 
Jenner that well deserves to be had in remem- 
brance : but, above all, he enabled me to give those 
illustrations of the views of pestilence which I 
deemed it necessary to present in the Fifth and 
Sixth Chapters of the first volume. Every succeed- 
ing day seems to have confirmed the truth of 
these views ; and it was a notion, perhaps an un- 
founded one, that the dissemination of them would 
tend to augment the confidence in vaccination, which 
tempted me to commit them to the press before 
the whole work was ready. In these conclusions 
I may have erred, but the sincerity of my purpose 
will not, on that account, I trust, be called in ques- 
tion. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Page 
Consequences of the first Parliamentary Grant — Jenner 
resident in London — his Anticipations disappointed — 
Progress of Vaccination abroad, and of Opposition at 
home — The Napoleon Medal, and other Honours — His 
alleged Distrust of Vaccination in the case of his own 
Son . . . . . .1 



CHAPTER II. 

Continued Progress of Vaccination abroad — Vaccinations 
at Cheltenham — Arrangements for farther Discussion 
in Parliament — Second Grant — Interview with Mr. 
Perceval with a View to limit the Diffusion of Small- 
Pox by Inoculation . . , .50 

CHAPTER III. 

Domestic Life — Worgan — Return of the Spanish Vaccine 
Expedition — Various Honours — Presents from the 
Presidencies in India . . . .71 



VI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV. 



Page 



General View of the State of Vaccination — Address of 
the Five Indian Nations — Influence of Jenner with 
foreign States — Formation of the National Vaccine 
Establishment — Causes of his withdrawing from it — 
Death of his eldest Son . . .98 

CHAPTER V. 

Case of the Honourable Robert Grosvenor — Jenner's 
Sentiments on that Subject — His Attempts to liberate a 
French Prisoner — Elected Foreign Associate of the 
National Institute — Sir Joseph Banks and the original 
Paper on Vaccination — Poems in honour of Vaccina- 
tion ...... 155 

CHAPTER VI. 

Libels — Progress of Vaccination — Degree of M. D. by 
Diploma conferred upon Dr. Jenner by the University 
of Oxford — Discussions in the College of Physicians — 
Lord Roringdon's Bill to restrain Small-Pox — Jenner's 
Occupations in the Country — His Interviews with the 
Duchess of Oldenburgh and the Allied Sovereigns — 
Address from Brunn in Moravia — Letter of Soemmer- 
ing, with Diploma, from Munich . . . 181 

CHAPTER VII. 

Death of Mrs. Jenner — Epidemic at Edinburgh — Publica- 
tion of Sir Gilbert Blane's Tract — Varioloid Epidemics 219 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Summary of Facts relating to Vaccination — Its Influence 
on the Mortality of Infants, and on Population — Publi- 
cation of the Circular — Letter to Dr. Charles Parry — 
Paper on the Migration of Birds . . . 242 



CONTENTS. Vll 

CHAPTER IX. 

Page 
Domestic Habits and personal Character — Death and 
Funeral ..... 277 

LETTERS 

From Dr. Jenner to various Individuals, &c. &c. . 323 

APPENDIX. 

No. I. List of Diplomas, Honours, &c. conferred on 
Dr. Jenner ..... 449 

No. II. Reference to the Madrid Gazette, and to Dr. 
Sacco's Paper on the Varioloid Disease — The Ben- 
gal Epizootic — A similar Disease in England — Grease 
and the Variolte Equinae . . . 455 

No. III. List of Medals struck in honour of Vaccina- 
tion . .... 456 

Index . .... 459 



ERRATA. 

VOL. I. 

Page 63, line 12 from bottom, /or principal, I. principle. 

Page 239, line 2 from top, /or Gunning, /. Dunning. 

Page 376, line 7 from top, /or delineates, I. delineate. 

Page 429, /. Dr. De Carro to Dr. Jenner,/or to Dr. De Carro, Vienna. 

Page 606, line 6 from top, for successfully, I. successively. 

VOL. IL 

Pages 10, 52, 53, for Frank, /. Franck. 

Page 56, line 2 from top, /or he, I. she. 

Page 106, line 2 from top, /or Valentine, /. Valentin. 

Page 108, line last,/or astonished, I. enraged. 

Page 168, line 19 from top, dele to. 



LIFE 



OF 



DR. JENNER. 



CHAPTER I. 

CONSEQUENCES OF THE FIRST PARLIAMENTARY GRANT — 
JENNER RESIDENT IN LONDON — HIS ANTICIPATIONS 
DISAPPOINTED — PROGRESS OF VACCINATION ABROAD, 
AND OF OPPOSITIOlN AT HOME — THE NAPOLEON MEDAL, 
AND OTHER HONOURS — HIS ALLEGED DISTRUST OF 
VACCINATION IN THE CASE OF HIS OWN SON. 

The discussion in parliament, and the very in- 
adequate grant which was the result of it, by no 
means produced the effects that Jenner's friends 
anticipated. It stirred up greater hostility and 
envy, and materially added to his own responsi- 
bility, without giving him the strength and inde- 
pendence which might better have enabled him to 
cope with his antagonists. He was left with the 

VOL. II. B 



2 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

whole weight of a most momentous undertaking 
upon his own shoulders. Those who were jealous 
of his fame waxed more bold ; his friends became 
lukewarm ; his enemies more united and cla- 
morous ; the demands upon his time and attention 
were increased ; his private resources were dimi- 
nished ; and he could not devote himself to his 
practice as a physician. Crippled and chstressed 
though he was by the very means which some 
fondly imagined would have proved most bene- 
ficial to him, he, nevertheless, took his station and 
kept it firmly. He fixed his mind upon the great 
object which he was called upon to fulfil, and re- 
solved at all hazards to persevere, and never to 
desert the cause while he had power to labour in 
it. In this attitude we shall ever find him. Had 
he been more selfish, more ambitious, more desi- 
rous of pursuing objects of personal emolument or 
aggrandizement, he certainly had the fairest op- 
portunities of doing so ; and no one could justly 
say that any distinction, which such a man might 
have acquired, was unmerited. 

The people of England seemed to think that the 
fee-simple both of his body and mind had been 
purchased by the ten thousand pounds ; and 
many an unjust and ungenerous intimation of this 
feeling was conveyed to him. To a mind like his, 
this was no small annoyance. He was called upon 
for explanations, for opinions, by every person who 
thought a direct communication with the author 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 3 

of Vaccination an honour worth seeking ; when 
they might have obtained all the information they 
wanted from his published writings. 

It is likewise to be remembered that a more 
formidable and rancorous resistance than had yet 
appeared, began to show itself ; and had he not 
been constantly cheered and animated by the con- 
viction that the knowledge of his discovery was 
rapidly extending itself over the earth, and that the 
unceasing opposition of his enemies could not 
interfere with the real and substantial benefits 
which it was actually conferring, he would have 
had many reasons to regret the conspicuous eleva- 
tion on which it had placed him. 

Influenced by the remarks of some of his parlia- 
mentary advocates, he was induced to fix himself 
in Hertford-street, May Fair. The result of this 
plan by no means corresponded with their antici- 
pations. " Elated and allured," he observes, " by 
the speech of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, I 
took a house in London for ten years, at a high 
rent, and furnished it ; but my first year's practice 
convinced me of my own temerity and impru- 
dence, and the falsity of the minister's prediction. 
My fees fell off both in number and value ; for, 
extraordinary to tell, some of those families in 
which I had been before employed, now sent to 
their own domestic surgeons or apothecaries 
to inoculate their childi-en, alleging that they 
could not think of troubling Dr. Jenner about a 

B 2 



4 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

thing executed so easily as vaccine inoculation. 
Others, who gave me such fees as I thought my- 
self entitled to at the first inoculation, reduced 
them at the second, and sank them still lower at 
the third." The truth is, that Jenner, in publish- 
ing his discovery as he did, effectually prevented 
the fulfilment of Mr. Addington's prechctions ; and 
it was scarcely befitting the representatives of a 
great nation to speculate on a contingency of this 
nature, in calculating the reward due to such a 
benefactor. He himself remarks to one of his 
correspondents, " I have now completely made up 
my mind respecting London. I have done with 
it, and have again commenced village-doctor. I 
found my purse not equal to the sinking of a thou- 
sand pounds annually (which has actually been 
the case for several successive years,) nor the gra- 
titude of the public deserving such a sacrifice. 
How hard, after what I have done, the toils I have 
gone through, and the anxieties I have endured in 
obtaining for the world a greater gift than man 
ever bestowed on them before (excuse this burst 
of egotism), to be thrown by with a bare remu- 
neration of my expenses !" * 

* That some estimate may he formed of the nature of 
the treatment which he received, I suhjoin the foHowing ex- 
tracts from letters written hy liim to an intimate friend. 

June 3, 1804. " The Treasury still withholds the pay- 
ment of what was voted me two years ago ; and now there 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 5 

Independently of these causes of distress, his 
mind was much agitated by anxiety respecting the 
health of Mrs. Jenner. She had been seized with 
spitting of blood, and this occurrence was the 
source of painful solicitude to him during the re- 
mainder of her life. It was deemed by his friends 
in London very desirable that he should be in 
town during the course of this spring (1804), to 
attend the anniversary of the Royal Jennerian 
Society, celebrated on his birth-day — the l/th of 
May. In declining a pressing invitation on this 
subject, he observes, "though ft post-chaise or a 
mail-coach might bring up my body, my mind 
would be left behind. One cause of my absence, 
among many others, is the sad state of Mrs. 
Jenner's health. I cannot leave her even for a 
day with any comfort to my feelings. My friends, 
who honour the glorious cause of vaccination by 
assembling on the l/th, will, I trust, admit my 
apology. It is my intention to collect a few 

are new officers, the time may be very long before a guinea 
reaches me from that quarter." 

Nov. 2, 1804. " The London smoke, I have observed, is 
too apt to cloud our best fticulties. I don't intend to risk the 
injury of mine in this way ; except it may be occasionally, 
merely for the transaction of business. That the public has 
not the smallest right to expect it of me, no one will deny. — 
I have received no reward for showing them how to remove 
one of the greatest olistacles to human happiness ; but, on 
the contrary, am loaded with a tax of more than £400 a 
year ! " 



6 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Staunch vaccinists on that day at my cottage. I 
shall give them some roast beef, not forgetting a 
horn or two of good October. We shall close the 
day with bumpers of milk-punch to the health of 
the friends of humanity at the Crown and Anchor ; 
and if it were not for the indisposition of my poor 
wife, we should roar like bulls." 

The facts above recorded relative to remunera- 
tion, induced many of Dr. Jenner's friends to turn 
their eyes to other portions of the globe, which 
were benefiting largely by the vaccine discovery ; 
with the hope that they would testify their grati- 
tude by some substantial token. Our rich pos- 
sessions in the East were first looked to on this 
occasion. The ever-active and benevolent Dr. 
Lettsom started the idea, and wrote to Jenner on 
the subject. His reply drew forth the following 
expression from another friend, the late Benjamin 
Travers, esq. 

London, Feb, 18/A, 1804. 

My dear Doctor, 

I have just read your interesting letter of the 8th inst. 
to Dr. Lettsom. It does you the greatest honour; and I 
shall make the best use of it tliat lies in my power. I 
wish I had had the happiness of your acquaintance a few 
years ago : you should not liave acted in the manner you 
liave : your liberality and disinterestedness every one must 
admire and extol ; but you are sadly deficient in w'orldly 
Avisdom. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 7 

I shall do the little which lies in my power to impress 
the minds of those whose influence may prove serviceable, 
was it merely to save the character of the nation from 
being blasted with ingratitude to a man to whom the 
WORLD has been so greatly indebted. 

I am, my dear Doctor, 
with the most unfeigned esteem and regard, 

yours truly, 
Benjamin Travers. 

In another letter, the same judicious corre- 
spondent observes, " If you had undertaken the 
extinction of the small-pox yourself, with coad- 
jutors of your ow^n appointment, I am confident you 
might have put £100,000 in your pocket ; and the 
glory be as great, and the benefit to the commu- 
nity the same." 

This excellent individual was not more mindful 
of Jenner's private affairs than he was of vaccina- 
tion itself. As a member of the Jennerian Society, 
he was endeavouring to effect an object, which 
(one would have imagined) might have been 
accomplished without difficulty ; I mean the aban- 
donment of variolous inoculation at the Small Pox 
Hospital. But, strange to say, this act of justice 
and of mercy was delayed till nearly twenty years 
after the period of which I now write. 

The Directors of the Vaccine Board, soon after 
this period, felt themselves called upon, in conse- 
quence of the peculiar situation of Dr. Jenner, to 
deviate somewhat from the ostensible purposes of 



8 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

their appointment, and to take some charge of his 
private concerns, as well as of the subject of vacci- 
nation. Sufficient evidence has been already given 
that the " amor sceleratus habendi " did not in- 
fluence his actions ; but, free as he himself was 
from all taint of this kind, his friends could not 
bear the reflection that his disinterestedness should 
actually lead to his personal loss at the very time 
that he was the instrument of conveying unheard- 
of benefits to mankind. A committee was ap- 
pointed, in consequence of a reference from the 
Board of Directors, to enquire whether Dr. Jenner 
was not a sufferer in his income and pecuniary 
circumstances, " in consequence of the time which 
he had devoted to his valuable discovery of vaccine 
inoculation, and of the various expenses incident 
thereto, notwithstanding the parliamentary grant 
of £10,000," This investigation could not but be 
interesting to Dr. Jenner himself, and will of course 
justify me in dwelling upon it for a short time. The 
detail which I am about to subjoin, certainly does 
not afford any great encouragement to scientific 
men to divulge the result of their labours ; but we 
have now this one great consolation, that in the 
exact proportion of the neglect which Jenner 
experienced from his contemporaries, did the pu- 
rity, and firmness, and generosity of his principles 
shew themselves. 

The account between him and the public stood 
thus : — Without entering into minute calculations. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 9 

or referring to other countries, it may be stated 
that Dr. Jenner made known a discovery, which 
has already materially increased the mean duration 
of human hfe, and which was capable of rescuing 
annually between thirty and forty thousand of 
our own population from a pestilential and fatal 
disease. To put the world fully in possession 
of these blessings he abandoned almost entirely 
the emoluments of his profession as a physician in 
the country. He incurred great additional expense 
by keeping up an establishment in London ; and was 
constantly exposed to much cost from printing, 
postage, &c. &c. without the possibility of a return. 
His emoluments from vaccine inoculation, contrary 
to the glowing anticipations of his parliamentary 
eulogists, were not on an average more than £350 
per annum ; so that there is clear proof that the 
gross deficit of capital in the four years imme- 
diately subsequent to his removal to London, 
amounted nearly to £6000. In compensation for 
all this. Dr. Jenner was voted the sum of £10,000 
by Parliament, from which were deducted, in the 
shape of official fees, &c. nearly £1000, without 
taking into account the tedious delay in the pay- 
ment. 

Under such circumstances his friends thought 
it necessary that he should again repair to Lon- 
don. But before we follow him thither, it may be 
proper to notice the contemporary advancement of 



10 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

vaccination abroad, and the opposition it encoun- 
tered at home. 

Excepting in the British metropoHs, and some 
of the large provincial towns, no formidable inter- 
ruption occurred to its progTess. Almost all the 
communications from foreign countries were grati- 
fying in the extreme. Dr. Frank, who had re- 
cently gone to Wilna as Professor of Pathology, 
on the 13th of January announced to Jenner that 
that university, wishing to confer a distinguished 
mark of its esteem, had chosen him an honorary 
member, and transmitted the diploma. About the 
same time. Dr. Barboza informed him of the suc- 
cessful progress of vaccination in the Brazils ; all 
the civil authorities assisting his efforts. The 
manner in which he procured his vaccine lymph 
deserves to be recorded ; it shows an energy in the 
Brazilian government highly creditable. He had 
carried vaccine matter from England in 1803. He 
reproduced it in Lisbon ; but it failed when car- 
ried across the Atlantic. It was therefore resolved 
to send some boys to Lisbon, who were succes- 
sively vaccinated on their homeward passage. 

A letter from Dr. Scott of Bombay contains in- 
telligence equally cheering regarding the conti- 
nent of Asia. The stock of vaccine virus had been 
kept up with perfect success. About the same 
period Dr. De Carro transmitted intelligence from 
other parts of our Indian possessions. He had 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 11 

already received authentic information of upwards 
of 35,000 persons being vaccinated in the Mysore. 
This letter, amidst a great deal of valuable and in- 
teresting matter, contains a statement from Dr. 
Auban of Constantinople, which seems to prove 
that the Arabians had been long acquainted with 
cow-pox. This rests on the authority of Dr. Gem- 
mini of Constantinople, who found in an Arabian 
MS. wi'itten five or six hundred years ago, an ac- 
count of this affection of the cows. The same 
work also notices an eruptive disease of sheep. 
I know not where to find any account of this Ara- 
bian MS., but the facts, so far as they go, confirm 
and illustrate the historical evidence touching the 
eruptive diseases of the inferior animals given in 
the preceding volume. Dr. De Carro continued to 
prosecute his investigations on these subjects with 
great zeal and intelligence. He suggested to all 
his correspondents in the East inquiries respect- 
ing the diseases of horses and cows particularly. 
One of his friends, Mr. Barker, the British Consul 
at Aleppo, gave him very valuable intelligence 
with regard to a disease prevalent amongst the 
horses of Arabia, which seems to spread through 
the stud, much in the same way that cow-pox does 
through the dairies in England. 

Tidings were likewise received of the introduction 
of vaccination into the Isle of France from the 
Coromandel coast. In Bengal, notwithstanding the 
encouragement afforded by government, it was 



12 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

found very difficult to overcome the obstacles 
against the practice. This year, however, the chief 
of the Mahratta Empire, Dowrat Row Scindia, order- 
ed his only child to be vaccinated. " This sensible 
act of the head of the Mahrattas (says Dr- 
Shoolbred in his letter to Dr. Jenner, announcing 
the fact), who are all Hindoos of high caste, shews 
that it is on no essential point of religion that they 
object to the new practice. The Brahmins, it ap- 
peared, who are in the habit of inoculating for 
small-pox, and were interested in continuing the 
practice, contrived to excite prejudices in the minds 
of the people, on grounds which it was imagined 
at the outset would have facilitated the adoption 
of it. Its origin from the cow, instead of impress- 
ing them in its favour, as was supposed it would 
do, was converted by the Brahmins into an argu- 
ment against its use, as they contended it was 
thereby rendered impure to them." 

The alleged power of vaccination in controlling 
the plague, attracted at this period a considerable 
degree of public attention. Jenner received let- 
ters on the subject from many quarters. The cir- 
cumstance having been made known to the 
Spanish Consul at Morocco, a communication was 
transmitted to Sir Joseph Banks on that subject, 
and from him to Jenner. His sentiments on this 
point were thus communicated to another corres- 
pondent. 

" I never was so sanguine in my hopes of seeing 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 13 

the plague extinguished by vaccine inoculation as 
some of my friends were, as you may have seen by 
the few introductory lines which accompanied Dr. 
De Carro's letter in the public papers." " I will 
just drop a hint : the vaccine disease, in my opinion, 
is not a preventive of the small-pox, but the small- 
pox itself ; that is to say, the horrible form under 
which the disease appears in its contagious state is 
(as I conceive) a malignant variety. Now, if it 
should ever be discovered that the plague is a va- 
riety of some milder disease generated originally 
in a way that may ever elude our research, 
and the source should be discovered from whence 
it sprang, this may be applied to a great and grand 
purpose. The phenomena of the cow-pox open 
many paths for speculation, every one of which I 
hope may be explored." 

From about 1804, the reports of failures in vac- 
cination had begun to multiply. The fears of 
some of his friends had been thereby excited to 
rather an immoderate degree. Jenner certainly 
deplored the ignorance that gave occasion to such 
rumours, but he felt no anxiety concerning his 
great and fundamental position. Writing to the 
late Lord Berkeley on this subject he says, " I ex- 
pect that cases of this sort will flow in upon me in 
no inconsiderable numbers ; and for this plain 
reason — a great number, perhaps the majority, of 
those who inoculate are not sufficiently acquainted 
with the nature of th*^ disease to enable them to 



14 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

discriminate with due accuracy between the per- 
fect and imperfect pustule. This is a lesson not 
very difficult to learn, but unless it is learnt, to 
inoculate the cow-pox is folly and presumption." 

Another correspondent, who was seriously 
alarmed for Jenner's reputation^ wrote him a long 
letter full of doleful anticipations of the ill effects 
likely to arise from the sinister rumours propa- 
gated by the anti-vaccinists, and advised him to 
come forward and vindicate his doctrines. This 
was the response. — " The post is just come in, 
and I have been entertaining Mrs. Jenner and 
my family with your dream. Some kind friend 
had perhaps thrown your stomach into disorder 
by tempting you to go too deep into an oyster- 
barrel; or had our friend P seduced you 

with the fumes of one of his favourite supper 
dishes? A devil, or a something, had certainly 
disordered your stomach ; and your stomach 
shewed its resentment on your head; and your 
letter is the consequence. However, I will reason 
on it for a moment as if it were not a dream. 
You are imposed upon, and so is my friend Fox. 
Vaccination never stood on more lofty ground 
than at present. I know very well the opinion 
of the wise and great upon it; and the foolish 
and the little I don't care a straw for. Why 
should we fix our eyes on this spot only ? Let 
them range the world over, and they must con- 
template with delight and exultation what they 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 16 

behold on the great Continents of Europe and 
America ; in our settlements in India, where all 
ranks of people, from the poor Hindoo to the Go- 
vernor-General, hail Vaccina as a new divinity. In 
the island of Ceylon my account states that up- 
wards of thirty thousand had been vaccinated a 
twelvemonth ago. I could march you round the 
globe, and wherever you rested you should see 
scenes like these. There I have honour, here I 
have none : and let me tell you, whatever my feel- 
ings may have been on this subject, they are now 
at rest. What I have said on this vaccine subject is 
true. If properly conducted, it secures the coristitu- 
tion as much as variolous inoculation possibly can. 
It is the small-pox in a purer form than that which 
has been current among us for twelve centuries 2)ast." 
" You and my city friend suppose me idle — that 
I no longer employ my time and my thoughts on 
the vaccine subject. So very opposite is the real 
state of the case, that were you here (where I 
should be very glad to see you), you would see 
that my whole time is nearly engrossed by it. On 
an average I am at least six hours daily with my 
pen in my hand, bending over writing-paper, till I 
am grown as crooked as a cow's horn and tawny 
as whey-butter ; and you want to make me as 
mad as a bull : but it won't do, Mr. D. ; so good 
night to you. I'll to my pillow, not of thorns, 
believe me, nor of hops ; but of poppies, or at 
least of something that produces calm repose." 



16 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Dr. Moseley's conjectural arguments against 
vaccination have been already mentioned. The 
next person of any name who appeared on the 
same side of the question was Mr. Goldson of 
Portsea. He was a man of some character in his 
neighbourhood ; and this circumstance, together 
with the title of his pamphlet and the important 
disclosures which it was said to contain, gave it 
much more consequence than it really merited. 
He was evidently a prejudiced witness, and almost 
as ignorant of the subject on which he wrote as 
his great prototype. It is to be feared, likewise, 
that he allowed personal feelings to interfere 
with his judgment. He complained that Dr. 
Jenner had slighted a private communication of 
his ; but even if this had been true (which it cer- 
tainly was not), it would not justify hasty and 
inaccurate statements, or hostile representations 
concerning a practice which had for its sole object 
the mitigation of human misery. Jenner never 
permitted any irritation which might have arisen 
from occurrences of this kind to interfere with his 
own conduct. At a subsequent period he wrote 
to Mr. Goldson, and endeavoured to remove his 
errors. He even invited him to his house, hoping 
by personal intercourse and discussion to explain 
any points which he evidently did not understand. 
All these overtures were rejected; but whether 
Mr. Goldson continued in his opposition to vacci- 
nation, I cannot tell. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 1/ 

I thought it worth while to mention these inci- 
dents, not, certainly, from the importance of Mr. 
Goldson's pamphlet itself, but because the discus- 
sion which arose from it was really of considerable 
interest, and brought out many facts which ought 
to have been remembered when the reputed 
failures of vaccination attracted so much notice 
some years ago. He was quite, wrong himself, 
and his vaccinations were evidently imperfect ; 
but the possibility of failure, and the circumstances 
under which it may occur, drove men to examine 
more closely the history of small-pox, as well as 
the affinity between that disease and cow-pox ; 
and had the information which was then acquired 
been duly considered, some recent occurrences of 
an unsatisfactory nature might have been easily 
solved. 

In former chapters I have endeavoured both to 
shew how Dr. Jenner felt on this subject, and to 
corroborate his opinions. The only successful 
attempts that have been made to explain the 
nature of the Variolse Vaccinae have proceeded 
from those who have followed his steps. Some 
injudicious friends of vaccination were at great 
pains to impress the public mind with other sen- 
timents ; and represented vaccination as so dif- 
ferent in all respects from small-pox inoculation as 
to render any attempt to trace affinities between 
them unphilosophical and absurd. The cause they 
meant to serve by this conduct was not advanced 

VOL. II. c 



18 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

by it. Had they been accurately acquainted with 
the past history of small-pox, such reasoning would 
never have been adopted. It has been fully shewn, 
that in the inoculation for that disease, the miti- 
gation of the symptoms depended very much on 
the number of pustules produced ; and that even 
one pustule could afford protection from subse- 
quent attacks. To moderate the eruption and to 
subdue the fever was the object of all the en- 
lightened physicians who treated small-pox. Ino- 
culation most materially aided these intentions ; 
vaccination carried them into full effect. So com- 
plete, indeed, and so wonderful, were the results of 
this practice, that all past experience was neglected 
or overlooked ; and notions of a very extravagant 
kind were adopted, and the facts themselves, 
which had been accumulated, were rendered less 
convincing, if not altogether inconclusive, by being 
mixed up with false theory. 

It ought ever to be borne in mind, that the 
laws which govern the Variolae Vaccinae were dis- 
covered by Jenner through the medium of his 
knowledge respecting small-pox. The same know- 
ledge enabled him to trace the deviations in the 
former ; and the same kind of information has 
supplied us with the only means of explaining the 
difficulties that recent epidemics have presented. 

The year 1 804, in his estimation, formed an era 
in the history of the Variolse Vaccinae. The 
assertion, that the cow-pox afforded only a tem- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 19 

porary security was then insisted on. Had it 
been correct, it would have deprived the discovery 
of nearly all its value. This assertion was very 
easily made ; and, in the infancy of the practice, 
could not be well disproved. To these circum- 
stances it was owing, that the crude and unsup- 
ported statements of Mr. Goldson acquired any 
influence. Dr. Jenner himself, from the com- 
mencement, perceived that in his cases of failure, 
cow-pox had never properly taken place. 

The real merits of the question were also de- 
tected by Mr. Dunning. This venerable indivi- 
dual was, as I have already mentioned, one of the 
first British surgeons who stood forward to recom- 
mend vaccination soon after the practice was pro- 
mulgated; and from that period to the present 
time he has upheld the accuracy and justness of 
Jenner's views. His little tract, published about 
this time, under the title of, " A short Detail of 
some circumstances connected with Vaccine Ino- 
culation," &c. &c. contains some of the soundest 
opinions with regard to the nature of Variolse and 
of Variolae Vaccinse that have ever appeared. The 
steps by which he was enabled to extricate him- 
self from the difficulties of new and perplexing 
occurrences, were the same that conducted Jen- 
ner through the mazes of his first investigation, 
and continued to guide him to the last. 

It was by studying small-pox that he became 
thoroughly acquainted both with the benefits con- 

c 2 



20 LIFE OF DR JENNER. 

ferred by vaccination, and the principles that 
ought to direct the practice. His mind seems to 
have harmonized pecidiarly with Jenner's on all 
these points. He was not a servile imitator ; the 
same spirit of knowledge and of truth which en- 
lightened Jenner, seems to have been at once 
communicated to Mr. Dunning. There was a 
moral sympathy, as well as an intellectual affinity, 
which enabled him, on the instant, to perceive and 
to enter into the peculiarities of the character and 
the value of the discoveries of Jenner. 

These statements are supported by the expe- 
rience of nearly five and thirty years, during which 
time the efficacy of cow-pox has been put to the 
severest trials. The result of the whole has shewn, 
that all who cordially and honestly embraced the 
opinions of Jenner, have advanced without waver- 
ing or uncertainty ; and have found by ample tes- 
timony, that in so doing they had chosen a safe 
leader. Some of the points which have been mat- 
ter of discussion even within these few years, were 
very fully explained at the period just referred to. 
It was then clearly ascertained, that there were 
deviations from the usual course of small-pox, 
which were quite as common, and infinitely more 
disastrous, than those which took place in vacci- 
nation. These deviations regarded two apparently 
different states of the constitution. In the one, the 
susceptibility of small-pox was not taken away by 
previous infection ; while, on the other hand, some 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER, 21 

constitutions seem to be unsusceptible of small- 
pox infection altogether. It was found, that simi- 
lar occurrences took place in the practice of vac- 
cination ; but as the security which the latter 
afforded was more likely to be interfered with by 
slight causes than the former, it became abso- 
lutely necessary that great care should be shown 
in watching the progress and character of the 
pustule. Dr. Jenner had from the beginning felt 
the propriety of this watchfulness ; and had dis- 
tinctly announced, that it was possible to propagate 
an affection by inoculation conveying different de- 
grees of security, according as that affection ap- 
proached to, or receded from, the full and perfect 
standard. He also clearly stated, that the course of 
the vaccine pustule might be so modified as to de- 
prive it of its efficacy ; that inoculation from such 
a source might communicate an inefficient protec- 
tion, and that all who were thus vaccinated were 
more or less liable to subsequent small-pox. His 
directions for obviating occurrences of this kind 
regarded, first, the character of the pustule itself, 
the time and quality of the lymph taken for ino- 
culation, and all other circumstances that might 
go to affect the complete progress of the disorder. 
He attached great importance to this last point ; 
and in the course of this year published his tract, 
" On the Varieties and Modifications of the Vac- 
cine Pustule, occasioned by an herpetic state of 
the Skin." I cannot refer to this publication with- 



22 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

out calling the attention of my reader to the fol- 
lowing sentence in the introduction : "I shall 
here just observe, that the most ample testimonies 
now lie before me, supporting my opinion that 
the herpetic, and some other irritative eruptions, 
are capable of rendering variolous inoculation im- 
perfect, as well as the vaccine." 

Besides the instructions which Dr. Jenner himself 
had published, for the purpose of securing perfec- 
tion in the vaccine process, Mr. Dunning has the 
merit of establishing a canon, which is now, I 
believe, universally adopted, namely, that one pus- 
tule at least should remain undisturbed. Dr. Jen- 
ner most candidly admitted the propriety of Mr. 
Dunning' s remarks. In a letter to that gentleman, 
dated July 29th, 1805, he says, " From what you 
have already said and observed on the subject, I 
inculcate every where the propriety of observing 
gTcater precaution, and I found it entirely on your 
observations in conducting the process of vacci- 
nation. I recommend invariably two pustules, and 
that one should remain unmolested." 

With equal candour he gives his testimony to 
the accuracy of Mr. Dunning on another point 
which bears upon this question. In a letter to 
Dr. Willan, dated Feb. 23, 1806, he says, " It 
strikes me that the constitution loses its suscepti- 
bility of small-pox contagion, and the capability 
of producing the disease in its ordinary state, in 
proportion to the degree of perfection which the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 23 

vaccine vesicle has put on in its progress ; and that 
the small-poXj if taken subsequently, is modified 
accordingly." And he then adds, " This opinion 
was first published by Mr. Dunning of Plymouth." 

It is of considerable consequence to recall these 
facts at this time, because they may, perhaps, 
teach a lesson of practical wisdom which ought 
not to be lost sight of. The information then ac- 
quu-ed, doubtless might have prevented many of 
the disasters which have since occurred, had those 
who were chiefly concerned studied vaccination as 
it merited. 

As a commentary on the preceding remarks, I 
subjohi a long and valuable letter written by Dr. 
Jenner to Mr. Dunning. For the same reason I 
mean to put on record several other extracts illus- 
trative of his doctrines. They had not fallen into 
my hands when the former volume of this work 
was preparing for the press, otherwise they would 
have formed most interesting additions to the train 
of argument which was then put forth with re- 
spect to the nature of the Variolee Vaccinae. 

Berkeley, Dec. 23, 1804. 
My dear Friend, 
I thank you for your obliging attention. Your com- 
munication of this evening aifords me great pleasure ; I 
mark in it the determination of wise and good men to 
overcome that prejudice and obstinacy which has kept 
afloat the fatal poison in your neighbourhood. My best 
wishes will ever attend the philanthropic nine. 



24 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Foreigners hear with the utmost astonishment, that 
*' in some parts of England there are persons who still 
inoculate for small-pox." It must, indeed, excite their 
wonder, when they see that disease in some of their 
largest cities, and in wide-extended districts around them, 
totally exterminated. Let us not, my friend, vex our- 
selves too much at what we see here ; let us consider this 
but a speck, when compared with the wide surface of our 
planet, over which, thank God ! Vaccina has every where 
shed her influence. From the potentate to the peasant, 
in every country but this, she is received with grateful 
and open arms. What an admirable arrangement was 
that I sent you in my last letter, made by the Marquis 
Wellesley, the Governor General of India, for extermi- 
nation of the small-pox in that quarter of the globe, con- 
trasted with our efforts here ! What pigmies we look like ! 
Did you see the Quarterly Report of the Royal Jennerian 
Society ? It was published in some of the evening papers 
a few days ago. As far as regards the progress of vacci- 
nation in the metropolis, and its influence on the mor- 
tality occasioned by the small-pox, it is very good ; but 
how shameful to see a society, constituted for such a pur- 
pose, and of which the Royal Family of England bears a 
part, begging a few guineas of the community for the 
support of its expenses ! This is literally the case, while 
horses are protected from diseases and death by national 
munificence*. Shame on it! T must drop the subject, 
or I shall grow as warm as my friend John Ring. 

You speak of Ring and Goldson. Recollect there was 
not time to be cool. What lover of vaccination — what 
man well acquainted with its nature, and that of the small- 

* This refers to the establishment of the Royal Vctcriuary 
College. 



LIFK OF DR. JENNER. 25 

pox, could read Goldson's book, and lay it down coolly ? 
Ring, the moment he read it, and that^ indeed, which was 
infinitely worse than the book itself, the murderous har- 
binger — the advertisement, instantly charged his blunder- 
buss, and fired it in the face of the author. I must freely 
confess, I do not feel so cool about this Mr. Goldson, as 
you do. His book has sent many a victim to a premature 
grave; and would have sent many more, but for the 
humanity and zeal of yourself and others who stepped 
forward to counteract its dreadful tendency. Had Goldson 
but written a simple letter to me, stating those occurrences 
in his practice which ap])eared extraordinary, I should 
with the greatest pleasure have told him where the mis- 
takes lay, and made him a good vaccinist. By the way, 
it has been represented to me, that Mr. Goldson once 
wrote to me, and that I did not answer his letter. This 
is not true. He wrote a very civil letter to me during the 
sitting of the committee on the affair of Clarke the marine, 
so malignantly taken up by Hope. This letter I answered 
almost immediately ; and inclosed one of my papers of 
instructions for vaccine inoculation. I am almost certain, 
too, my letter was franked by the chairman of the com- 
mittee. Admiral Berkeley ; and now respecting that point, 
which seems to give you so much uneasiness — Hitchins's 
child. In my last letter I really gave you the result, 
though it lay in a small compass, of my deliberations. 
In such a case, there is nothing but the fact before you. 
Conjecture may be endless as to the cause and conse- 
quence ; with regard to the latter, I ventured to go a little 
way by surmising, that the mild innoxious small-pox, 
which appeared in this country some years ago, might 
have had its origin from a case similar to that of Mr. Hit- 
chins's child. There is a medical gentleman, surgeon of 
the South Gloucestershire Militia, who tells me, that he 



26 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

is so susceptible of the contagion of the small-pox, that he 
never attends a patient with that disease without catching 
it, evident marks of which appear upon his skin. Mr. 
Shrapnell's countenance shews the signs of his having had 
the disease rather Adolently in the first instance. As we 
have such abundant testimonies of persons having the 
small-jDox a second time, why may there not be excep- 
tions to the cow-pox giving security in every instance of 
inoculation * ? The number of our inoculations is now 
incalculable; yet how few have been the exceptions. 
When they happened in variolous inoculation, there was 
no one ready to come forth and IjIow the hostile trumpet. 
But to return. There may be peculiarities of constitu- 
tion favourable to this phenomenon. My opinion still is, 
that the grand interference is from the agency of the 
herpes, in some form or another ; for I have discovered 
that it is a very Proteus, assuming, as it thinks fit, the 
character of the greater part of the irritative eruptions 
that assail us. I shall have much to say on this disease 
one of these days. My paper in the Medical Journal 
seems not to have excited the smallest interest, though I 
venture to predict it will be found highly interesting. 
There is no getting a line from your medical neighbour, 

* The child of a cousin of mine, who was vaccinated in 
India, and apparently with success, had the operation re- 
peated after he arrived in England, and again received the 
infection. This child was subsequently inoculated for the 
small-pox, and received the disease. But this is not all; 
he was recently exposed to the influence of this contagious 
disorder, and took it in a casual way. Could a stronger illus- 
tration be adduced of the doctrine laid down in these volumes 
touching the identity of the diseases in question, with rela- 
tion to their protecting power? — J. B. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 2/ 

Mr. Embling. Will you be so good as to send him the 
inclosed note ? 

I cannot conclude my letter, long as it is already, with- 
out telling you that I have lately received from the sur- 
geon-general, Mr. Christie, in the Island of Ceylon, a 
most charming account of the progress of vaccination 
there. Notwithstanding the impediments arising from a 
state of warfare, upwards of thirty thousand persons had 
been vaccinated. The desolation which the small-pox 
occasioned when it broke out among the inhabitants, 
almost exceeds credibility. Variolous inoculation proved 
so unfavourable, that the people would not be prevailed 
upon to receive it ; indeed, that must be the same all the 
world over. Where it is put in practice, the disease must 
necessarily spread. Of this truth you have lately seen 
some examples. I am much pleased to find that the 
resolution of the worthy nine is going to the papers. If 
these were better guarded, the enemy would not make 
such frequent irruptions. 

Believe me, with great respect. 
Yours very faithfully, 

Edward Jenner. 



Extracts of Letters from Dr. Jenner to 
Mr. Dunning. 

July 5 th, 1804. 
There is not a single case, nor a single argument, that 
puts the weight of a feather in the scale of the anti- 
vaccinist. That which seems to be the heaviest, becomes 
light as air, when we consider that the human constitu- 
tion is at one time susceptible of variolous contagion, 
at another, not so; and this insusceptibility sometimes 



28 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

continues to a late period of life. Elizabeth Everet was a 
small-pox nurse in this neighbourhood for forty years. 
She supposed she had had the small-pox when a child. 
A few years since she was sent for to Bristol to nurse a 
patient, caught the disease, and died. 

Mr. Long, surgeon of St. Bartholomew's, had a similar 
instance in his own family. 

A thousand thanks to you and Dr. Remmet for your 
investigation of the] Exmouth case. Never mind ; you 
will hear enough of small-pox after cow-pox. It must be 
so. Every bungling vaccinist who excites a pustule on 
the arm will swear like G. it was correct, without knowing 
that nicety of distinction which every man ought to know, 
before he presumes to take up the vaccine lancet. 

March 1st, 1805. 
The security given to the constitution by vaccine inocu- 
lation, is exactly equal to that given by the variolous. To 
expect more from it would be wrong. As failures in the 
latter are constantly presenting themselves^ nearly from 
its commencement to the present time, we must expect to 
find them in the former also. In my opinion, in either 
case, they occur from the same causes ; one might name 
for example, among others, some peculiarity of constitu- 
tion which prevents the virus from acting properly, even 
when properly applied ; from inattention, or want of due 
knowledge in the inoculator; particularly in not being 
able to discriminate between the correct and incorrect 
pustule. 

March 9th, 1805. 
Think for a moment of my situation before you censure 
me for tardiness — the correspondence of the world to 
attend to. The pressure is often, I do assure you, so 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 29 

great, that it is more than either my body or mind can 
well endure. You say, " let vaccination, for God's sake, 
rest on its own foundation." My dear sir, that is exactly 
what I want, and the course I have been pursuing. 
Neither the impudence of Pearson, the folly of Gold son, 
nor the baseness of Moseley and Squirrel, to which I may 
add the stupid absurdity of Birch, has put me out of my 
way in the least, — and why ? I placed it on a rock, where I 
knew it would be immoveable, before I invited the public 
to look at it. 

Extracts from a Letter of Dr. Jenner's to 
Dr. Evans, Ketley-Bank. 

How Httle he (Mr. Cartwright) must have known of 
the agency of variolous matter, to have argued as he has 
done. Wonderful as it is, yet there are abundant facts to 
prove, that the insertion of variolous matter into the skin 
has produced a virus fit for the purpose of continuing the 
inoculation ; and yet the person who has borne it, and on 
whose skin it was generated, has subsequently been in- 
fected with the small-pox, on exposure to its influence. 
Just so \\ath the vaccine. 

Again, in the same letter, he (Dr. J.) adds : — 
" Vaccine inoculation has certainly unveiled many 
of the mysterious facts attendant upon the small- 
pox and its inoculation. How often have we seen 
(apparently) the full effect on the arm from the 
insertion of variolous matter, indisposition, and 
even eruptions following it, and its termination in 
an extensive and deep cicatrix ; and yet, on expo- 
sure, the person who underwent this, has caught 



30 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

the small-pox. Your practice in the populous 
neighbourhood you reside in, was formerly, I be- 
lieve, very extensive in variolous inoculation. Did 
you ever perceive any connexion between the state 
of the skin and the progress of the pustule on the 
arm ? I can scarcely flatter myself with the hope 
of finding much accurate information on this 
point, as the ar7n became a secondary object in 
inoculating the small-pox, our sohcitude being 
directed to the number of pustules." 

In one of his Journals he has left the following 
notes upon the same subject. 

" The origin of small-pox is the same as that of 
cow-pox; and as the latter was probably coeval 
with the brute creation, the former was only a va- 
riety springing from it." 

"There are certainly more forms than one, 
(without considering the common variation between 
the confluent and distinct) in which the small-pox 
appears in what is called the natural way." 

" It will be inquired (if the foregoing reasoning 
be a priori correct) in what way can the action 
of cow-pox (or the equine pock) in preventing 
subsequent small-pox be reconcilable with the es- 
tabhshed laws of the animal economy ? My reply 
is, for the reasons which I have stated on the basis 
of facts, that they were not bond fide dissimilar in 
their nature ; but, on the contrary, identical. On 
this ground I gave my first book the title of ' An 
Inquiry into the causes and eff"ects of the Variolce 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 31 

VaccirKU ' — a circumstance which has since been re- 
garded l)y many as the happy foresight of a con- 
nexion, which was destined by future e\idence to 
become more warranted." 

How admirably subsequent investigations have 
confirmed these most sagacious remarks ! 

The Medical Society of London having voted 
Dr. Jenner a gold medal in honour of his discovery, 
he was incited by the President, Dr. Sims, to attend 
their anniversary festival on the 8th of March, on 
which day an oration is usually delivered. The 
gentleman appointed to this office had unfortu- 
nately been taken ill, and could not attend. In 
this dilemma the Society applied to Dr. Lettsom, 
who chose for his subject the Jennerian discovery, 
and the delivery of the gold medal. He pronounced 
a very eloquent and impressive discourse, which 
was afterwards printed in the European Magazine 
for 1804. Dr. Jenner could not appear personally 
to receive this mark of respect. Dr. Lettsom, how- 
ever, very ably supplied his place in the Metropo- 
lis. He likewise fought his battles, and often sig- 
nally vanquished his opponents. An account of a 
scene of this kind is very descriptive, and not 
without interest from the character of the parties 
concerned. 

August \st. 
Although after writing the preceding letter, super strata 
viarum, I arrived home soon enough to catch the post. 



32 LIFE OF DR JENNER. 

I was so pulled away professionally that I had not time 
to seal it. I received an invitation to dine with a party ; 
but could not attend till past eight. When arrived, I 
found Mr. Alexander, M. P. Chairman of Ways and 
Means ; the Bishop of Cloyne, the Rev. Dr. Parr, Dr* 
Pearson, Dr. Shaw of the British Museum, Mr. Planta of 
the Royal Society, Rev. Mr. Maurice, author of Indian 
Antiquities. Somehow, Pearson introduced the House of 
Commons — their Committees — when he made a Philippic 
of half an hour's abuse of that Committee which recom- 
mended Dr. Jenner's discovery, as a rascally, ignorant 
business for what was no discovery, and concluded with 
severe animadversions on Dr. Jenner. After he had 
finished. Dr. Parr seemed persuaded of Dr. Jenner's un- 
worthiness ; and Mr. Alexander said, had it depended upon 
his casting vote, as he was Chairman, he would have given 
it against Dr. Jenner. 1 then requested to be heard for 
an absent friend. I went over the whole ground with a pers- 
picuity I never possessed before. I exposed the conduct 
and mistakes of Pearson and Woodville in so strong a 
manner, that after listening to me half an hour, every per- 
son seemed electrified but Pearson. One divine started 
up, took me by the hand, clapped me on the back, and 
embraced me, and declared that I had incontrovertibly 
proved Jenner, not merely the promulgator, but inventor 
and discoverer. Parr exclaimed, I would have voted Jen- 
ner ten times ten thousand pounds. Alexander declared 
that he now saw the matter in a new and convincing point 
of view. Pearson then made a reply of above half an 
hour, and when he had concluded. Dr. Parr was appointed 
to decide upon the facts ; and these were his words — " Dr. 
Lettsom has convinced me that Dr. Jenner is the disco- 
verer, and Dr. Pearson's defence has confirmed me in that 
conviction." I asked Dr. Pearson if he had any thing more 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 33 

to say. He said he had done, and now I trust he will never 
again venture, at least in the presence of the company, or 
any one of them, to broach his unfounded invectives ; and I 
think he has now received his quietus. He little expected 
that I could have explained his mistakes and Woodville's 
so clearly. I mentioned facts which thunderstruck him? 
of which even you are ignorant, respecting this base coali'- 
tion against you. He seemed confounded. His friend 
Maurice and his devotee ran about the room — " Lettsoni 
has conquered, Lettsom has conquered.'^ Parr said he 
would come and see me, and Mr. Alexander proposes me 
the same honour. I know that Maurice will talk of this 
rencounter every where. 

J. C. L. 

Jenner continued to receive from many public 
bodies marks of distinction, all which he valued 
most highly, not only because they were grateful 
to his own heart, but because they materially con- 
tributed by the sanction attached to them to extend 
the practice which he had the happiness to disco- 
ver. In this spirit he obtained the intelligence of 
a degree conferred on him by the Harvardian 
University of Cambridge, in Massachusetts. The 
Diploma was transmitted by his friend Dr. Water- 
house, and it arrived in England during the spring 
of 1805. 

The Corporation of Dublin, about the same time, 
unanimously voted him the freedom of that city. 
In announcing this to Dr. Jenner, the officers of 
that respectable civic body transmitted a charge 

VOL. II. D 



34 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

of somewhat about five pounds sterling for his ad- 
mission fees. This mode of making him open his 
purse strings for a gratuitous honour used often to 
excite a good-natured smile on his countenance 
when he adverted to the transaction. 

In mentioning these honours, it is gratifying to 
observe that they proceeded not only from persons 
devoted to science, but from men associated to- 
gether of every denomination, from the municipal 
authorities of imperial cities to the humbler cor- 
porators of smaller towns. The magistrates of 
Edinburgh took the lead, in this respect, of its own 
College of Physicians, and voted him the freedom 
of their ancient metropolis. The City, in announ- 
cing this honour to Dr. Jenner, availed itself of the 
kindness of one of the most venerable and distin- 
guished of its learned Professors, Dr. Andrew Dun- 
can, senior. I cannot mention this individual with- 
out expressing my thankfulness for his goodness in 
directing my early studies. His indefatigable in- 
dustry, his active benevolence, and his great ac- 
quirements, must cause his name to be respected by 
every enlightened physician. He was one of the first 
to promote the practice of vaccination in Scotland. 
In doing so, he illustrated that principle which 
guided him in all his duties. He was constantly 
alive to the progress of scientific truth, and omitted 
no opportunity of diffusing it. Since these re- 
marks were written, I have received the melan- 
choly tidings of the death of this estimable and 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 35 

venerable man. All my early professional recol- 
lections are associated with him as mv adviser and 
instructor ; and I should be guilty of deep ingra- 
titude were I not to seize this opportunity of an- 
nouncing my past obligations for his kindness and 
generosity, and my unfeigned respect for his me- 
mory. 

In 1 804, one of the most beautiful of the Napo- 
leon series of medals was struck commemorative of 
the Emperor's estimate of the value of vaccination. 
It has been said, that it was at the same time in- 
tended as a mark of personal honour to Jenner, by 
appropriating one side of the medal to his bust. 
Whether this really was the design, I cannot say ; 
but it is certain that the obverse of some of the 
early medals was left blank. Subsequently it was 
occupied by the head of the Emperor. 

He who flushed with victory and at the head of 
the revolutionary army of France had spared the 
university of Pavia, out of respect to the genius 
of Spallanzani, when the city itself was given up 
to plunder, proved that the claims of science were 
not forgotten amid the astonishing events which 
carried him forward to the highest pinnacle of am- 
bition. His animosity to England had been shown 
in that vehement and decided manner which 
marked all his actions ; yet there was one chord 
of sympathy unbroken, and which, when duly 
touched, showed that his intoxicating success had 
not raised his proud spirit beyond some of the 

D 2 



36 LIFE OF DR. .TENNER. 

calls of justice and humanity, and that he could 
still be moved by the peaceful arguments of truth 
and science. 

His unjust detention of the inhabitants of Great 
Britain, who were quietly sojourning in his domi- 
nions after the peace of Amiens, was in direct 
opposition to the usages of modern warfare. Dr. 
Jenner's efforts to release some distinguished in- 
dividuals who had been so detained, have been 
already mentioned. He was now called upon to 
exert himself in a different way, and his efforts 
brought him more immediately into contact with 
Napoleon himself. Dr. Wickham, who was one of 
the travelling fellows of the University of Oxford, 
was at Paris in the first years of his travels, when 
the command for the detention of the English was 
issued. He was permitted to retire to Geneva on 
his parole. Another young Englishman, of the 
name of Williams, was also detained. The situation 
of both of these gentlemen had been particularly 
submitted to the consideration of Dr. Jenner : that 
of Dr. Wickham presented peculiar claims. He 
was travelling in compliance with the generous 
purposes of the founder of his fellowship ; he 
was pursuing those objects which in all wars have 
been held sacred, and on that account alone might 
have claimed exemption from the ruthless decree. 
Mr. Williams, too, was travelling for improvement, 
though not under the immediate sanction and 
the special commission of a learned body. His 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 37 

health had suffered materially, and it was an object 
of the gTeatest consequence both to him and to 
Dr. Wickham, to be hberated from their harassing 
bondage. 

Dr. Jenner, in the first instance, directed his 
applications for the accomphshment of this object 
through the Central Committee of Vaccination at 
Paris ; but they all failed. Under these circum- 
stances, the Committee recommended that he 
should immediately avail himself of his great cele- 
brity in France, and directly appeal to the Em- 
peror himself. He profited by this advice, and 
addressed the following letter to his Imperial 
Majesty, of which both the French and English 
copies have been found among his papers. 



Dr. Jexner to Napoleon. 

Sire, 

Having by the blessing of Providence made a discovery 
of which all nations acknowledge the beneficial effects, I 
presume upon that plea alone, with great deference, to re- 
quest a favour from your Imperial Majesty, who early 
appreciated the importance of vaccination and encouraged 
its propagation, and who is universally admitted to be the 
patron of the arts. 

My humble request is that your Imperial Majesty will 
graciously permit two of my friends, both men of science 
and literature, to return to England : one, Mr. William 
Thomas Williams, residing at Nancy; the other. Dr. Wick- 
ham, at present at Geneva. Should your Imperial Majesty 



38 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

be jileased to listen to the prayer of my petition, you will 
impress my mind with sentiments of gratitude never to be 
effaced. 

I have the honour to be, with the most profound defer- 
ence and respect, 

Your Imperial Majesty's 

Most obedient and humble servant, 

E. J. 

Berkeley, Gloucestershire, 

February, 1805, 

When this letter was despatched, Napoleon was 
in Italy, but Mr. Williams had an opportunity of 
delivering a copy of it into his Majesty's hands as 
he passed through Nancy.* A duplicate was pre- 
sented by Baron Corvisart, the Emperor's physi- 
cian, in the month of June 1806. Early in the fol- 
lowing July Mr. Williams received an intimation 
from Corvisart that the Emperor had listened to 
Dr. Jenner's petition, and had granted liberty both 
to himself and to Dr. Wickham. 

Dr. Trotter, who took so active a part in pro- 
moting subscriptions for the medal presented to Dr. 
Jenner by the medical officers of the Navy, dedi- 

* It was either on this or some similar occasion, when Na- 
poleon was a])out to reject the proferred petition, tliat Jose- 
phine uttered the name of Jenner, The Emperor paused 
for an instant, and exclaimed, "Jenner ! ah, we can refuse 
liolhing to that man." 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 39 

cated to him the " Essay on Drunkenness." After 
expressing his thanks, Dr. Jenner observes, " I sin- 
cerely hope the mirror you have held up may re- 
flect the face of many a drunkard in such a hideous 
shape as may terrify and reform. I think it will 
prove of great use to young men launching into 
the vice of ebriety. The habitual drunkard — the 
man engulfed in alcohol, I fear, will scarcely 
be able to get out. I have in the course of my 
life known one instance, and I think that is all." 

Jenner had a peculiarly graceful manner of in- 
dicating the respect which he entertained for inch- 
viduals who had, in any way, exerted themselves 
in promoting vaccination. I have already men- 
tioned Robert Bloomfield as having struck his lyre 
in favour of that cause. The Poem was dedicated 
to Jenner and his brethren of the Royal Jennerian 
Society. In writing to the author he says, " I 
trust it will be as well received, and gain as high 
commendation, as the Farmer's Boy. It need not 
obtain more. You must allow me to fix upon some 
mark of my esteem. Do me the favour, then, to 
accept a silver ink-stand, into which the enclosed 
may be converted if you will call upon Rundell 
and Bridge, Ludgate Hill, and use my name. I 
should like the following plain engraving on it. — 
' Edward Jenner, M.D. to Robert Bloomfield.' " 

The name of the Reverend James Plumptre, 
M.A. is now to be added to the list of those clergy- 
men of the Established Church who advocated the 



40 THE LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

cause of vaccination from the pulpit. In the year 
1805 this gentleman had to preach before the 
University of Cambridge at St. Mary's. On this 
occasion he deemed it a fit opportunity to lay 
before the members of that celebrated seat of 
learning a scriptural view of pestilence, but par- 
ticularly of sraall-pox, together with reflections on 
the nature of cow-pox. On the third of March of 
the same year he preached in the parish church of 
Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, another discourse on the 
same subject. It was designed for a country con- 
gregation ; and afforded an opportunity to the 
preacher of addressing to his parishioners many of 
those arguments in favour of vaccine inoculation 
which were well calculated to remove some of the 
prejudices that had been artfully instilled into the 
minds of the lower classes. 

He took his text for both discourses from the 
60th Chapter of Numbers, 48th verse, "And he 
stood between the dead and the living ; and the 
plague was stayed." As became his high and holy 
calling, he pointed out the invariable connexion 
between sin and suffering, and shewed that many 
of the most signal and afflictive dispensations of 
Divine wrath came in the shape of disease and 
death. 

This trut\i, illustrated by the whole history of 
man, naturally induced him to apply it to elucidate 
the origin of the most universal pestilence known 
to our species. The opinions which he expressed 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 41 

on that subject arose from the behef that the 
small-pox was comparatively a new disease, and 
that the sudden appearance of it at the time of the 
rise of the Mahometan imposture pointed it out as 
a visitation foretold by prophecy, and illustrated 
the pouring out of the first phial upon the earth 
when " there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon 
the men who had the mark of the beast, and upon 
them which worshipped his image." It would not 
become me to pronounce upon the accuracy of this 
interpretation. Although the view taken in the 
former volume sustains the reverend author's 
general position, it, nevertheless, does not accord 
with his specific interpretation, inasmuch as it 
renders it probable that small-pox first \dsited our 
race at a period long antecedent to that assigned 
to it in this discourse. It was elucidated by 
copious and useful notes, many of them containing 
valuable information of a practical nature, and the 
whole written in a manner calculated to instruct 
both the divine and the physician. The dedica- 
tion to Dr. Jenner was singularly appropriate, and 
expressed in warm and becoming terms the writer's 
veneration and attachment.* 

* TO EDWARD JENNER, M.D. F.R.S. &C. &C. 

" The instrument in the hands of a gracious Providence 
of discovering vaccine inoculation, and the disinterested 
divulger of that salutary blessing for the benefit of the whole 
human race. This discourse, intended to connect the prac- 
tice of medicine with religion, and to set forth the just wrath 



42 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

This benevolent clergyman did not confine him- 
self to his efforts in the pulpit. He took active 
measures to meet the progress of small pox, when- 
ever it appeared in his vicinity. Sometimes he 
employed, at his own cost, a medical man to vac- 
cinate the poor ; at others he took that office upon 
himself. He likewise printed and circulated largely 
songs and ballads calculated to impress the minds 
of the lower orders with the benefit of vaccina- 
tion.* 

and power, and more particularly the infinite goodness, of our 
Almighty Father, is inscribed as a small token of that vene- 
ration and gratitude due from an admiring world, by his obe- 
dient and humble servant, 

" James Plumptre." 
" Clare Hall, Cambridge, Feb. 25th, 1805. 

* Since the publication of the former volume, Mr. Plump- 
tre has had the kindness to transmit to me the following 
memorandum. It is a curious and not unimportant testi- 
mony in favour of the doctrine which I have endeavoured to 
establish respecting the nature of tlie variola and the variola 
vaccince. 

" Among my memoranda on vaccination, I find the fol- 
lowing : ' In the public library at Lausanne there is a curious 
manuscript by St. Maire, the fourth christian bishop of Lau- 
sanne, who died A. D. GOl, which he calls a chronicle of his 
own times. Among other things which this chronicle con- 
tains is the account of a visitation of the small-pox, which he 
says made great ravages, and he notices particularly that it 
proved very fatal to the coivs.^ 

•' This memorandum is in the handwriting of my late sister 
Mrs. Anne Plumptre, who translated Bertram's account of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 43 

Others acted a very different part. A calumny 
which was directed both against Dr. Jenner's 
moral and professional character issued from one 
of our universities ; it was whispered in the courts 
of our palaces ; circulated by the periodical press ; 
and I have reason to know that the effect of the 
misrepresentation is still felt. This, among num- 
berless instances, proves what hard measure 
truth receives in this world. In order that I may 
refute this unworthy attempt to injure both vac- 
cination and its author, I will meet it as it comes 
from the pen of a reverend divine. Dr. Ramsden, 
rector of Grundisburgh, Suffolk, in a note to a 
sermon preached before the university of Cam- 
bridge on May 15th 1803, states that he heard 
with his own ears in the physic school of the uni- 
versity, the king's reader of physic say that Dr. Jen- 
ner had, after the discovery of vaccination, inocu- 
lated his own son with the small-pox. This ser- 
mon, together with the note, was reprinted in 1827. 

The king's reader on physic, Sir Isaac Penning- 
ton, was a violent opposer of vaccination ; and he 
put forward his statement with a view to prove 
that Dr. Jenner, though he recommended the 

the Plague at Marseilles, and published many other works : 
but she does not mention where she got it. I do not recol- 
lect reading it in your work, nor do I find it by your Index, 
nor on referring back to the work." 

I regret to add that this excellent clergyman has not lived 
to witness the insertion of this in the present volume. 



44 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

practice to others, was distrustful of it, and had 
abandoned it in his own family. It was for the 
purpose of representing Jenner in this light that 
the statement was uttered, and printed, and cir- 
culated throughout the kingdom. I do not blame 
the rector of Grundisburgh for repeating in 1803 
what he may have heard from the king's reader in 
physic ; but before giving a second ecUtion of the 
tale in 1827, it would not have been unworthy of 
his station and his calling, to have ascertained 
whether the information he had heard was founded 
in truth, or rested on a basis of a different de- 
scription ; whether Dr. Jenner or his friends had 
published any explanation of the alleged delin- 
quency ; and whether, in short, the real state of 
the case was not in direct opposition to the in- 
ferences which were drawn from it. 

The facts were these : On the 14th of May, 1796, 
Jenner vaccinated his first patient, Phipps. On 
the 12th of April, 1798, he vaccinated his son 
Robert, together with several other children. It 
is particularly specified in his first pubHcation that 
his son Robert " did not receive the infection^ He 
was, therefore, as much liable to the influence of 
small-pox contagion as if he had never been vac- 
cinated. Under these circumstances, while the 
infant was with his parents at Cheltenham, the late 
Mr. Cother of that place came into Jenner s house, 
and took the child in his arms, saying that he had 
just left a family labouring under small-pox. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 45 

Jenner immediately exclaimed, " Sir, you know 
not what you are doing. That child is not pro- 
tected. He was vaccinated ; but the infection 
failed." Believing that the natural small-pox 
would certainly follow this exposure, he w^as greatly 
distressed and alarmed. He had no vaccine mat- 
ter. He resolved, therefore, to adopt the next 
best expedient, and immediately had the child 
inoculated with small-pox virus, preferring the 
mitigation which that practice affords to the vio- 
lence and danger which generally accompany the 
casual disease. 

This simple occurrence, when related as it actually 
took place, so far from leading to the conclusions 
that were built upon it, did not afford the slightest 
ground for them. It was a clear case of professional 
duty ; and, under like circumstances, every medi- 
cal man would have been called on to act as Jen- 
ner did. He had no vaccine matter; his child 
was exposed to small-pox contagion ; and what, 
therefore, did he do ? Small-pox, in some shape, 
seemed inevitable ; and he sought for that abate- 
ment of its virulence which inoculation is known 
to afford. 

At the time the deed was perpetrated, every 
one who knew the truth was so perfectly satisfied 
with the soundness and propriety of Jenner' s deci- 
sion, that it never was imagined it could be ques- 
tioned. The bare fact, however, that Dr. Jenner 
had employed small-pox inoculation in his own 



46 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

family, after the publication of his work on the 
Variolse Vaccinse, was an incident too important 
to be lost sight of by those who were unfriendly 
to him and to vaccination. " Dr. Jenner may say 
what he likes about vaccination, but we know for 
certain that he has inoculated his own son with 
small-pox." Another repeated this statement with 
this addition, that he had done so because he 
mistrusted vaccination. A third added another 
tint to deepen the colouring, affirming that he 
knew that Dr. Jenner had abandoned his con- 
fidence in vaccination, and the proof is incon- 
testible, as he has inoculated his own child with 
small-pox. These stories were passed from mouth 
to mouth, and made a considerable impression on 
the public mind before he heard of them, and 
were unwittingly uttered by a noble lord in Jen- 
ner's presence at St. James's, whom, on the in- 
stant, he rebuked in the manner that I shall else- 
where state. They afterwards appeared in print, 
and were circulated with every malignant inter- 
pretation. They were promptly met by an autho- 
ritative statement of the facts given above. That 
statement appeared in several of the periodical pub- 
lications ; and I myself was instrumental in sending 
it to more than one in the year 1811, when /or 
the first time I heard of this calumnious misrepre- 
sentation. Dr. Jenner likewise, both in conver- 
sation and in writing, gave the truth as it actually 
occurred ; and there was not a man in the king- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 47 

dom who had access to the common sources of 
information, who might not have acquainted him- 
self with the facts. 

Is there not, therefore, some reason to complain 
of a gentleman of respectable station and charac- 
ter, who reprints a most injurious report without 
having given himself the trouble to inquire whether 
the king's reader in physic might not have been 
in error when he proclaimed it in the University 
of Cambridge more than thirty years ago ? I sub- 
join the letter addressed to myself in reference to 
this matter. 

My dear Doctor, 

While my embarrassments thicken upon me, 't is a very 
pleasant thing to have so able a friend as you to converse 
with in this way. I am thrown into a little fresh per- 
plexity, by a letter addressed to me in one of the London 
papers of yesterday, from Mr. Brown of Musselburgh. 
Pray look it over, and tell me what course I should pur- 
sue. Some notice must be taken of it ; but if Mr. Brown 
thinks he shall be able to draw me into a controversy by 
such a measure as this, in a public newspaper, he will be 
mistaken. His letter under the veil of candour and libe- 
rality is full of fraud and artifice ; for he knows that every 
insinuation and argument he has advanced, have been 
refuted, both by the first medical characters in Edinburgh 
and Dublin ; and, indeed, by many others. But the mild, 
gentle, complaisant antagonist, is a character more difficult 
to deal with than one who boldly shews his ferocity. I 
shall avoid further comments till you have seen his pro- 
duction. 



48 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

From my knowledge of some of the Gloucester vacci- 
nators, I am confident the practice has been very heed- 
lessly conducted there. The patients themselves, and 
the parents of some of the vaccinated children, have in 
some instances been very culpable. I speak this rather 
feelingly ; as I have vaccinated children myself brought 
from Gloucester to this place, whose arms I never inspected 
after the operation. 

You request me to give you the history of my son's 
inoculation. I do it with pleasure, and beg you to make 
any use you please of it. 

My two eldest children were inoculated for the small- 
pox before I began to inoculate for the cow-pox. My 
youngest child was born about the time my experiments 
commenced, and was among the earliest I ever vaccinated. 
By referring to the first work I published on the subject 
in the spring of the year 1798, page 40, you will find his 
name, Robert F. Jenner, and you will observe it noticed, 
that on his arm the vaccine lymph did not prove infec- 
tious. It advanced two or three days, and then died 
away. In a short time after I was necessitated to go with 
my family to Cheltenham for a few months, wdiere I did 
not think it prudent to resume my operations, from a 
supposition that the people assembled at a public watering 
place might conceive the disease (then so little known) 
to be contagious, and that it might excite a clamour. 
However, during my stay there, this boy was accidentally 
exposed to the small-pox, and in such a way as to leave 
no doubt on my mind of his being infected. Having at 
this time no vaccine matter in my possession, there was 
no alternative but his immediate inoculation, which was 
done by Mr. Cother, a surgeon of this place, who is since 
dead ; but this history is well known to many who are living. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 49 

You now see on what a baseless foundation the insinu- 
ations which have been published respecting these facts 
rest. 

Believe me. 

My dear Doctor, 

with much affection, 
truly yours, 
Edward Jenner. 
CheHenham, 
6th November, 1810. 



VOL. II. E 



50 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 



CHAPTER II. 



COISfTINUED PROGRESS OF VACCINATION ABROAD — VACCINA- 
TIONS AT CHELTENHAM — ARRANGEMENTSF OR FARTHER 
DISCUSSION IN PARLIAMENT — SECOND GRANT — INTER- 
VIEW WITH MR. PERCEVAL WITH A VIEW TO LIMIT THE 
DIFFUSION OF SMALL-POX BY INOCULATION. 

The hostility in England continued to be hap- 
pily counterbalanced by multiplied evidence of 
the benefits of vaccination from other parts 
of the world. A letter from Dr. Friese of Bres- 
laUj dated June 9th, 1805. and addressed to 
Mr. Ring, commences thus, — " The unremitting 
zeal with which you have endeavoured to promote 
the Jennerian discovery in your country, and the 
interest you have so philanthropically shewn on 
hearing of its first providential introduction into 
Silesia, will, I hope, excuse me when I take the 
liberty to trouble you with some farther account 
of the successful progress which that invaluable 
prophylactic has since made in this part of the 
Prussian dominions." After adverting to the 



LIFE OF DR. .TENNER. 51 

pamphlets of Messrs. Goldson and Squirrel, the 
learned writer adds^ " At any rate, I am convinced 
the new doctrine which they promulgate, will find 
but few proselytes in Germany, where both the go- 
vernments and the people are moreandmore sensible 
of the advantages of the new practice ; and where 
similar equivocal arguments, advanced some years 
ago by the late Dr. Herz, Mr. Erhman of Frank- 
fort, and Dr. Matterskher of Prague, have been 
silenced by time and experience. 

" You remember, perhaps, by my former letter, 
that there was also an adversary of some celebrity 
in Silesia, who rose up against the vaccine inocu- 
lation at its first introduction into this country. 
His name is Mayalla, a physician known in Ger- 
many by his very valuable writings on the several 
mineral waters and bathing-places of Silesia, and 
by some other works on the veterinary art : but 
I have the pleasure to inform you, that this re- 
spectable practitioner has been converted by reason 
and evidence into one of the warmest friends and 
supporters of vaccination. I must add, that it 
was particularly by his assistance we are now in 
possession of two public vaccine institutions at 
Breslau and Glogau, which are to be regarded as 
the centres from which the practice is spread, and 
continues to be spread, through every quarter of 
the province." 

Dr. Friese mentions that, during the past year 
(1804) the number of vaccinations in all the dis- 

E 2 



52 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

tricts of the Breslau department, had much ex- 
ceeded those of all the preceding years smce 1800. 
In the department of Glogau more than 10,000 
persons were vaccinated. The gross nmnber 
successfully inoculated with cow-pox, amounted 
to 34,000 in the two departments above mentioned. 
Small premiums were given to such poor parents 
as brought back their children at the proper time 
for re-examination. Clergymen, likewise, were in- 
structed in the new practice ; and exercised it 
judiciously and skilfully, to the great benefit of 
their parishioners. 

Intelligence equally pleasing was conveyed from 
other parts of Germany. Jenner received a letter 
from Mr. B. Levi of London, a gentleman who had 
just returned from extensive travels in Poland, 
stating, that in the Russian and Prussian divisions 
of that country vaccination was making rapid 
progress ; in the former, under the auspices of the 
Emperor of Russia, and the zealous patronage of 
the benevolent Empress Dowager Maria, seconded 
by the indefatigable exertions of Lobenwein, Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy at Wilna. In Austrian Poland, 
however, the vaccine inoculation was reported to 
be in a backward state, owing to a very malignant 
kind of false cow-pox, propagated by ignorant vil- 
lage matrons and barbers. 

By the same conveyance. Dr. Jenner had the 
satisfaction of receiving accounts from Dr. Frank, 
Professor at Wilna, whose letter ran thus : " Vac- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER, 53 

cination is thriving apace here ; and its i)rogTess is 
in a very great degree owing to our Professor of 
Anatomy, Mr Lohenwein, whose indefatigable ex- 
ertions and philanthropy have surmounted many 
difficulties naturally to be expected in a (^ountry 
like this." 

Another short extract from this letter of Dr. 
Frank will not be unacceptal)le. " Though so far 
distant from London, we did not forget yesterday 
(l/th of May), to join with the many thousands 
of other countries, in celebrating the anniversai-y 
of a day so valuable to every well-wisher of science 
and philanthropy." 

Besides being, as Jenner often expressed it, 
vaccine clerk to the world, and attending to 
his duties as a physician, his vaccinations were 
often most numerous, especially after any alarm 
from small-pox in his neighbourhood. He con- 
stantly inoculated all who chose to come ; and 
sometimes he had nearly three hundred per- 
sons at his door. Nothing gratified him more 
than offices of this kind ; and when, in the 
course of his practice, any striking proofs of the 
efficacy of vaccination presented themselves, his 
satisfaction was increased. An occurrence of this 
kind happened at Cheltenham, which he used to 
relate with great glee. " A poor widow and her 
four children chanced to be under the same roof 
with a labouring man who had caught the small- 
pox. They had been exposed five days to the in- 
fection, when an humble neighbour happened to 



54 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

step in. The poor woman, it appears, had made up 
her mind to her fate, not seeing the possibihty of 
escape from the calamity that threatened her. 
However, her wise friend prevailed on her to come 
to Cheltenham to know what was to be done in 
such a case ; she instantly complied. I happened 
to be from home ; but my servant Richard, who has 
lived with me many years, exercised his judgment 
very properly. He soon found out an arm with a 
fine eighth day pustule, and inoculated the whole 
group. They have since all been with me full of 
rejoicing at the consequence. All escaped the 
contagion except one of the children, on whom 
appeared a few scattered pocks, or rather pimples, 
for they did not exceed hemp-seeds in size ; nor 
was the eruption attended with any perceptible 
indisposition. I have frequently before this dis- 
armed the small-pox of its power on those who 
had been exposed three days to its contagion ; but 
this fact, with all its circumstances, I own de- 
lighted me." 

We have another picture of his feelings at the 
same period in a letter to a friend. " I sincerely 
hope that you are well and happy, and so does my 
dear Mrs. Jenner, who, thank God, though not in 
high health, has gone on better than I once could 
have expected. As for myself, I bear the fatigues 
and worries of a public character better by far 
than those who know the acuteness of my feehngs 
could liave anticipated. Happy should I be to 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 55 

give up my laurels for the repose of retirement, 
did I not feel it to be my duty to be in the world. 
I certainly derive the most soothing consolation 
from my labours, the benefits of which are felt the 
world over ; but less appreciated, perhaps, in this 
island than in any other part of the civilized 
world." — '• Cheltenham is much improved since 
you saw it. It is too gay for me. I still like my 
rustic haunt, old Berkeley, best ; where we are all 
going in about a fortnight. Edward is growing 
tall, and has long looked over my head. Catha- 
rine, now eleven years old, is a promising girl ; 
and Robert, eight years old, is just a chip of the 
old block." 

In order to prosecute the object referred to in 
the former chapter, relative both to his present 
affairs and the progress of vaccination, he left 
Berkeley on the 9th of May 1805, and arrived in 
London on the 10th. On the following day he had 
an interview with Lord Egremont. On this occa- 
sion different measures were canvassed. They all 
referred to the establishment of vaccination and 
the advancement of his private fortune, which had 
been so much injured by what promised to be 
beneficial to him. The result of the whole was, 
that another application should be made to Par- 
hament. This application was brought about in 
the following manner : " During my residence in 
town," he observes, " in the summer of 1805, Lady 
Crewe happened in conversation to tell me how 



56 LIFE OF DR. JENNER, 

much Lord Henry Petty wished for a conference 
with me on the vaccine subject; and that he 
would Hke to bring us together. We met at her 
villa at Hampstead ; and went so fully into the 
matter, that his Lordship, convinced of the injury 
I had sustained, expressed his determination to 
bring something forward in the ensuing session. 
Before this session arrived, Mr. Pitt died; and 
Lord Henry Petty became Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer. In the early part of the present year 
(1806), I again saw his Lordship; and found that 
his ardour in my cause had suffered no abatement. 
This was soon after proved by his Lordship's motion 
in the House." 

That other great personages took an interest in 
this matter may be gathered from what follows : 
" I had not forgot your kind interest about Jenner. 
I spoke to the Duke, the Prince, and Morpeth, 
and they will all do what } ou think best ; but Mor- 
peth has undertaken to make inquiries whether it 
is not possible to bring it again before Parliament. 
He thinks if that could be done, it would be more 
satisfactory than any subscription. I desired him 
to find out how Mr. Pitt was really inclined on the 
subject, and I only waited the result of these in- 
quiries to write to you *." 

On the second of July 1806, Lord Henry Petty 
brought the subject of vaccination before the 

* Extract of a letter from the Duchess of Devonshire to 
J. J. Angerstein, Esq. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 57 

House of Commons. This measure was particu- 
larly called for at this period, both on Dr. Jenner's 
account, and the cause of vaccination itself. Its 
progress had been much obstructed in our own 
country in consequence of the numerous preju- 
dices which had been excited against it ; and 
small-pox was again becoming prevalent. Such 
being the case, his Lordship thought that the 
affair demanded the most serious attention of the 
legislature. He therefore proposed, that an ad- 
dress to his Majesty should be voted by the House, 
praying " that his Royal College of Physicians be 
requested to inquire into the progress of vaccine 
inoculation, and to assign the causes of its suc- 
cess ha\4ng been retarded throughout the United 
Kingdom, in order that their report may be made 
to this House of Parliament ; and that we may 
take the most proper means of publishing it to the 
inhabitants at large." 

" If," continued his Lordship, " the result of 
such proposed inquiry turn out (as I am strongly 
disposed to think it will), a corroboration of the 
beneficial effects which other nations seem con- 
vinced are derived from vaccine inoculation, it 
will satisfy the people of this country of the many 
evils which arise from the rapid progress of this 
fatal species of the disorder. It will prove to them, 
that the bad effects which have been ascribed to 
vaccination have been dreadfully exaggerated ; and 
that the temporary duration of its benefits in a few 



58 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

cases have been owing to some kind of misma- 
nagement. 

" If such shall be the result of the proposed in- 
quiry, I have no hesitation in saying, that it ought 
afterwards to be for this House to consider whether 
or not any reward has been bestowed on the ori- 
ginal discoverer of vaccine inoculation, which is in 
any degree adequate to its real im]iortance ; and, 
as such, consistent with the general character and 
liberality of this country. 

'' This, however, is a subject for after considera- 
tion ; but in the meantime the House will agree 
with me as to the propriety of collecting opinions 
relative to the general effects of this mode of ino- 
culation ; and to show to the world that, if there be 
any truth as to its benefits, we shall not be the 
first to reject them ; but that, on the contrary, 
we shall use every means to encourage its pro- 
gress, and this in a manner consistent with the 
character and dignity of our nation." 

The motion was seconded by Dr. Matthews, in 
a judicious and elegant speech. He at that time 
sat in Parliament as one of the representatives for 
the city of Hereford. The other speakers were 
Mr. Wilberforce, Mr. Secretary Windham, Mr. 
Bankes, Mr. Wilham Smith, and Mr. Paull. The 
sentiments of every speaker were in favour of the 
motion ; and the whole tone of the debate indi- 
cated a state of feeling highly respectful towards 
Dr. Jenner, and alive to the value of his disco- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 59 

very. Mr, Wilberforce, in his observations, alluded 
to a branch of the subject which, though it has 
been repeatedly canvassed in Parliament, has not 
hitherto met with the consideration and support 
that it so evidently demands. His object was not 
to force vaccine inoculation, but to impose certain 
rules on those who practised small-pox inocula- 
tion, in order that the public might be secured 
from the effects of that contagion in the same 
manner as is done in the case of the plague. 
These suggestions were not relished by the House. 
Just and moderate though they were, they seemed 
to have too much the aspect of compulsion ; and 
the liberty of doing wrong was still left among the 
privileges of free-born Englishmen. 

A measure much less comprehensive than that 
contemplated by Mr. Wilberforce, should Parlia- 
ment in its wisdom see fit to enact it, would, even 
thus late, be of incalculable service in sa\dng hu- 
man life, and could scarcely (one would think) be 
objected to by the most determined advocate of 
liberty. The practice of small-pox inoculation has 
been abandoned by almost every respectable medical 
man . It has been lately taken up by a set of un- 
principled, unfeeling, and ignorant persons. These, 
reckless of the miseries w^hich they spread abroad, 
extort from the prejudiced parent a pittance suffi- 
cient to excite their cupidity ; and to show how 
small a price, even in this Christian land, is set 
upon human health and existence, there is 



60 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

scarcely a portion of the country where indivi- 
duals of this stamp may not be traced by the me- 
lancholy and fatal consequences of their practices. 
Were it therefore merely enacted, that no one 
should practise small- pox inoculation who had not 
received a testimonial of his qualifications from 
some of the legally constituted authorities, — this 
enactment, together with one declaring and en- 
forcing what has been already pronounced by the 
King's Bench to be the common law of the land, 
would probably soon banish small-pox inoculation 
from the kingdom ; but as another occasion will 
occur of referring to the topic, I shall not dwell on 
it here. 

Sentiments of a similar kind were strongly ex- 
pressed by some of the most devoted lovers of 
freedom in this country. His Grace the Duke of 
Bedford, who then held a highly dignified and 
responsible public station, that of Lord Lieute- 
nant of Ireland, conveyed to Dr. Jenner a very 
decided opinion as to the restrictions which ought 
to be adopted touching small-pox inoculation. 

Phoenix Park, Dublin, July 18, 1806. 
Dear Sir, 
I am happy to perceive that Lord Henry Petty has in- 
troduced the subject of vaccine inoculation once more to 
the notice of Parliament, though I much doubt whether a 
bare inquiry into the merits of the practice, or its efficacy 
against the small-pox, will prove of any essential use^ 
unless compulsory means are resorted to, or at least 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 61 

measures of regulation to prevent the small-pox spreading 
its destructive ravages over the empire, and sweeping 
thousands annually from the population of the country. 
We have already sufficient evidence of the superior and 
incontrovertible advantages of the cow-pox to satisfy 
every rational and candid mind ; and any additional tes- 
timony, however sanctioned by the College of Physicians, 
or by Parliament, will, I fear, have but little weight in 
convincing the obstinate, the interested, or the prejudiced. 
Some legislative restraint must be adopted (as I took 
occasion to tell you, when I had the pleasure of seeing 
you last summer) against that pernicious and fatal error, 
which permits a man with impunity to spread the contagion 
of a loathsome and cruel disorder around his neighbour- 
hood, and to carry the seeds of disease and death through 
the streets of the metropolis, or through towns and vil- 
lages in the country. This surely cannot be consistent 
with the principles of a wise government, or even of a free 
one ; and without it, I fear, we shall never effect the great 
object the Jennerian Society has in view, the extermina- 
tion of the small-pox. I have written my sentiments to 
Lord Grenville freely on the subject ; and took occasion 
to mention my anxious hope, that you would at length 
receive that just reward from the public, which in my 
ojoinion has been too long withheld from you. I trust 
the inquiry will be extended to Ireland. With the assist- 
ance of Dr. Yeates, (whose zeal in the cause you well 
know), I am endeavouring to obtain some information on 
the progress vaccination has made in this part of the 
United Kingdom, which I hope may be useful ; and I am 
naturally anxious that Ireland should have her full share 
of the benefits resulting from this important discovery. 

I should apologise for not having earlier thanked you 
for the letter I received from you just before I left Eng- 



62 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

land. The pressure of public business, and the hurry of 
preparations for my departure, prevented my then assuring 
you, what I trust you will always believe, that I am, 
dear sir, 

Your very sincere well-wisher 

and faithful servant. 

To Dr. Jenner. Bedford. 

Though the conduct of the anti-vaccinists was 
in every respect unworthy of any notice in Par- 
Hament, it is certain that the influence of their 
writings tended to produce those results which 
rendered parliamentary interposition necessary. 
The renowned trium\drate, Drs. Moseley, Rowley, 
and Squirrell were quite aware of the effect of 
prejudice when duly instilled into the minds of the 
fond many ; and they availed themselves of every 
engine that promised in the least to aid their pur- 
pose. Some of their contrivances, indeed, showed 
a felicity of invention, which would have been 
quite laughable, had they not been altogether 
founded in falsehood, and applied to the worst pur- 
poses. They actually published prints represent- 
ing the human visage in the act of transformation, 
and assuming that of a cow. There was a Master 
Jowles, the cow-poxed, ox-cheeked, young gentleman., 
and Miss Mary Ann Lewis, the cow-poxed, the cow- 
man ged young lady, exhibited in all the touching 
simplicity of graphic delineation, by Dr. William 
Rowley, a learned Member of the University of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 63 

Oxford, &c. &c. &c. This august personage, after 
collecting together the most extraordinary tissue 
of absurdities, had the folly to characterise his 
work as " a solemn appeal, not to the passions of 
7nan]iind, hut to the reason and judgment of all who 
were capable of deej) refection." The voice of the 
respectable part of the profession was not suf- 
ficient to counteract the tide of passion and 
prejudice which agents, so misguided, had been 
able to set in motion ; and it is a melancholy 
view of human nature to be obliged to con- 
fess, that the best cause, in the onset, is often 
foiled by such opponents. They have power 
enough given them to claim and secure many 
victims before they are driven from the field ; 
and it is not till aroused by the magnitude 
of the evil, that the potency and energy of truth 
are shown in annihilating the devices of falsehood 
and error. 

Many a pang did Dr. Jenner suffer when he per- 
ceived the unhappy success which attended the 
schemes of the enemies of vaccination. Though 
the abuse poured out upon himself was most of- 
fensive, he regarded it not. A serious reply to 
such disgusting observations as characterised their 
productions would indeed have been quite un- 
worthy of him ; but he thought that ridicule was 
a weapon that might be fairly and effectually 
wielded against them. In this spirit he actually 



64 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

wrote a letter to one of the chief anti-vaccinists. 
It was never published ; but it contains a great 
deal of genuine wit and polished irony. 

The motion of Lord Henry Petty, "That an 
address be presented to his Majesty, praying that 
he will be graciously pleased to direct his Royal 
College of Physicians to inquire into the state of 
vaccine inoculation in the United Kingdom, and 
to report their opinion as to the progress which it 
has made, and the causes which have retarded its 
general adoption," was carried unanimously. 

The Royal College of Physicians in London 
having received his Majesty's commands, in com- 
pliance with the above address, applied themselves 
diligently to the business referred to them. They 
published an advertisement in the newspapers, 
stating that they were ready to receive informa- 
tion from medical practitioners as to the result of 
their experience and inquiries upon the subject of 
vaccination. They had previously applied sepa- 
rately to each of the licentiates of the college. 
They corresponded with the Colleges of Physicians 
of Dublin and Edinburgh ; and with the Colleges 
of Surgeons of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin. 
In short, they took every possible method to gain 
the most accurate information, whether for or 
against the practice. 

Dr. Jenner himself viewed the whole of these 
proceedings with the utmost satisfaction. A fair, 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 65 

a manly, and an unreserved investigation was what 
he courted. He knew that, in such a trial, truth 
would come fof tli in all her clearness and dignity, 
and afford the most triumphant refutation of the 
calumnies with which he and vaccination had been 
assailed. The inquiry, though it involved the fate 
of millions, had this peculiarity, that it was to de- 
cide in like manner the character, both moral and 
professional, of Jenner himself. In appearing be- 
fore the college (which he did on the 19th Fe- 
bruary 1807) he had to submit to them both testi- 
monies and diplomas gi'anted to him by almost 
every learned body in Europe,* in consequence of 
the ascertained efficacy of the discovery. He had 
to lay before them grateful tokens of thankfulness 
and esteem from the less polished inhabitants of 
other quarters of the globe ; all haihng him as 
their greatest benefactor. Such evidence he could 
present, and did present, but he said " trust not to 
these, to me cheering and animating documents ; 
go to my enemies ; go to the enemies of vaccina- 
tion ; collect the evidence that they have to offer 
look at their industry in amassing that evidence 
look at the spirit in which it has been put forth 
bring all to the proof; and then let truth prevail." 
The college most assiduously and most ably per- 
formed the duty committed to them ; and, in re- 
porting their opinions on the testimony adduced 

* See Appendix No. I. for a list of these honours, 
VOL. II. F 



66 LIFE or DR. JENNER. 

in support of vaccination, they stated that a body 
of evidence so large, so temperate, and so consist- 
ent was, perhaps, never before cdllected on any 
medical question. They strongly recommended 
the practice of vaccination, this conclusion being 
formed from an irresistible weight of e\idence 
which had been laid before them ; adding, that 
" when the number, the respectability, the disin- 
terestedness, and the extensive experience of its 
advocates are compared with the feeble and im- 
perfect testimonies of its few opposers ; and when 
it is considered that many who were once adverse 
to vaccination have been convinced by farther 
trials, and are now to be ranked among its warmest 
supporters, the truth seems to be established as 
firmly as the nature of such a question admits ; so 
that the college of physicians conceive that the 
public may reasonably look forward with some 
degree of hope to the time when all opposition 
shall cease, and the general concurrence of man- 
kind shall at length be able to put an end to the 
ravages at le^st, if not to the existence, of small- 
pox." 

On the 29th of July, 180/, the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, the late Right Honourable Spencer 
Perceval, moved the order of the day for the house 
to go into a committee of supply ; and stated that 
it was referred to that committee to consider of a 
farther sum to be allowed to Dr. Edward Jenner 
for the discovery of the vaccine inoculation, and 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 67 

his communication of it to the world. Tlie house 
resolved itself into a committee accordingly ; the 
late Sir Benjamin Hobhouse being in the chair. 

The debate which arose on the motion of the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer was important ; and 
evinced, with one or two exceptions, a proper esti- 
mate of the nature of the question. The excellent 
report of the College of Physicians afforded the 
ground on which the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
proposed "that a sum not exceeding £10,000 be 
granted to his Majesty, to be paid to Dr. Edward 
Jenner, as a reward for promulgating his discovery 
of vaccine inoculation ; and that the same be issued 
without any fee or other reward whatever." The 
last recited clause was a very considerate one, as 
in the case of the former grant of £10,000, the 
fees of office, and other charges, took nearly one- 
tenth from the sum voted by parliament. 

The anti-vaccinists found one advocate (Mr. 
Shaw Lefe\Te) in the House of Commons. The 
honourable member first affected to under-value 
the merit of vaccination itself; and, next, at- 
tempted to show that the discovery of it was not 
due to Dr. Jenner. Another honourable member* 
(Mr. Edward Morris) took a very different view of 
the subject. Influenced entirely by the weight of 
evidence, he made a powerful appeal to the house ; 
and concluded by saying, "after what I have 

* Member for Newport, in Cornwall. 

F 2 



68 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

seen and heard, and knew to have been proved 
upon this subject, I feel myself called upon to 
move that instead of £10,000, £20,000 be inserted 
in this resolution." 

Mr. William Smith said, that " every person 
who would wish to give Dr. Jenner a reward would 
first allow his expenses ; for, until that be done, 
you cannot talk of reward. Since, then, the gene- 
ral merit of the discovery is admitted, and you 
are about to remunerate the inventor ; the first 
thing you ought to do is to give him back the 
money which he has been out of pocket in bringing 
to perfection his discovery — a discovery which has 
been of so much advantage to mankind." He 
then alluded to the little honour which Dr. Jenner 
had experienced in his own country, and recited 
part of the valuable information that had just been 
received regarding the successful termination of 
the Spanish expedition under Balmis. 

After various remarks from other members, the 
question was put that £20,000 do stand part of the 
resolution : when the committee di\TLded ; ayes, 60 ; 
noes, 47; majority, 13. 

I have thought it unnecessary to dwell at 
greater length on the arguments used by the 
respective speakers on this important occasion. 
The scientific part of the subject, as well as the 
character of Jenner, was treated with great elo- 
quence and effect ; but especially by the Marquis 
of Lansdowne, then Lord Henry Petty. That 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 69 

noble Lord entered fully into the merits of the 
disco v^er)'', as well as into the disinterestedness 
and magnanimity of the discoverer. The late Mr- 
Windham, and the late Mr. Whitbread, spoke 
likewise with their wonted animation and deci- 
sion : the former contending that a sum still 
larger would be more suitable to the character of 
the country ; the latter insisting that Dr. Jenner 
should be remunerated to the extent proposed by 
the amendment, the extent of the value of his 
services being totally out of the question. Other 
gentlemen alluded to the disgraceful practice 
which was still carried on of inoculating out- 
patients with small-pox, at the Small-pox Hospi- 
tal in London. "I think that the legislature," 
said Mr. Sturges Bourne, " would be as much 
justified in taking a measure to prevent this evil 
by restraint, as a man would be in snatching a 
firebrand out of the hands of a maniac just as he 
was going to set fire to a city." 

This last subject preyed deeply on the mind 
of Dr. Jenner. He knew that vaccination would 
be comparatively powerless while its virulent and 
contagious antagonist was permitted to walk 
abroad uncontrolled. In order to restrain this 
enemy, he sought an audience of the minister. 
He gives the result in a letter to Dr. Lettsom, 
dated July 1807- 

" You will be sorry to hear the result of my 
interview with the Minister, Mr. Perceval. I 



70 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

solicited this honour with the sole view of in- 
quiring whether it was the intention of govern- 
ment to give a check to the licentious manner in 
which small-pox inoculation is at this time con- 
ducted in the metropolis. I instanced the mor- 
tality it occasioned in language as forcible as I 
could utter, and showed him clearly that it was 
the great source from which this pest was dis- 
seminated through the country as well as through 
the town. But, alas ! all I said availed nothing ; 
and the speckled monster is still to have the 
liberty that the Small-pox Hospital, the delusions 
of Moseley, and the caprices and prejudices of the 
misguided poor, can possibly give him. I cannot 
express to you the chagrin and disappointment I 
felt at this interview." 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 71 



CHAPTER III. 



DOMESTIC LIFE — WORGAN —RETURN OF THE SPANISH VAC- 
CINE EXPEDITION — VARIOUS HONOURS — PRESENTS FROM 
THE PRESIDENCIES IN INDIA. 

Remote, though some of these incidents may 
appear, from the occupations of a private indivi- 
dual, they made part and parcel of the very exist- 
ence of Jenner. Many of them may be at this 
hour destitute of those qualities which interest 
the reader ; but at the time when they occurred 
they possessed a power to touch the feelings of 
every one ; and were, in an especial degree, im- 
portant in the sight of Jenner. It is needless, 
therefore, to assert how much they engrossed his 
attention and occupied his time. In the midst of 
such employments we can trace events in his 
domestic history which stamp the character of 
the man, and bring him before us in a manner 
the most engaging and attractive. 

His eldest son, Edward, who had a feeble con- 
stitution and other infirmities which rendered it 



72 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

inexpedient to send him to a public school, re- 
ceived all his education under his father's roof. 
To assist in this object a domestic tutor was pro- 
cured. The youth who was selected for this 
purpose was but little older than his pupil, but 
though tender in years, he was old in wisdom 
and knowledge. This extraordinary boy, John 
Dawes Worgan, became an inmate of Dr. Jenner s 
family at Berkeley in September 1806, having not 
then completed his sixteenth year. He was en- 
dowed with a singular maturity of judgment, an 
uncommon delicacy of perception, a quick and 
vivid imagination, a love of high and ennobling 
sentiments, together with that deep and heart- 
felt humility which checked the ardent and im- 
passioned feelings of his nature, and at last 
brought all the fond and ambitious imaginings 
of his aspiring mind under the sacred influence 
of piety and peace. 

The feeble texture of his frame and his early 
sorrows laid at once open to his mind the real 
condition of man, and impressed him in his in- 
fancy with those truths which many never learn 
till years of bitterness and disappointment have 
reduced all earthly objects to their just dimen- 
sions. Into the space of a few years he had 
crowded the experience of a lifetime ; so much so, 
that in reading some of his " Remains," the 
strength and the confidence of an aged and well- 
taught pilgrim may be discerned, rather than the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 73 

hesitating and crude conceptions that for the 
most part characterise the productions of a youth 
of seventeen. I speak more especially of his 
sentiments on those questions which the human 
mind does not always receive with favour. His 
parents were distinguished by their Christian faith 
and practice, and their great object was to in- 
struct him how to live and how to die. These 
purposes were subsequently much promoted by 
his residence at a school in the village of Ful- 
neck, near Leeds, under the direction of the 
United Brethren. His parents being in humble 
circumstances, and unable to bestow upon him a 
learned education, he was designed for some mer- 
cantile employment, and he actually assisted his 
father in his occupation of a watchmaker. After 
the death of this parent, in 1803, he announced 
to his mother a design, which he had long enter- 
tained, of dedicating himself to the service of God, 
as a minister of the Church of England. The 
excellent and venerable the Rev. T. T. Biddulph, 
of Bristol, who had been his friend and adviser, 
both in temporal and spiritual matters, and who, 
to the most unreserved sincerity, had joined the 
most tender and affectionate kindness, was con- 
sulted on this occasion. The direction of his 
studies was in consequence immediately changed. 
He now began to devote himself to the learned 
languages ; and the felicity of his genius was such, 
that he was able in a very short time to master all 



74 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

difficulties, to pass through the steps that lead 
to sound and good scholarship, and to shew at 
the same time a fidelity of memory, an expansion 
of intellect, and a delicacy and correctness of 
taste, that were rarely to be met with. These 
qualities brought him into the family of Dr. Jen- 
ner : here his genius was cherished, his sensitive 
nature was protected from many evils to which 
the hardness of his fortune and the roughness of 
the world would otherwise have exposed him. 
Jenner loved to hold converse with such beings, 
and the whole atmosphere of his domestic circle 
was at that time in unison with Worgan's keen 
and deep-toned feelings. Mrs. Jenner was in 
very delicate health, and her soul was devoted 
to those contemplations which most delighted 
Worgan. 

During the year in which he became an inmate 
in Dr. Jenner s house, the Spanish vaccine expedi- 
tion, under Balmis, had returned to Europe : his 
correspondent, the late Mr. Hayley, had suggested 
this as a fit subject for the muse of Worgan, who 
almost from his infancy had shewed a decided 
taste for metrical composition. He himself had 
often projected such a work, but at that time he 
did not feel that his wing was strong enough to 
soar into the regions of historic verse. He wrote, 
however, an address to the Royal Jennerian So- 
ciety, which was printed and presented to the 
members at their annual meeting, in 1808. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. /O 

He had two attacks of typhus fever while under 
Dr. Jenner's roof, and he was finally destroyed by 
pulmonary consumption in 1809. The unceasing 
energy of his mind could ill bear the hours of list- 
lessness and inactivity which the feebleness of his 
frame needed ; the intensity of his feelings, and the 
eagerness of his nature, hurried him on to exer- 
tions which he could not sustain. The flame was 
burning with too great vehemence, and it became 
extinguished ere it had acquired all its brilliancy 
and strength. 

Dr. Jenner's own sentiments may be gathered 
from the following extract of a letter which he 
wrote to a friend immediately after Worgan's 
death. 

" Your letter of course came too late for me to 
make any observations upon what you drew up 
for insertion in the Bristol paper, respecting our 
dear departed friend. It must be some consola- 
tion to his surviving relations and friends that his 
name will not be forgotten, and greater still to those 
that were most dear to him, that his long indispo- 
sition awakened in him those sentiments, in all 
their purity, from which alone can spring true 
happiness at any period of our existence, but 
particularly at ' the awful hour of death.' 

" I beg you will present my best wishes to Mrs. 
Worgan, and tell her, unless she particularly 
wishes it, I should be sorry to put her to the 
expense of a ring ; but yet, I should like to have 



76 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

something in remembrance of poor John. A book 
would be acceptable. The editor of the Chelten- 
ham Chronicle (Mr. Pruen), who was the intimate 
acquaintance of poor Worgan, has paid a just 
tribute to his memory, in the paper of yester- 
day." * 

* The following poetic tribute to the memory of this 
amiable, accomplished, and pious young man, is the heart- 
felt effusion of one of his intimate associates in friendly and 
literary intercourse; and who, though Worgan's senior by 
several years^ has candidly acknowledged, that whatever 
refinement and polish his slender vein of poetic ore has 
attained, he owes to his young friend's superior judgment and 
taste. 

To the memory of John Dawes Worgan, who died on the 25th of 
July, 1809, aged 19 years. 

While Jenner's fost'ring hand was stretch'd to save 
Thy genius, Worgan, from th' untimely grave, — 
While the fond Muse thy wit and fancy shared. 
And for thy brow an early wreath prepared, — 
Heav'n claim'd thy heart ; — and, to assert the claim, 
Snatch'd thee from dang'rous paths of earthly fame ; 
Then gave thee — rich exchange for such renown ! 
Immortal bliss, and a celestial crown ! 

J. B. Drayton. t 
Cheltenham, 1809. 



t Mr. D. had the pi'ivilege of being on terms of friendly 
intercourse and correspondence with Dr. Jenner, and having 
been trained as a professional artist, under T. Holloway, Esq. 
the celebrated engraver of the Cartoons of Raphael, he, in the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 17 

The philanthropic expedition under Balmis has 
heen ah'eady more than once alluded to. The 
tidings of its safe return to Spain reached this 
country in the autumn of 1806. A copy of the 
Madrid Gazette, which announced that important 
event, was immediately forwarded to Dr. Jenner. 
This document, recording one of the most re- 
markable incidents in the history of vaccination, 
was kindly translated by the Marquis of Lans- 
downe. In convepng the translation to Dr. Jen- 
ner, his lordship accompanied it with the following 
gratifying letter. 

The Marquis of Lansdowxe to Dr. Jenner. 

Cheltenham^ Nov. 18th, 1806. 

Dear Sir, 

I send you a translation of the official account * of the 
vaccine expedition, undertaken by command of his Ca- 
tholic Majesty, which will, I hope, be found to possess 
the merit of fidelity. The importance of your discovery 

year 1805, solicited and obtained for his own gratification, 
and by way of complimentary present to Dr. Jenner, a sit- 
ting for bis portrait (a small medallion profile in pencil, with 
a view to assist in forming a die for a gold medal), which 
is allowed to be one of the most exact resemblances of Dr. 
Jenner, and was engraved by the late Mr. Anker Smith, at the 
Doctor's expense, for private circulation. The engraving 
is a pleasing specimen of the art. 
* See Appendix, No. Tl. 



78 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

will be much better comprehended by those who have 
been in the habit of occupying or frequenting countries 
characterized by heat of climate, than by those who have 
constantly enjoyed the advantages which belong to a tem- 
perate region. You have conquered more in the field of 
science, than Buonaparte has conquered in the field of 
battle; and I sincerely congratulate you on so glorious a 
testimony of your success, as that which the Spanish nar- 
rative affords. 

I am, 

Dear Sir, 

Yours very sincerely, 

Lansdowne. 

The important narration alluded to in his lord- 
ship's letter stated, that on Sunday the 7th of 
September, 1806, Dr. Francis Xavier Balmis, Sur- 
geon-Extraordinary to the King of Spain, had the 
honour of kissing his Majesty's hand, on the occa- 
sion of his return from a voyage round the world, 
executed for the sole object of carrying to all the 
possessions of the King of Spain beyond the seas, 
and to those of other nations, the inestimable gift 
of vaccine inoculation. The reader will recollect 
that the expedition, of which Don Balmis was the 
director, sailed from Cadiz on the 30th of No- 
vember, 1803. It made the Canary Islands first; 
it then proceeded to Porto Rico and the Caraccas. 
On leaving the port of La Guira, it was di\T.ded 
into two branches, one part sailing to South 
America, under the charge of the sub-director, 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. /^ 

Don Francis Salvani ; the other, with Bahiiis on 
board, steering for the Havannah, and thence for 
Yucatan. There a sub-division took place. The 
professor, Francis Pastor, proceeded from the 
port Siral, to that of Villa Hermosa, in the pro- 
vince of Tobasca. The rest of the expedition 
traversed the \dce-royalty of New Spain and the 
interior provinces ; and thence returned to 
Mexico, the point of re-union. This being ac- 
complished, the next object of the director was 
to carry the preservative from America to Asia. 
After surmounting various difficulties^ he em- 
barked in the port of Acapulco for the Philippine 
Islands, carrying with him from New Spain twenty- 
six children destined to be vaccinated in succes- 
sion. The cow-pox having thus been disseminated 
through the islands subject to his Catholic Ma- 
jesty, it was originally designed that the expedition 
should then terminate. The director, however, 
and the Captain-General, concerted the means of 
extending the beneficence of the King to the re- 
motest confines of Asia. Setting sail, therefore, 
for Macao and Canton, they introduced the pre- 
servative to the Portuguese settlements, and to 
the inhabitants of the vast empire of China. Bal- 
mis returned from Canton to Macao, and em- 
barking in a Portuguese vessel reached Lisbon on 
the 15th of August, 1806. In his way he touched 
at St. Helena; and, strange to say, was the first 
to induce the English inhabitants of that settle- 



80 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ment to adopt the antidote ; and this even, though 
it had been discovered in their own country, and 
sent to them by Jenner himself. 

The fate of that part of the expedition destined 
for Peru was disastrous, having suffered shipwreck 
in one of the mouths of the river La Magdalena. 
Providentially, the sub-director, the members of 
the faculty, and the children, with the fluid in 
good preservation, were saved. It was thence 
carried to the Isthmus of Panama. Another part 
of the expedition ascended the river La Magda- 
lena, Wlien they reached the interior, they se- 
parated, to discharge their commission in the 
towns of Teneriffe, Mompox, Ocana, Socorro, San 
Gil y Medellin, in the valley of Cucuta, and in the 
cities of Pamplona, Giron, Tunja, Velez, and other 
places in the neighbourhood, and reunited at Santa 
Fe. Towards the close of 1805, they again sepa- 
rated, for the purpose of traversing the remaining 
districts of the vice-royalty, passing by Popayan, 
Cuenca, and Quito, as far as Lima. In the Au- 
gust following, they reached Guaiaquil. 

Not one of the least remarkable events in this 
expedition was the discovery of the indigenous 
cow^-pox in three different places ; namely, in the 
valley of Atlixco, in the neighbourhood of Valla- 
dolid de Mechoacan, and in the cUstrict of Cala- 
bozo, in the province of Caracca. 

The conductors of the expedition were every- 
where welcomed with the utmost enthusiasm. It 



LIFE OP DR. JENNER. 81 

was to be expected that the representatives of the 
Spanish monarch and all the constituted authori* 
ties would gladly co- operate ; but it was scarcely 
to be anticipated {hat the unenlightened minds of 
the Indians would so soon appreciate the value of 
the mission. It is, nevertheless, most gratifying 
to know, that the numerous hordes which oc- 
cupy the immense tract of country between the 
United States and the Spanish colonies, all re- 
ceived the precious fluid with the utmost readi- 
ness. They acquired the art of vaccinating, and 
soon performed the operation with great dexterity. 
Fame had preceded the arrival of Salvani at 
Santa Fe. On approaching the capital he was 
met by the viceroy, the archbishop, and all the 
civil and ecclesiastical authorities. The event was 
celebrated with religious pomp and ceremonies ; 
and in a short time more than fifty thousand per- 
sons were vaccinated. Similar honours awaited 
the expedition throughout its whole course. At 
Quito they were greeted with boundless joy and 
festivity. Such expressions well became them. 
The people of this country, the Indians more espe- 
cially, having been often scourged by the hor- 
rid ravages of small-pox, regarded it as the 
most terrible affliction which Heaven could send 
them. On its first appearance in a village a panic 
seized every heart ; each family prepared an 
isolated hovel, to which those who were supposed 
to be infected were banished. There^ without suc- 

VOL. 11. G 



82 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

cour, without remedy, and with a very insufficient 
supply of food, they were exposed to the alter- 
nations of a very variable climate, and left to their 
fate. In this way whole generations perished. 
Under the viceroy Toledo the population of the 
native Indians had amounted to seven millions and 
a half; at the time of this expedition the number 
was supposed to be reduced to one-fifth. 

I fear that the energy which prompted the mea- 
sures on the first introduction of vaccination into 
South America has not been maintained : I per- 
ceive, at least, by a message from the government 
of Buenos Ayres to the seventh legislative assem- 
bly, dated September 12th, 1828, that small-pox 
had been making dreadful ravages in the adjoin- 
ing districts. The words of that part of the mes- 
sage relating to this topic deserve to be recorded 
in this place. " The important establishment of 
vaccination has been augmented, and its utility 
has never been more felt than at this moment : 
whilst the neighbouring provinces are visited by 
the terrible scourge of the small-pox, it has scarcely 
been felt in this city, and the government has put 
in practice every means entirely to eradicate it." 

The arrival of the Spanish expedition at Macao 
was followed by very extensive vaccination at that 
place, as will appear from the following extract 
from a letter, dated Macao, 28th of June, 1805 : — 

" Mr. Pearson devotes one dav in the week to vaccine 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 83 

inoculation, and the numbers brought to him rapidly in- 
crease. Two of our compradores, and Mr. Drummond's 
head servant, have been taught the mode of vaccinating, 
and have daily applicants from the neighbouring villages. 
The treatise drawn up by Mr. Pearson, and translated by 
the compradore and Sir George Staunton, has been sent 
to Canton, and 200 copies Avill be immediately struck off. 
Advertisements have been also sent to Canton, directing 
those who are desirous of promoting this blessing, to 
bring the subjects for inoculation to the company's fac- 
tory, where it will be performed gratis, and the medical 
men be supplied with lancets ready charged, and copies 
of the above treatise. In the title-page are mentioned 
Mr. Pearson, the English surgeon, and Sir George 
Staunton, who accompanied Lord Macartney to Pekin, 
and now in the company's civil employ ; and Gnewgna, 
one of the Hong merchants, being here on a visit, Mr. 
Drummond prevailed on him to sanction the publication 
by adding his signature. 

'' This intelligence will be highly grateful to Dr. Jenner, 
as well as to humanity at large, when it is known that 
one-third of the people of this extensive empire, when the 
natural small-pox is raging, are supposed to fall victims 
to it. 

" P.S. I cannot close this without informing you that 
the Jennerian system of inoculation has been introduced 
into this place by means of subjects from Manilla, and 
many children, both Portuguese and Chinese, have been 
vaccinated with complete success ; and am happy to 
add that such of the Chinese as have witnessed the inno- 
cence of the operation, and the mildness of its effects, are 
now sensible of the importance of the discovery, and I 
have no doubt of its being shortly practised throughout 
the empire. 

G 2 



84 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

" Every thing is now arranged for the departure for 
Pekin of the two French missionaries who came out in 
the Dorsetshire, to whom Mr. Pearson has forwarded large 
suppUes of lancets charged with the genuine virus, in the 
view to the introduction of this inestimable blessing 
throughout the empire, accompanied with a short plain 
treatise on the subject by himself, and translated into 
the language of the country by Sir George Staunton ; 
which is certainly a very humane and praiseworthy under- 
taking." 

In the course of a few months Dr. Jenner had 
the satisfaction of receiving still more gratifying 
intelligence from this quarter. The circumstances 
to w^hich I refer were made known to him by a 
distinguished individual well acquainted with the 
character of the Chinese. 

Mr. (now Sir John) Barrow to Dr. Jenner. 

3, Charles-street, St. James's Square^ 
dth June, 1806. 
Sir, 

I have great pleasure in being able to inclose for your 
inspection a short treatise in the Chinese language on the 
vaccine inoculation, translated by my friend Sir George 
Staunton, and published by the Chinese in the city of 
Canton. The curiosity of an English work issuing from 
the Chinese press, however extraordinary, gives way to 
the more extraordinary facility with which this people, 
always strenuous in opposing every innovation, has sub- 
mitted to receive the new practice of vaccination. Not 
only the surgeon of the English factory, but numbers of 
the Chinese were constantly employed in communicating 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 85 

the disease from the moment it was perceived with what 
ease and convenience the patient went through it ; and 
they had actually raised a very considerable subscription 
for the purpose of establishing a vaccine institution for 
promoting the practice in every part of this extensive 
empire. Thus the English, at length, as well as the other 
Europeans, have established their claim, which, though 
last, is not the least, on the gratitude of the Chinese. 

As the small-pox in China has usually been attended 
with most fatal effects, there is little doubt that the same 
willingness, which has manifested itself at Canton, to re- 
ceive so mild and effectual a substitute, will be felt in 
every province of this populous country ; and the more so, 
as public confidence there is not likely to be shaken by 
that kind of illiberal and undignified opposition which has 
been so industriously employed elsewhere. 

By every real friend of humanity, and by you, sir, in 
particular, this intelligence must be received with sensa- 
tions of peculiar satisfaction. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your most obedient and humble servant, 

John Barrow. 

P. S. As I imagine the inclosed to be the only copy 
in England, you will be pleased, at your convenience, 
and when done with, to put it under cover to me.'^ 

The heartfelt satisfaction which Jenner ex- 
perienced on the successful issue of the Spanish 
expedition in some measure repaid him for the 
anxiety and suffering v^hich, up to that time, he 
had endured from the unjust and ungenerous 
attacks made upon him by too many of his 



86 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

own countrymen. He transmitted copies of the 
Madrid Gazette to all his friends, and only regret- 
ted that the honour of the beneficent enterprise 
which it recorded should not have been acquired 
by England. His Grace the Duke of Bedford, in 
acknowledging the receipt of one of those docu- 
ments, thus writes: — 

The Duke of Bedford to Dr. Jenner. 

Dublin Castle, Dec. 9, 1806. 

My dear Sir, 

By yesterday's mail I was favoured with your letter of 
the 4th inst. and am much gratified by the accounts you 
send me of the progress of vaccination in distant quarters 
of the globe, although I cannot but lament with you that 
Great Britain has suffered other nations to take a more 
conspicuous part than herself in the extension of this ines- 
timable blessing. 

You will readily beheve that the importance I have ever 
attached to the success of the vaccine system induced me 
to direct my attention to this subject at an early period of 
my government in this country, and I am persuaded that 
you will be satisfied with the Report which has been drawn 
up by Dr. Yeats, and which I have now transmitted to 
the College of Physicians. 

Dr. Yeats is at present in England for a short time ; but 
on his return, I will not fail to give him the very satisfac- 
tory account from the Madrid Gazette. He added to his 
Report the outline of a plan for extending vaccination 
and exterminating the small-pox throughout the British 
dominions (and indeed throughout the world) ; l)ut as this 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 8/ 

did not form any part of Lord Henry Petty's motion, I did 
not send it to the College ; but^ if you should desire to 
see itj I will with pleasure forward you a copy of this 
paper. 

I remain, with very sincere regard, 

My dear Sir, 

Your faithful and obedient, 

Bedfokd. 

At this period more substantial proofs of consi- 
deration reached Dr. Jenner from our Indian pos- 
sessions. The idea, which was started by Dr. 
Lettsom in England, had about the same time oc- 
curred to several of the European inhabitants in 
the different presidencies. They almost simulta- 
neously resolved to present him with a testimony 
of their gratitude. An announcement of their 
proceedings, together with Dr. Jenner's reply, is 
subjoined. 

To Dr. Edward Jenner, Berkeley. 

Calcutta, 11 th May, 1806. 
Sir, 

The principal inhabitants of Calcutta and its dependen- 
cies having some time ago resolved to present you with a 
testimonial of their gratitude for the benefit which this set- 
tlement, in common with the rest of mankind, has derived 
from your inestimable discovery of a preventive of the 
small-pox, and having appointed us a Committee for car- 



88 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

rying their resolution into effect, it is with the highes.t 
satisfaction that we now discharge the duty committed to 
VIS, by transmitting to you herewith bills drawn on the 
Honourable Court of Directors to the amount of three 
thousand pounds sterling. Duplicates and triplicates of 
these bills, together with the remainder of the subscription 
(about one thousand pounds), will be hereafter forwarded 
to you by the first favourable opportunity. 

We have the honour to be, with the greatest esteem and 
regard^ 

Sir, 

Your most obedient, 

humble servants, 

Robert Smith, J. Fleming, 

H. COLEBROOKE, J. ALEXANDER. 

Per Charger. 

Doctor Jenner to Doctor Fleming. 

My dear Sir, 

The death of my great and good friend Lord Cornwallis, 
and the uncertainty whether my letter, directed to you at 
Portsmouth when you were upon the eve of sailing, ever 
reached you, were circumstances which nearly set aside 
every hope of my being brought forward at Calcutta as 
one deserving public attention. But your unexpected 
letter of 25th March, told me my fears were groundless. 
Since that time, I have the pleasure of informing you I 
have duly received the bills remitted, and the very hand- 
some letter Avhich accompanied them. In my inclosed 
reply to this letter, you participate only in my thanks 
with my three other friends, Mr. Sniith, Mr. Colebrooke, 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 89 

and Mr. Alexander, who kindly laboured with you in my 
cause. But now you must allow me to express the very 
particular obligations I feel under to you. Indeed, it is 
highly probable that without your industry and benevo- 
lence, the good people of Calcutta, like most other parts of 
the world, would not have expressed their thanks in the 
way they have done. Permit me to request you to 
present my particular thanks to the medical gentle- 
men you name to me, who have been so strenuous in 
promoting the donation. Mr. Russell's acquaintance 
I had the pleasure of making at Cheltenliam and re- 
newing in town. Mr. Hare I have not the pleasure 
of knowing, but from his high reputation. Mr. Shool- 
bred has been my correspondent, and has my warmest re- 
gards for his excellent publication on vaccination. Some 
disaster, I fear, has befallen my late dispatches to him, as 
I have received no answer to my letters. 

No intelligence of any sort has of late reached me from 
Madras or Bombay ; but I once heard that, at the latter 
place, the inhabitants intended me a pecuniary compliment. 
Vaccination, I find, has been unbounded in both these 
settlements. 

I have sent you some copies of a Madrid Gazette. 
What a glorious enterprise ! Yet, while I feel proud in 
contemplating it, I cannot but lament that it was not 
achieved by the British nation. To say the truth, this coun- 
try has been dreadfully supine in the matter hitherto: how- 
ever, its energies seem roused, as you will see by the inclosed 
advertisement. Some pamphlets, full of the grossest 
misrepresentations and forgeries, have been spread ; and 
the common people became so terrified, particularly 
when told that their children, if vaccinated, would take the 
similitude of bulls and cows, that a great dislike to the 
practice has arisen among them : and these accounts have 



90 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

been circulated through the country with pecuUar industr}% 
The consequence has been the re-introduction of variolous 
inoculation, which has produced an epidemic small-pox 
through the metropolis and the whole island, except in 
those parts where vaccination had previously been so 
generally adopted as to forbid its approach. This, now 
too late, has opened their eyes, and they see the powers of 
the cow-pox. The folly of the oppositionists has gone 
so far as to exhibit prints of children undergoing trans- 
formation from the human being into that of a brute. 

Believe me, dear Sir, 

With the warmest sentiments of esteem. 

Your obliged and very faithful servant, 

Edward Jenner. 

In a very short time after this period, an au- 
thentic report of what was doing in Bombay 
reached him. A letter from Dr. Helenus Scott 
conveys this and other interesting intelligence. 

Dr. Helenus Scott to Dr. Jenner. 

Bombay, 5th December, 1806. 
My dear Sir, 

I very lately received your letter of the 8th February 
last, with the evidence on the vaccine subject, and the 
Report, &c. It is certainly not to Bombay that you need 
take the trouble to send further evidence. We have 
long had abundance of it, and daily experience gives us 
more and more. The attacks on vaccination have made 
but very little impression here, none Avhatever on myself, 
or on those medical men for whose judgment I have any 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 91 

value. I have given Mr. Duncan the report you sent for 
him, and I have shewn him the letter you wrote me, 
which contains many obliging expressions with respect to 
himself. He desires me to thank you, and to assure you of 
his esteem and high regard. 

Some centuries ago men were too credulous. The 
limits of many branches of knowledge were less known 
than they now are, and they had no kind of rules by 
which belief could be limited. We have now gone to the 
contrary extreme, no less unphilosophical, and perhaps 
more injurious to science, of crediting nothing that is new 
and unexpected. Of all the circumstances that have 
occurred to me, the resistance that has been made to the 
cow-pox in England was what I expected the least. In 
all that you have asserted, so much is evident, and, I may 
say, palpable, that I looked for no resistance. 

^ •tP "^ ^ ^ 

That all this should have been rejected (I must still 
affirm, without sufficient inquiry), I have never been sur- 
prised ; but that the cow-pox should stop in its progress, 
has filled me with wonder. It is so interesting to every 
individual, peculiarly so to every parent^ that I thought 
(against the practice of this world) the triumph was com- 
plete, even in the lifetime of its inventor. 

I confess that I am much displeased with what I ob- 
serve at a distance of many members of our profession. 
They dispute with violence and ill manners ; and on many 
occasions one is tempted to believe that he has gotten 
into very bad company. I suppose that those who are 
the most disj)osed to fight and scribble, are not in much 
estimation by such as know them better than we can do 
at this distance. I frequently feel concern for the pro- 
fession. 

It is now several vears since Dr. Duncan, several other 



92 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

gentlemen, and myself, made a proposal that some testi- 
mony of our thanks should be offered to the discoverer of 
vaccine inoculation. A paper was circulated to that 
effect, which from various causes has been long kept from 
the Presidency. You must know that our territory on 
this side of India, and consequently the British inhabit- 
ants, are now scattered over a vast tract of country. This 
paper has been at Sazurat, and with our army I believe at 
Delhi. Although our power extends over a great space, 
the number of British inhabitants is not very consider- 
able. From these and other causes, this testimony of our 
thanks has been long delayed, and will at last I fear be 
less considerable than we could wish. It will, however, 
shew our intentions, and I hope on that account be agree- 
able to you. When all is settled, I intend that the 
Medical Board, (of which I have the honour to be Pre- 
sident), shall bring the matter before government, and beg 
of them to remit the amount of the subscription to the 
Court of Directors. 

The vaccine inoculation goes on here with its usual 
success. In this island, swarming with mankind, no loss 
has been suffered by the small-pox for several years, since 
the introduction of the vaccine inoculation. I shall desire 
the Secretary to the Medical Board to transmit to you the 
monthly reports of vaccination, which are published by 
order of this government.* " 

Vaccination having been happily established in 
all the governments of European Russia, his Ma- 

* The full amount of the contributions from our posses- 
sions in the East was not received by Dr. Jenner till 1812. 
From Beng;al was remitted £4000 ; from Bombay £2000 ; 
from Madras £1383. Is. lOd. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 93 

jesty the Emperor commanded Dr. Boutlatz to 
traverse the remaining parts of his vast empire, 
and to spread the practice in every direction. 
This gentleman had studied in England. He did 
not visit the two populous districts of Nisny-Novo- 
gorod and Casan. In the former, the physicians 
resident in the families of the nobility interested 
themselve^ in propagating this mild disease. The 
Minister of State had his officers instructed in the 
manner of conducting this simple operation ; and 
himself vaccinated several children in the villages. 
The Prince of Georgia actively promoted the prac- 
tice among the children of his dependents, and of 
all who resided in his vicinity. At Casan the 
practice had been introduced before the Mission 
reached that town, by M. Walkoff. His exertions 
succeeded in disposing the Tartar merchants to 
adopt the new practice. He caused to be trans- 
lated a work on vaccination compiled by the Me- 
dico-Philanthropic Society of Petersburgh. This 
translation was printed at the Tartar press esta- 
blished at Casan. 

The surgeon Stury found that it had made 
its way into Siberia ; Dr. Grahl, at Perm, had 
been indefatigable in spreading it. He had vacci- 
nated in two years six hundred persons. From 
him the mission received the last supply of fresh 
matter ; and from his stock all the other districts 
of Siberia were supplied. The mission proceeded 
to Tomsk, then to Krasnojoesk. They next 



94 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

advanced to the capital of Siberia, and lastly to 
Jakoutzk and Ochotzk. From thence the virus 
was transmitted to Kamstchatka, and the islands 
situated between Asia and America, extending 
thus to the north-eastern extremity of our hemi- 
sphere. 

At Irkoutzk, where the Empress Katherine had 
founded an institution for small-pox inoculation, 
but which had been disused for many years, 
several children were vaccinated, in order that a 
fresh and certain supply of virus might be had for 
transmission to China. The Russian and the 
Spanish expeditions thus reached different points 
of the celestial empire nearly at the same period 
of time. 

In the United States of America vaccination 
continued to maintain its high character. The 
President Jefferson, whose early service in that 
cause has been commemorated, evinced his feel- 
ings in the following emphatic manner. 

Mr. Jefferson to Dr. Jenner. 

Monticello, Virginia, May 14, 1806. 
Sir, 

I have received the copy of the evidence at large 
respecting the discovery of the vaccine inoculation, which 
you have been pleased to send me, and for which I return 
you my thanks. Having been among the early converts 
in this part of the globe to its efficacy, I took an early 
part in recommendi)ig it to my countrymen. I avail my- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 95 

self of this occasion to render you my portion of the 
tribute of gratitude due to you from the whole human 
family. Medicine has never before pi'oduced any single 
improvement of such utiHty. Harvey's discovery of 
the circulation of the blood was a beautiful addi- 
tion to our knowledge of the ancient economy ; but 
on a review of the practice of medicine before and since 
that epoch, I do not see any great amelioration which has 
been derived from that discovery. You have erased from 
the calendar of human afflictions one of its greatest. 
Yours is the comfortable reflection that mankind can 
never forget that you have lived ; future nations Avill know 
by history only that the loathsome small-pox has existed, 
and by you has been extirpated. Accept the most fer- 
vent wishes for your health and happiness, and assurances 
of the greatest respect and consideration. 

Th. Jefferson. 

The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 
on the 20th of May 1806, unanimously elected 
Jenner an honorary fellow of their college. Dr. 
Spens, the President, in announcing this distinc- 
tion, expressed himself in the highest terms of 
respect for the eminent individual whose great 
merit he was then acknowledging. 

The anniversary of the Jennerian Society, as 
usual, was held on the IJth of May 1807; his 
Royal Highness the Duke of York in the chair. 
Though Jenner felt a peculiar dislike to exhi- 
bitions of this kind, he seems to have been much 
gratified with the events of this day. Dr. Lett- 
som and the Rev. Rowland Hill energetically 



96 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

supported vaccination. Jenner, too, on his own 
health being drank, spoke with much deUcacy and 
propriety. " After the very animated speech of 
the Duke of York, the illustrious chairman, and 
the important information conveyed by his friend 
Dr. Lettsom, he had little to say on the subject. 
He continued to receive the most agreeable in- 
formation respecting vaccination from all parts of 
the world, from Greenland to the Cape, and from 
the Mississipi to the Ganges." He then alluded 
to the effects of prejudice and falsehood in retard- 
ing the progress of vaccination in the metropolis ; 
and he refuted a calumny which had been put 
forth to the public respecting failures alleged to 
have taken place in his own practice. 

At this meeting, an account of the introduction 
of vaccination into China was delivered by Mr. 
Parry, one of the East India Directors. Mr. Ring 
read a translation of a Latin letter from Dr. Reyss, 
of Makow in Poland. It was addressed to the 
" Illustrious exterminator of that pestilential dis- 
order the small-pox." He complimented Jenner 
highly on his chscovery ; sent him a richly em- 
bossed silver cup, which had belonged to a per- 
son of the name of Jenner ; wished that joy and 
festivity might prevail on his birthday ; and re- 
quested to be enrolled among the honorary mem- 
bers of the society. He requested also a portrait 
of Jenner, and a small pattern of the cloth that he 
generall}' w^ore, that he and his friends might 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 97 

wear the same garb on the 1 7th of May, the birth- 
day of the Discoverer of Vaccination. In re- 
turning thanks to Dr. Reyss for his letter and his 
present, Jenner observed, " I may with truth say, 
that greater attention was never paid me by any 
individual since the first promulgation of the vac- 
cine discovery. My native county has compli- 
mented me with some very elegant plate; but 
there is not a piece among it I set so high a value 
upon as the curious antique cup you have pre- 
sented to me, and which has probably graced the 
table of those who sprang from the same stock as 
myself." 

Writing to Mr. Ring, concerning the hearty 
and animating letter of Reyss, Jenner observes, 
'^ John Reyss is a fine fellow. I have given order 
to Manning to prepare a bust for him, thinking it 
would be more acceptable than the print." 

This bust, executed by Manning, is indeed an 
extremely faithful and valuable Kkeness. Some 
years after the period just mentioned, he presented 
me with one, and I value it as a most satisfac- 
tory resemblance, not less than for the donor's 
sake. 



VOL. II. 



98 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 



CHAPTER IV. 



GENERAL VIEW OF THE STATE OF VACCINATION — ADDRESS 
OF THE FIVE INDIAN NATIONS — INFLUENCE OF JENNER 
WITH FOREIGN STATES — FORMATION OF THE NATIONAL 
VACCINE ESTABLISHMENT — CAUSES OF HIS W ITHDRAWING 
FROM IT — DEATH OF HIS ELDEST SON. 

We are now arrived at a period when it may be 
judicious to take a very brief survey of the state of 
vaccination throughout the world. Had 1 been 
writing the history of the practice, it would have 
been necessary to have traced its progress with 
greater minuteness. It had been eagerly espoused 
by the King of Prussia, the Emperor of Germany, 
Napoleon, the Emperor of Russia, the King of 
Spain, the King of Naples, the King of Denmark, 
the King of Sweden, the Elector of Swabia, the 
Queen of Etruria. It had gained the sanction of 
the Grand Seignior, the Dey of Algiers, the Hos- 
podar of Moldavia, the heads of our government 
in India, many of the native chiefs, and, under the 
authority of the governments, had been diffused 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 99 

through all the states both in North and South 
America. It had taken firm root in Siberia and 
China ; and had been carried to many of the 
islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans, and to 
most of our possessions in the West Indies. 

Of course it is impossible to ascertain with accu- 
racy the number that may have been vaccinated 
up to this period ; but there is good reason for be- 
lieving, that it must have been considerably more 
than twenty millions. Indeed, when we reflect 
that Dr. Sacco and his assistants vaccinated, in 
eight years, thirteen hundred thousand persons, I 
am satisfied that I am giving a very low estimate. 
Besides this very large number vaccinated by 
professional gentlemen in different parts of the 
world, it is but proper to commemorate the ser- 
vices of many ladies and gentlemen in England, 
who particularly distinguished themselves by their 
efforts in this cause. Among them ought to be 
mentioned the Rev. Rowland Hill *, W. Bramston 

* On the discovery of vaccination by Dr. Jenner, Mr. 
Row^Iand Hill eagerly embraced this new means of confer- 
ring a benefit on his fellow creatures, and ably defended it 
against its opponents. " This," he said, " is the very thing for 
me; " and wherever he went to preach, he announced after 
his sermon, " I am ready to vaccinate to-morrow morning as 
many children as you choose; and if you wish them to 
escape that horrid disease the small-pox, you will bring 
them." Once a week he inoculated the children who were 
brought to him from Wotton and the neighbourhood; and it 
is well known that one of the most effective vaccine boards 

H 2 



100 LIFE OF DR. JENNER, 

of Oakeley Hall, Hants, Esq. the Lady Charlotte 
Wrottesley, Miss Bayley of Hope, near Manches- 
ter, Miss Cox of Painswick, in the county of Glou- 
cester, Mrs. Kingscote of Hinton House, Hants, 
T. Westfaling of Rudhall, near Ross, Hereford- 
shire, Esq. the Rev. W. Finch of St. Helen's, Lan- 
cashire, the Rev. J. T. A. Reed, Leckhampstead, 
&c. &c. I have already stated, notwithstanding 

in London was established, and still continues in operation, 
at Surrey Chapel. 

When vaccinating the children, he seemed quite in his 
element, talking kindly to the parents, and coaxing the little 
frightened creatures in the most good natured manner. In 
a few years the numbers inoculated by him amounted to 
more than ten thousand ; and in most of the cases he was 
particularly successful. Dr. Jennerwas of a very lively turn 
of mind* and animated conversation, with a remarkably kind 
disposition ; and although he did not fully participate in his 
venerable friend's religious views and feelings, he had the 
highest reverence for his character, and was a frequent at- 
tendant on his ministry at Cheltenham. He seemed at 
times forcibly struck with the deep tone of the zealous 
preacher's piety and glowing anticipations of happiness in a 
spiritual state of being. Mr. Hill once introduced him to a 
nobleman in these terms: "Allow me to present to your 
Lordship my friend Dr. Jenner, who has been the means of 
saving more lives than any other man." — "Ah! would T, 
like you, could say souls.'' — Sidney's Life of the Rev. Row- 
land Hill, pp. 225, 226. 

* I remember seeing these two remarkable men amusing 
themselves in playing with an old eagle in Dr. Jenner's gar- 
den at Berkeley, with all the sportive interest of boys. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 10] 

the clamour which was raised against unprofes- 
sional vaccinators, that they rendered good ser- 
vice to the cause. They were obedient and teach- 
able, and certainly in the main conducted the prac- 
tice with greater success than many professional 
persons. I have often heard Dr. Jenner speak 
with satisfaction of the conduct of the ladies. Miss 
Bayley in jDarticular managed the process with 
much skill and perseverance. In order to detect 
any cases of failure that might occur in her prac- 
tice, she told the poor that she would give 
a reward of five shillings to any one who could 
produce an instance of small-pox after vaccination 
performed by her. Out of 2600 cases, only one 
was brought to claim the reward ; but on referring 
to her journal, she found a mark against the name, 
indicating her belief that vaccination had not pro- 
perly taken effect. 

Mr. Kingscote's vaccinations were nearly as ex- 
tensive, and, I believe, quite as perfect as those of 
Miss Bayley. 

After various attempts to disseminate vaccina- 
tion among the native tribes of North America, 
Dr. Jenner at length had the happiness of finding 
that his efforts were successful. He had sent 
through the hands of Colonel Francis Gore, Lieute- 
nant-Governor of Upper Canada, his w^ork on vac- 
cination, to be presented to the Five Nations. On 
the 8th of November, 1807, they assembled in 



102 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Council at Fort George, in Upper Canada, to re- 
ceive this gift, and to reply to Dr. Jenner. They 
were addressed by William Claus, Esq. Deputy 
Superintendent-General of Indian affairs, as fol- 
lows : — 

Brothers op the Five Nations, 

Early in May last. His Excellency Lieutenant-Governor 
Gore took every possible means to introduce vaccine in- 
oculation among your tribes ; but, owing to your people 
being then out on their hunt, it did not take place. When 
on public business here about a month after, I spoke to 
you again, and strongly recommended to your serious 
consideration the introducing among your people this 
valuable discovery, the want of which you soon after- 
wards felt very severely in the loss of one of your chiefs, 
Oughquaghga John. 

Brothers ! I have now the satisfaction to deliver to 
you a book, sent to you from England, by that great man. 
Dr. Jenner, whom God enabled to discover so great a 
blessing to mankind : it explains fully all the advantages 
derived from so great a discovery. 

I, therefore. Brothers, at his request, and in his name, 
present this book to the Five Nations, as a token of his 
regard for you and your rising generation, by which many 
valuable lives may be ]:)reserved from that most dreadful 
pestilence, the small-pox. 

(Signed) W. Claus, D.S.G.I.A. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 103 

Speech of the Five Nations, assembled in Council at Fort 
George, in Upper Canada, to Dr. Jenner, London, on 
the 8th of November, 1807. 

Present, 

Lieutenant Colonel Proctor, 41st regiment, command- 
ing the garrison. 

William Claus, Esq. Deputy Superintendent-General of 
Indian affairs. 

Lieutenant Saunders, 41st regiment. 

Ensign Bullock, 41st regiment. 

Lieutenant Fowler, 41st regiment. 

W. J. Chew, Storekeeper, Indian Deputy. 

David Price, > ^ 

. • -c, • 1,11 C Interpreters. 

Benjamm Jbairchild, 3 

Brother ! Our Father has delivered to us the book 
you sent to instruct us how to use the discovery which 
the Great Spirit made to you, whereby the small-pox, 
that fatal enemy of our tribes, may be driven from the 
earth. We have deposited your book in the hands of the 
man of skill whom our great Father employs to attend us 
when sick or wounded. 

We shall not fail to teach ovir children to speak the 
name of Jenner ; and to thank the Great Spirit for be- 
stowing upon him so much wisdom and so much bene- 
volence. 

We send with this a belt and string of Wampum,* in 

* The Wampum is at once the current coin of the untu- 
tored Indian, and the emblem and the pledge of all his con- 
tracts. It ratifies his private friendships, as well as the 
most solemn and important public treaties. A string of 
Wampum passed from one hand to another is sufficient for 



104 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 



token of our acceptance of your precious gift ; and we be- 
seech the Great Spirit to take care of you in this world 
and in the land of spirits. 

Tribes' 
Chiefs' Names. Signatures. Interpretation of the Names. Nations. 



Dewataharanegea 




Two pointed arrows 



Dekayonwagegh Two Wampum Belts. 

Aigowane . . ^ ^ Clear Sky 



> Mohawks. 



Auneai 
Cosscouete . 
Onindaki 
Caugheaw . 
Ussweghtagehte , 




Feathers on his head 



} 



Onondagas. 







Moving a tree with 

brush, and planting 1 ^ 

14. ^ ^ >heuecas. 



It 



/^_Tl\_j A Town Destroyer 
/^^~^ Raven 




r. 



v 



Belt Carrier 



V-Oneidas. 



Sawesyewathaw . (^ Disturber of Sleep 



Ejaahtewge 



^-"^1 Fish Carrier 



}<■ 



ayougas. 



the former of these purposes. Strings multiplied and united 
together in the form of a belt, varying in length and breadth 
according to the importance of the occasion, bespeak treaties 
of a different description. Jenner's belt, from its size, I 
should imagine must have been such as they used for these 
latter purposes. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 105 

That such tokens and assurances of regard from 
the unsophisticated children of the wilderness were 
highly acceptable to Jenner, more especially when 
contrasted with the ingratitude of too many of his 
own countrymen, need scarcely be added ; but let 
his own words express his feelings : 

Sir, 

Your kindness in delivering to the Five Nations of 
Indians my Treatise on vaccination, and in transmitting 
to me their reply, demands my warmest thanks. 

I beg you to make known to the Five Nations the sin- 
cere gratification which I feel at finding that the practice 
of vaccination has been so universally received among 
their tribes, and proved so beneficial to them ; at the same 
time, be pleased to assure them of the great thankfulness 
with which I received the belt and string of Wampum, 
with which they condescended to honour me, and of the 
high estimation in which I shall for ever hold it. May 
the active benevolence which their chiefs have displayed 
in preserving the lives of their people be crowned with the 
success it deserves ; and may that destructive pestilence, 
the small-pox, be no more known among them. 

You also, Sir, are entitled to the most grateful acknow- 
ledgments, not only from me, but from every friend of 
humanity, for the philanthropic manner in which you 
originally introduced the vaccine among these tribes of 
Indians. 

I have the honour to remain, &c. &c. 

E. Jenner. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Gore, S^c. ^'c. 



106 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Among the events of this period must be enu- 
merated a scheme of his friend, Dr. Valentine, of 
Nancy, for honouring and recompensing Jenner. 
After an eloquent and animated exordium, and 
detailing in a brief but striking manner the his- 
tory of vaccination, he alludes to the rewards con- 
ferred by Parliament, the subscriptions at Bengal 
and Madras, and contrasts them with the splendid 
and princely gifts which England had bestowed 
on some of her sons, whose claims were infinitely 
inferior to those of Jenner. He then proposes 
that all the societies which had been formed in 
the French empire for cultivating the healing art 
should, with the consent, and under the protec- 
tion of government, open a subscription in favour 
of " Edward Jenner." The central committee 
of vaccination and the medical societies of the 
metropolis were exclusively to determine the na- 
ture of the recompense to be offered. Every 
learned society, every individual who belonged to 
the medical profession, or to any of the commit- 
tees of vaccination, was to be invited to concur in 
this project. 

After the subscriptions were closed, it was in- 
tended that deputies should be appointed who 
were to proceed to England to present their re- 
spectful homage to Dr. Jenner. Finally, it was 
proposed to erect a statue to his honour, and to 
place his bust by the side of Hippocrates and 
that of Napoleon. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 10/ 

This project of the kind-hearted author was for- 
warded to the Central Committee of Vaccination 
and the secretary of the Medical Society of Paris ; 
and it was published in their Journals : but I be- 
lieve it led to no result. The failure of such a 
scheme might have been anticipated ; for had it 
been realized, it would have manifested a degree of 
enthusiasm in behalf of a foreigner that few nations 
have exhibited. 

Though pecuniary rewards, and statues, and de- 
putations, did not greet Dr. Jenner on this occa- 
sion, he shortly afterwards received one of the 
most en\dable distinctions that a man of science 
could obtain. The National Institute of France, it 
is well known, have always been jealous of their 
reputation ; and have never bestowed their honours 
on any one, but especially on foreigners, whose 
claims were not of the most unquestionable na- 
ture. On the 20th June (1808) he was elected a 
corresponding member of that celebrated body. 
I have seen a letter from a gentleman who was 
present at the sitting when Jenner's name was 
proposed ; and it was received with unanimous 
and unequivocal demonstrations of respect. 

The subject of vaccination having been treated 
from the beginning as subsidiary to the illustration 
of the character of its author, many questions that 
arose during its progress have been entirely omit- 
ted ; because, though they deeply engaged the 
attention of the public when they occurred, they 



108 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

possess but little interest now, and do not involve 
in any degree points that I feel myself called upon 
to discuss. There are others, however, that more 
immediately touched Dr. Jenner's feelings, and 
such I have been induced to notice. 

Of this description were some supposed failures 
of vaccination that were reported to have taken 
place at Ringwood in Hampshire. The affair was 
brought before the Royal Jennerian Society by the 
late Right Honoural)le George Rose. An excessive 
alarm had been created by false and exaggerated 
statements in newspapers, and various periodical 
publications. The authors of these statements 
were the same individuals who had distinguished 
themselves by a blind and inveterate opposition to 
the strongest evidence. In order to satisfy the 
public, a deputation, consisting of Mr. Ring, 
Mr. Blair, and Dr. Knowles, repaired to Ring- 
wood, where they were met by Dr. Fowler of 
Salisbury, Mr. Rose, several magistrates and cler- 
gymen, Mr. Westcote, and Mr. Macilwain, sur- 
geons, and the other principal inhabitants of the 
town and its neighbourhood. This public meeting, 
which was held in the Town Hall, was continued 
for two whole days ; the medical gentlemen car- 
rying on their investigation before this assembly 
in the most open manner. The result was a com- 
plete and triumphant refutation of the false and ca- 
lumnious assertions that had been industriously 
propagated by the anti-vaccinists. This is not the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 109 

place to 'enter minutely into particulars ; it will be 
sufficient to remark, that small-pox broke out at 
Ringwood about the middle of September : it 
spread rapidly and with great mortality. Vaccine 
inoculation did not commence until the 23rd of 
October, after all had been previously exposed to 
the contagion of small-pox. Notwithstanding 
these unfavourable circumstances, more than two 
hundred persons were successfully vaccinated, 
though much exposed to small-pox in different 
ways ; the supposed failures having occurred only 
in those cases where either the cow-pox infection 
had not taken place at all, or where the constitu- 
tion had previously been impregnated with the 
small-pox contagion. It does not appear, that any 
one person either in Ringwood or its neighbour- 
hood had caught the small-pox after going through 

regular and complete vaccination. Both Dr. Fow- 
ler and Mr. Rose sanctioned the accuracy of the 
Report, and, I believe, it satisfied every one but 
those who did not love the truth. 

Dr. Jenner was strongly urged to form one of 
this deputation. This was a very unreasonable 
and unwise proposal ; and judging from the tem- 
per of his traducers, I have no doubt that they 
would have made it the occasion of personal insult 
to him. It was actually stated in one of their 
publications (the Medical Observer), " that the de- 
puties carried pistols to defend themselves against 
the astonished populace at Ringwood ! " This 



110 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

single sentence may tell the reader the nature of 
that rancorous and unmanly opposition which at this 
period raged against Dr. Jenner and his discovery. 
The force of prejudice and error, and the evil 
consequences which have resulted from them, 
form the most melancholy chapters in the his- 
tory of man; at one time struggling to maintain 
false and inaccurate dogmas, at another resisting 
the plainest and most convincing demonstrations, 
we are compelled to believe that there is a princi- 
ple in our nature which has too strong an affinity 
for what is untrue, to permit the understanding 
either to discern or acknowledge an opposite prin- 
ciple, till both the moral and intellectual vision 
have been purified and strengthened. The per- 
secutors of Galileo would, I believe, have been 
eclipsed in their monstrous and outrageous hostility 
to the splendid discoveries of that illustrious man, by 
some of the opponents of vaccination, had the spirit 
of the age or their own power enabled them to 
carry their wishes into execution. It is very true 
that the persons who manifested such dispositions 
were little distinguished by their rank, or station, 
or abilities. They were, nevertheless, men of edu- 
cation, and many of them belonged to the medical 
profession ; and I record it as a striking proof of 
the weakness of the human understanding, that in 
the nineteenth century, and in the metropolis of 
the British Empire, two of the most beneficial in- 
ventions should in protracted and repeated public 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. Ill 

discussions have been consigned to contempt and 
obloquy, and their authors held up to the world as 
hypocrites and impostors. On Monday the 28th 
of March, 1808, the follomng question was dis- 
cussed at the British Forum : — "Which has proved 
a more striking instance of the public creduUty, — 
the gas lights of Mr. Winsor, or the cow-pox inocula- 
tion ?" The result of the discussions was as usual 
announced ; and both vaccination and gas Kghts 
were handed over to scorn and ignominy ! 

This same British Forum seems to have been a 
place somewhat akin to that in which the Jacobins 
of the day put forth their pestiferous doctrines ; but 
I have often heard Dr. Jenner aver that many 
individuals of our profession, and some of them, 
too, men holding important public stations, were 
concerned in diffusing such \\Tetched and perni- 
cious trash. I call it pernicious, merely from its 
influence in keeping up a resistance among the 
lower orders to a life-preserving practice, and in 
the same ratio promoting the diffusion of a most 
fatal disease. The walls of London were placarded 
with such falsehoods ; and doubtless many a "victim 
perished at the shrine of this Moloch. The same 
party which promoted these discussions, tried to 
carry their point in another way. They actually 
published a sort of newspaper, entitled, " The Cow- 
pox Chronicle ; or Medical Reporter." This was 
printed on stamped paper, and circulated through 
the Post Office. The wit of this publication was 



112 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

very much on a level with its other qualities. I 
have understood that the indulgence of their 
humour became at last rather too expensive for 
the proprietors. They put forth their lucubra- 
tions in the shape of advertisements, in which they 
parodied all the ordinary topics that fill the 
columns of a newspaper; but they were not 
aware that the duty for the advertisements would 
fall upon them. This weight, however, was not 
required to sink the pubhcation. Its atrocious 
falsehoods, its coarse and disgusting ribaldry, and 
its impious scurrility, must soon have caused its 
extinction. 

As a contrast to these humiUating proceedings 
we may turn to the inteUigence which Dr. Jenner 
received from the north of Italy, from his excel- 
lent friend Sacco. He sent a long letter from 
Trieste, dated January the 5th, 1808, giving an 
account of his vaccinations perfectly unexampled. 
"During eight years," he observes, "I reckon 
more than 600,000 vaccinated by my own hand, 
and more than 700,000 by my deputies in the dif- 
ferent departments of the kingdom. I assure you, 
out of a population of six millions, to have vacci- 
nated one million three hundred thousand is 
something to boast of ; and I flatter myself that in 
Italy I have been the means of promoting vaccina- 
tion in a degree, which no other kingdom of the 
same population has equalled." 

The inha])itants of Italy were not insensible to 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 113 

his indefatigable and disinterested exertions ; and 
they commemorated them by ordering medals to 
be struck in his honour and in that of vaccination. 
One was executed at Brescia, another at Bologna. * 
These two medals, with those which had been 
issued on former occasions, make up eight, com- 
memorative of the benefits conferred on mankind 
by vaccination ; but it is a singular and somewhat 
distressing circumstance, that the " vera effigies " 
of the author of vaccination does not appear on 
any one of them. 

Doctor Jenner's successful mediation with Napo- 
leon for the release of persons detained in captivity 
is known to the reader. It is pleasing to be able 
to add, that the claims of science and philanthropy 
found favour in the breast of another crowned 
head, at the time when all national intercourse was 
suspended by the horrors of war. By a strange 
combination of events, a young man of the name 
of Powell, the son of W. D, Powell, Esq. Chief 
Justice of His Majesty's Court of King's Bench in 
Upper Canada, and nearly related to Mr. Murray, 
who was Secretary to the Royal Jennerian Society, 
was captured on board Miranda's squadron by 
the forces of the King of Spain ; he was tried, and 
sentenced to ten years' confinement and hard 
labour in the Castle of Omoa, a sea port of Mex- 
ico. To obtain the remission of his sentence. Dr. 

* See Appendix, No. III. 
VOL. II. I 



114 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Jenner directly memorialised the King of Spain ; 
and it is to the honour of all parties to be able to 
say, that the appeal was not made in vain. After 
lamenting that it could not be presented through 
the medium of an ambassador, he stated, that he 
was encouraged to hope from the magnanimity 
that had recently been shown by his Majesty in 
the glorious expedition to disseminate through 
every quarter of the world, alike to friends and 
enemies, the discovery which he had the happi- 
ness of introducing, that his petition in behalf of 
an unfortunate object would be received with cle- 
mency. 

The circumstances of the case were then briefly 
detailed. The youth, only twenty years of age, 
w^as engaged in extensive mercantile concerns, and 
was led to the ill-fated island of St. Domingo. 
On his arrival he was warmly patronised by Des- 
salines, who encouraged him to settle, and pro- 
mised him protection and support ; but scarcely 
was he established there, before the conduct of 
that ferocious chief gave him cause to entertain 
serious apprehensions both for his property and 
his life. At this moment Miranda arrived with his 
expedition ; and the imprudent youth was in- 
duced to embark in his enterprise, more with the 
hope of escaping the impending destruction with 
which he was threatened by Dessalines, than from 
any other motive. 

Young Powell seems to have had a due and be- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 115 

coming feeling of the value of the intercession. 
He was restored to his friends at York in Upper 
Canada; and on the 19th day of February 1808, 
he, in a very grateful manner, acknowledged his 
obligation to Dr. Jenner. 

On several other occasions he was enabled to 
procure the release of gentlemen who were de- 
tained on the Continent. One was the son of 
the celebrated Sir John Sinclair, who had gone to 
prosecute his studies in Germany. He was at that 
time at Vienna ; and his friends were very anxious 
that he should have a passport to return through 
France or Holland. This object was obtained by a 
direct application to the Emperor of Austria, 
which was transmitted through Baron Jacobi. 
Two other gentlemen, Mr. (now Lieutenant-colo- 
nel) Gold and a Mr. Garland, were about the same 
time indebted for their liberation to the same in- 
tercession with the ruler of France. 

At no period was the influence of Jenner's cha- 
racter more powerful with foreign nations. His 
name carried a charm with it sufficiently potent to 
disarm the hostility of belligerent states, and ac- 
tually to turn aside the distresses and severities of 
war. So strong was the general feeling on this 
subject, that persons left our shores, not with a 
passport countersigned by a minister of state, but 
with a simple certificate bearing the name of 
Edward Jenner, testifying that the parties 
were known to him, and were voyaging to distant 

I 2 



116 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

lands, in pursuit of health or science, or other 
affairs totally apart from the concerns of war, and 
were deemed by him deserving of protection and 
freedom from the restraints imposed upon other 
captives. Probably there was not a ci\ilised nation 
in the world that would not have paid respect to 
such a document. As a ciu-iosity I subjoin a cer- 
tificate of this kind : 

I hereby certify, that Mr. A. the young gentleman 
who is the bearer of this, and who is about to sail from 
the port of Bristol on board the Adventure, Captain Ve- 
sey, for the island of Madeira, has no other object in view 
than the recovery of his health. 

Edward Jexner, 
Member of the N. I. of France, &c. &c. 

Berkeley, Gloucestershire, July 1, 1810. 

On sending this certificate he adds, " I beg you 
to put this letter into your son's possession ; and 
should the ship in which he sails, through the 
chance of war, be captured by a French com- 
mander, I trust he -will, at my solicitation, shew 
Mr. A. every indulgence in his power ; and that 
if he will cause it to be made known to the 
French government, it will obtain for him a 
speedy release. I feel the more confident of the 
Emperor's kindness in this case, as his Majesty 
has hitherto been pleased to lend a favourable ear 
to my petitions in behalf of British captives." 

His applications to the Emperor had latterly 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 117 

been transmitted through the hands of his physi- 
cian, the celebrated Baron Corvisart, who was ex- 
ceedingly punctual in making all Jenner's requests 
known to His Majesty. 

" J'ai remis, ces jours derniers," (he observes, in 
a letter dated Paris, Dec. 5, 1809), "a S. M. la 
copie de votre derniere lettre en date du 4 S^""^ 
1809. L'Empereur m'a permis de vous repondre. 
Monsieur, qu'il ferait mettre en liberte les deux 
gentilhommes (MM. Garland et Gold), auxquels 
vous vous interessez. Je suis bien flatte de pou- 
voir vous annoncer cette heureuse nouvelle." 

The Baron then asks Jenner to render a good 
office to a young friend of his, a prisoner, who had 
been sent back to France on his parole. His best 
efforts were, I believe, exerted in behalf of the 
young man ; but, unhappily, Jenner's influence 
with the British government was not equal to that 
which he enjoyed with the court of France. 

The adjustment of the second parliamentary 
grant, the increasing importance attached to vac- 
cination, and the decay of that institution which 
had been formed for its support, called for the 
adoption of other measures, better calculated to 
give stability to the practice. It was, therefore, 
resolved that the influence of the government 
should be exerted in founding an establishment 
for the propagation of vaccination throughout the 
British dominions. The late FJght Honourable 
George Rose took the lead in this transaction. 



118 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Dr. Jenner was requested by him to draw up a 
plan, and to give an estimate of the expense. 
Having submitted this plan to Mr. Rose, he went 
to town himself, at this gentleman's express de- 
sire, in order to assist in the organization of the 
establishment. He remained five months in Lon- 
don, anxiously endeavouring to bring matters to a 
favourable conclusion. He had frequent inter- 
views with Mr. Rose and Sir Lucas Pepys, then 
President of the College of Physicians. I will not 
detail all the difficulties and mortifications that he 
experienced in the negotiation, because I mean to 
subjoin a paper, drawn up by Jenner, recording 
his part in these transactions, and explaining the 
conduct he was compelled to adopt. 

During the latter part of his stay in London, his 
mind was much agitated by the situation of his 
family at Berkeley. His eldest son was suffering 
under typhus, and he found him, on his return 
home, quite a wreck, and with little hopes of re- 
covery. His second son was seized with the 
same disease, and his situation became extremely 
perilous. 

Sir Lucas Pepys having received the warrant 
for instituting the National Vaccine Establish- 
ment, wished Dr. Jenner to be in London during 
the first sitting of the board. The condition of 
his family at the Chantry^ kept Dr. Jenner a pri- 

* Dr. Jenncr's cotfage at Berkeley. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 119 

soner there. He apologised to Sir Lucas for his 
absence, and begged his friend Mr. Moore to do 
the same, adding these remarkable words : — " In 
this unfortunate situation 1 should be unworthy of 
the name of father were I to stir from my children. 
Indeed, nothing would make me, not even a royal 
mandate, unless accompanied by a troop of horse." 
Had circumstances permitted his being in Lon- 
don, there is reason to fear that his feelings would 
have been wounded. It was natural that he should 
be jealous of the character of vaccination ; that he 
should wish to see it directed by the most perfect 
knowledge and the purest integrity ; that the bad 
conduct and bad faith which had been formerly 
displayed in other institutions should be excluded 
fi'om this ; that he, the discoverer, the disinte- 
rested promulgator of the practice, should have 
influence enough to secure all these objects, by 
holding that station of dignity and responsibility 
in the new Institution, which certainly was his due. 
He was less concerned about the general arrange- 
ments of the establishment, than for the practice 
of vaccination itself. For this he felt himself 
responsible ; and in this matter he very properly 
wished to direct. 

Gentlemen who occupied prominent stations in 
the metropolis, could not so readily admit the 
claims of a provincial physician, who held no place 
in either of the great corporations which preside 
over medicine and surgery in this country. This 



120 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

circumstance, trifling as it might well appear to 
unprofessional or unprejudiced men, prevented 
him from being a member of that very board, 
which was constituted for the express purpose of 
promoting the practice to which he gave existence. 
This strange anomaly he would have overlooked, 
had the office assigned to himself been as efficient 
as its name imphed. The board appointed him 
Director, but they soon contrived to let him feel 
that he was a Director directed. 

" It was stipulated," he observes, in a letter 
written on Jan. 16th, 1809, to Mr. Moore, "be- 
tween Mr. Rose, Sir Lucas, and myself, that no 
person should take any part in the vaccinating 
department, who was not either nominated by me, 
or submitted to my approbation, before he was 
appointed to a station. On my reminding Sir 
Lucas of this, he rephed, ' You, Sir, are to be 
whole and sole director. We (meaning the board), 
are to be considered as nothing : what do we know 
of vaccination ?' This compact was soon forgot- 
ten ; for out of eight persons nominated by Jen- 
ner, six were rejected by the board. After much 
deUberation, he made up his mind to resign his 
office of Director. Some of his friends thought 
this step was uncalled for ; that he might have 
submitted to the grievances he felt, and the 
humihation to which he was exposed. It is not my 
part to decide upon this question ; it belongs to 
me rather to state plainly the facts as they arose, 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 121 

and finally to record Dr. Jenner's own sentiments 
on the occasion, as contained in the following 
memorial, which he put into my hands a short 
time before his death. 

" It is most painful to Dr. Jenner's feelings, 
when speaking of an institution, the welfare of 
which he cannot but have so much at heart, and 
the direction of which has been placed in the 
hands of gentlemen of such high respectability, to 
be obliged to express his disapprobation of the 
arrangements they have made, and to decline co- 
operating with them. But, powerful as these 
feelings are, he cannot suffer them to impede the 
faithful discharge of what he conceives to be his 
duty to himself, his friends, and the public. 

" In the course of last year. Dr. Jenner twice 
went to town, in compliance with requests from 
Mr. Rose, for the express purpose of assisting in 
the formation of an establishment, the object of 
which was to be the propagation of the vaccine 
practice in the metropolis in particular, and the 
British realms in general. He accordingly drew 
up a plan for its organization, and an estimate of 
its probable expenses, which he laid before Mr. 
Rose. In the course of a few weeks he had an in- 
terview with Mr. Rose and Sir Lucas Pepys (Pre- 
sident of the College of Physicians) together, when 
he found that his plan had been altered, by the 
introduction of a board to superintend the affairs 
of the establishment, by a reduction of the num- 



122 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ber of vaccinating stations, by the grant of an 
annual salary to the members of the board, and by 
the consequent diminution of the salaries which 
were to have been granted to the officers of the es- 
tablishment. As these alterations were considered 
necessary by Mr. Rose and Sir Lucas, Dr. Jenner did 
not object to them, since he did not wish to inter- 
fere with the general arrangements of the estab- 
lishment, but wished its affairs to be totally inde- 
pendent of him, except in what related to the 
practice of vaccination. But he stated at the same 
time, how important it was that gentlemen should 
be appointed to the inoculating stations who were 
thoroughly acquainted with the practice ; and that, 
on this account, he hoped their nomination would be 
left to him, or at least that none would be appoint- 
ed who were not approved of by him. This he 
conceived to be indispensable, since the public 
and the world at large would of course consider 
him responsible for the manner in which the vac- 
cine practice was conducted in an institution 
with which he was connected. Mr. Rose and Sir 
Lucas Pepys acquiesced in the propriety of Dr. 
Jenner's request; and that he might not only 
guide the practice of vaccination, but have a share 
in the management of all the concerns of the 
establishment, a clause was introduced for the 
particular purpose of admitting him a member of 
the board. 

"After remaining in London for five months, with 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 123 

no other object in view than the completion of 
the establishment. Dr. Jenner was obliged, by 
urgent circumstances, to return to Gloucestershire. 
Pre\iously, however, to his leaving town, he 
waited on Sir Lucas Pepys, and repeated what he 
had formerly said of the high responsibility of his 
office as Director, and of the great importance of 
selecting gentlemen, for whose knowledge of vac- 
cination he could be answerable, to conduct the 
practice of it. In this Sir Lucas most readily con- 
curred. Dr. Jenner, therefore, at once nominated 
Mr. Moore as his assistant director, and recom- 
mended Mr. Ring as Principal Vaccinator and 
Inspector of Stations, urging this recommendation 
with a particular stress, since he conceived that 
appointment to be of far greater consequence than 
any other, on account of the extensive duties 
which would be attached to it, which very few, 
who would accept of the situation, would be quali- 
fied to perform, but for which Mr. Ring was par- 
ticularly qualified, from his long and wide practice 
of vaccination, and his intimate acquaintance with 
its minutiae. Dr. Jenner added, that when the 
establishment assumed its functions, he would 
send in the names of those gentlemen whom he 
wished to see elected to the subordinate stations. 

" After a few weeks, Sir Lucas received the war- 
rant for instituting the establishment. The board 
was formed, consisting of the four censors of the 
College of Physicians, with the master and two 



124 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

senior wardens of the College of Surgeons. Dr. 
Jenner was not admitted a member of it, notwith- 
standing the clause inserted expressly for the pur- 
pose of introducing him. The board assembled to 
appoint the principal officers, when Mr. Ring, 
whom Dr. Jenner had so strongly recommended, 
was set aside, and a gentleman appointed in his 
place who was taken from an institution which 
had been personally hostile to Dr. Jenner on all 
occasions. 

" The next meeting of the board was to ap- 
point subordinate officers. Previous to this meet- 
ing, Dr. Jenner sent in to the board, through 
Sir Lucas, the names of seven gentlemen, whom 
he knew to be most eminently qualified for 
conducting the vaccine practice, and whom he 
therefore was anxious to see appointed. The list 
of these gentlemen was presented to the board ac- 
cordingly, before they commenced the nomination 
of vaccinators : one was set aside, as the number 
of stations was reduced by the board to six ; and 
out of the six gentlemen whose names remained, 
four were rejected by the board. By the whole 
of these circumstances. Dr. Jenner felt himself 
under the necessity of withdrawing from the esta- 
blishment. He could take upon himself no re- 
sponsibility where he had no power, not even a 
vote. He did not wish to control the establish- 
ment; nothing was farther from his thoughts. 
But he expected that the practical part of its 
concerns would have been under his direction^ as 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 125 

the title of his office implied ; and he expected 
that those gentlemen, whom, from a consciousness 
of their pre-eminent ability, he had so strongly re- 
commended to conduct this practical part, would 
have been appointed. But as his recommenda- 
tions have been disregarded, — as arrangements 
and appointments have been made which are con- 
trary to his judgment, and as he is informed by 
the board that it was intended for them to use 
their own discretion, and that they alone are re- 
sponsible for the conduct of the establishment, 
Dr. Jenner declined accepting the station of Direc- 
tor to which they had nominated him, since he 
found that he was to have nothing to do in the 
establishment, and that his office was only a 
name." 

In coming to the decision mentioned in the pre- 
ceding document, it was satisfactory to him that 
he was enabled to keep up his communication 
with the Institution through the medium of Mr. 
Moore, who succeeded him as Director, He was 
consulted on the first paper of instructions which 
was circulated by the board for managing the 
practice of vaccination ; and on every occasion 
wherein his assistance could be of the shghtest 
service it was most freely and cordially given. 
Mr. Moore distinguished himself among those 
friends who endeavoured to induce him to accept 
the office that had been allotted to him. He 
thought that Jenner took a stronger view of the 



126 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

difficulties of the case than was necessary ; and, 
with all the ardour of sincere regard, used every 
means to induce him to alter his purpose. A very 
interesting series of letters, which Mr. Moore has 
most kindly placed at my disposal, and some of 
which, in justice to Dr. Jenner, I have deemed it 
necessary to print in a subsequent part of this 
volume, will show how highly he estimated the 
importance of the new establishment, and how 
earnestly and magnanimously he laboured for its 
success. One of them is appropriately introduced 
here. 



From Dr. Jenxer to James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 

At the time I informed you of my intention to come to 
town, believe me I was quite in earnest. But while I was 
getting things in order came a piece of information from a 
Right Hon. Gentleman which determined me to remain 
in my retirement. It was as follows. That the Institution 
was formed for the purpose of a full and satisfactorij inves- 
tigation of the benefits or dangers of tlievaccine practice, and 
that this was the reason ivhy Dr. J. could not be admitted as 
one of the conductors of it, as the public would not have 
had the same confidence in their proceedings as if the board 
were left to their own Judgment in doubtful cases. This 
is the sum and substance of the communication; — " What 
do we know of vaccination ? We know nothing of vac- 
cination." 

And yet, my friend, these very ive are to be the sole 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 127 

arbitrators in doubtful cases ! Alas, poor Vaccina, how 
art thou degraded ! 

You intimated something of this sort to me some time 
since, and now I get it from the fountain head. An insti- 
tution founded on the principle of inquiry seven or eight 
years ago, would have been worthy of the British nation ; 
but now, after the whole world bears testimony to the 
safety and efficacy of the vaccine practice, I do think it a 
most extraordinary proceeding. It is one that must ne- 
cessarily degrade me, and cannot exalt the framers of it 
in the eyes of common sense. I shall now stick closely to 
my oivn Institution, which I have the pride and vanity to 
think is paramount to all others, as its extent and benefits 
are boundless. Of this, I am the real and not the nominal 
director. I have conducted the whole concern for no 
inconsiderable number of years, single handed, and have 
spread vaccination round the globe. This convinces me 
that simplicity in this, as in all effective machinery, is 
best. 

I agree with you that my not being a member of the 
British Vaccine Establishment will astonish the world ; 
and no one in it can be astonished more than myself. An 
establishment liberally supported by the British Govern- 
ment, — its arrangements harmonious and complete, — every 
member intimately acquainted not only with the ordinary 
laws and agencies of the vaccine fluid on the human con- 
stitution, but with its extraordinary or anomalous agen- 
cies, — all fully satisfied from the general report of the 
civilized part of the world and their own experience of the 
safety and efficacy of the vaccine practice, — all cordially 
uniting in directing that practice to one grand point, the 
extermination of the small-pox in the British Empire :— a 
society so formed, was a consummation devoutly to be 
wished. But instead of this, taking away yourself and a 



128 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

few others^ an assembly, which from well-known facts 
must appear discordant in the eyes of the public, is 
packed together. However, incongruous as it is, it would 
have been still more so, had I mingled with it ; and what 
is above all other considerations, and which would have 
proved a source of perpetual irritation, I must have gone 
in with a sting upon my conscience. 

Though resolved on not incorporating myself with the 
Society, be assured I shall be ever ready to afford it any 
assistance in my power. 

Believe me, my dear Friend, 
most truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 
Berkeley, 
April Ath, 1809. 

The after-thought mentioned in the preceding let- 
ter, by whomsoever suggested, was quite unexpected 
by Jenner, and not less at variance with proper 
respect to himself than to the ascertained charac- 
ter of vaccination. The Imperial Parliament had 
twice, after the most mature investigation, marked 
its approbation of the discovery. The testimony 
of all the enlightened medical men throughout the 
world vindicated the discrimination and accuracy 
of the discoverer ; but in the constitution of the 
new board, the overwhelming weight of this evi- 
dence was not deemed sufficient ; and Jenner and 
vaccination were again to be put upon their trial. 
A tribunal was established which was so scrupulous 
in the discharge of these its inquisitorial duties, 
that it could not safely admit into its counsels 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 129 

that noble and most generous man, to whose 
wisdom and disinterestedness they owed their 
very being. I have no satisfaction in dwelling on 
this topic ; but, in accordance with the principle 
which I trust has guided me throughout this work, 
I may not abstain from recording any facts neces- 
sary for explaining the conduct of Jenner. I am 
fully persuaded that he considered the Parlia- 
mentary investigation, and the Parliamentary 
grants too, of inferior moment to the Establish- 
ment, the origin of which I have been tracing. 
Such was the magnanimity of his character, that 
personal honours and emoluments were as nothing 
in his eyes when compared with the great purposes 
that vaccination was calculated to secure. The 
poor attempts, therefore, to keep down such an 
one ; to deprive him of the distinction which he 
had so well earned; to interpose the rules and 
forms of collegiate discipline between him and his 
reward, did not well consist either with the claims 
of science or of substantial justice. He was truly 
an humble man, and it afforded him no gratifica- 
tion to feed on empty praise. He was contented 
to spend his days in retirement, or even in obscu- 
rity ; but he had a supreme love of justice, and he 
could not condescend, for any object, to depreciate 
its value. 

A person with such feelings, and who stood in 
the remarkable station which he occupied, could 
not maintain his self-respect, nor secure the appro- 

VOL. II. K 



130 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

bation of others, except by acting as he did. I 
know that his trials on this occasion were search- 
ing, and hard to be endured. To see himself com- 
pelled to withdraw from a national establishment, 
endowed for the purpose of propagating his dis- 
covery, was a bitter mortification to him ; but his 
deliberations were mature, and his decision was 
firm ; and I have no doubt that posterity will say 
that he was right. This certainly was the conclu- 
sion of some of his warmest adherents at the time ; 
and in accordance with such sentiments, the late 
amiable Sir Thomas Bernard thus expressed him- 
self upon the occasion. 

Wimpole-Street, iUh March, 18C.J). 
My dear Sib, 

I did not expect all that has happened ; but from some 
circumstances which came to my knowledge in November, 
I guessed that the new Board was to be made an instru- 
ment of patronage ; I therefore did not augur well of the 
result. I am glad you have resigned, and have con- 
fidence, that when the Board is noticed in Parliament, the 
treatment you have received will be properly censured. 
It will be material to consider to whom a detail of the 
circumstances should be confided. I think it will end 
more for your honour, than if they liad complied with 
your recommendation, and you had continued director. 
I wish to know when you will be in town. 

With all my feelings,, however, of what has recently 
passed, I continue so much and so entirely gratified with 
the honourable and public tribute which Parliament has 
voted you, that I treat this last event, and indeed all the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 131 

other matters, as trivial, and undeserving either of your 
friends' attention or yours. The reflection frequently 
recurs to my mind, that in the great point, the national 
acknowledgment, there has been entire and unqualified 
success ; and therefore, that in other matters, we may 
very well admit of some things not being exactly as we 
wish. Such are my sentiments ; but not venturing to 
trust myself, and knowing the value you justly put on 
Lady Crewe's opinion, I would not answer your letter till 
1 had seen her ladyship. I found her at home yesterday, 
and as desirous as I am that you should make your mind 
easy about lesser matters, and not expect the world to be 
composed of other materials than those experience has 
found in it. The number of those who honour and 
respect you is very great, and the adoption of your dis- 
covery throughout the world has been rapid and successful 
beyond example. Let us then not be disturbed by two 
or three envious calumniators, or by a few sinister events. 
The promulgation of every discovery by which mankind 
has been benefited has always been attended with similar 
circumstances : it is a general condition, and must be sub- 
mitted to. 

I shall show this to Lady Crewe before it is sent off. 
Let me know when we are to expect you. You will find 
the Alfred flourishing beyond any expectation, and in 
great request. 

Adieu, my dear Sii', 

and believe me always 

most faithfully yours, 
T. Bernard. 

The conduct of the vaccine board was different 
from that of a body constituted for a similar pur- 

K 2 



132 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

pose in ti neighbouring nation. Napoleon, in the 
end of 1809, issued a decree, that one hundred 
thousand francs should be at the disposal of the 
Minister of the Interior, for encouraging and pro- 
pagating vaccination throughout the empire. Dr. 
Valentin, who communicates this information to 
Dr. Jenner, adds, " Dr. Thouret, the Dean of the 
Faculty and the chief member of the Central 
Committee, wrote to me, that they will not keep 
for themselves any fees, as certain members in 
London have done, but will employ the whole sum 
allowed by the Emperor, to give rewards and 
encouragements in our departments." In another 
part of the same letter he says : " The report 
made by the Central Committee to the minister, 
concerning the state of vaccination in France, 
during the years 1807-8, has been published 
with the above decree annexed to it, and the 
names of many gentlemen, physicians, and some 
ladies, to whom the minister has granted gold, 
silver, and brass medals for their zeal and exer- 
tions in propagating your immortal and beneficent 
discovery." 

When the preceding detail was written, I did 
not expect that the subject of vaccination would 
again come under the cognizance of a parliament- 
ary committee. The expediency of continuing 
the vaccine board was, however, questioned in the 
first session of the reformed parliament, and a 
select committee was appointed to collect evidence. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 133 

and to report their opinion thereupon. The re- 
port itself, as well as the evidence on which it is 
founded, has necessarily attracted my attention, 
and I am thankful that I have an opportunity of 
making a few remarks on the occasion. 

Before I proceed to execute this duty, I must 
be permitted to express my respect for the honour- 
able members who constituted the committee. 
The evidence which was delivered before them 
doubtless afforded a sanction for the statements 
contained in their report. The friends of Dr. Jen- 
ner, however, may be permitted to regret that 
their inquiry, searching as it was in some respects, 
had not embraced all the points which especially 
affected his reputation, and the character of his 
discovery. 

With all becoming deference, therefore, I am 
constrained to notice those parts which either in- 
sufficiently or inaccurately represent the occur- 
rences which took place. No one can read what 
I have already said respecting the formation of the 
vaccine board, without perceiving that the original 
object of establishing that institution, as explained 
in Dr. Jenner's memorial, was different from that 
which was ultimately avowed, and which as I have 
already shown, was one of the main causes of his 
secession from the establishment. The propaga- 
tion of vaccination throughout the empire, under 
the countenance and support of government, was 
the primary object of the institution. The idea of 



134 LIFE OF UR. JENNER. 

making the board a sort of court of revision, did 
not occur till some time afterwards, and the only- 
effect of it was to exclude Dr. Jenner from his 
proper situation at the board. 

The committee might not have been aware of 
the facts which I have stated on this point ; but I 
hope I may be permitted to observe, that the ques- 
tion, whether or not vaccination was an infallible 
preventive of small-pox, was not involved in 
uncertainty when the vaccine board was estab- 
lished. Tliis, therefore, could not have been a 
reason for constituting that board. The fact is, 
that the question had been nearly as completely 
settled at that time as at this moment. 

Vaccination, and the merits of the discovery, 
had already been twice before parliament, and 
the second investigation had so fully established 
its value, that twenty thousand pounds, in addi- 
tion to the former grant, were voted to the 
author. In these discussions we hear nothing 
of vaccination as an infallible preventive of small- 
pox. I am not sure that the expression was ever 
used by Dr. Jenner himself. If he did use it he 
certainly very soon accompanied it with the neces- 
sary qualification, as the quotations already printed 
in this volume amply testify. He may perhaps at 
the very outset have stated his opinion somewhat 
too decidedly ; but no one qualified to judge of the 
evidence which I have already presented, can 
doubt that he, from the very beginning, was pos- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER, 135 

sessed of the gauge by which to measure the vir- 
tues of vaccination. " Dull/ and efficiently per- 
fonned,''' he observes, '' ic wilt protect the consti- 
tution from subsequent attacks of small-pox, as 
much as that disease itself will. I never expected 
that if would do more, and it will not, I believe, 
do less.'' Such being the case, I am surprised 
that the committee towards the conclusion of their 
report should have reiterated the statement that 
Dr. Jenner, at the time of the formation of the 
vaccine board, announced vaccination as an " in- 
fallible preventive of small-pox.'"' " The fate of 
a new practice," they continue, " was thus made 
to hang on the occurrence of a single case of small- 
pox after vaccination.*" This I am sorry to say is 
a great misapprehension ; the opposers of vacci- 
nation endeavoured to place the fate of vaccina- 
tion on such an issue ; but if his principles be 
duly considered, he never at any time sanctioned 
such an idea; and long before the practice of 
vaccination became general, he anticipated failures, 
and explained the circumstances under which they 
were most likely to occur. I cannot help regret- 
ting that evidence of this kind, which had been 
before the public in various shapes for many years, 
w^as not brought under the consideration of the 
committee ; if it had, ample justice would doubt- 
less have been rendered to the memory of Jenner. 

* See Report, p. 11. 



136 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

The misapprehension on this point led to some 
mistakes in other particulars ; it gave support to 
the notion that Dr. Jenner's doctrines were very 
inaccurate, and that the whole subject required 
further investigation. 

It would be tedious, and it is manifestly un- 
necessary, to repeat the evidence contained in 
these volumes, which proves the surprising accu- 
racy of his first investigation, his clear and un- 
faltering decisions both with regard to the nature 
of the complaint and the method of conducting 
the practice. Every year's experience has only 
tended to strengthen his opinions, and to vindicate 
his character as a medical philosopher. 

While some of the preceding events were in 
progress, my acquaintance with Jenner com- 
menced. He was living at Fladong's Hotel, Ox- 
ford Street, in the summer of 1808, making ar- 
rangements for the national vaccine establish- 
ment. I was introduced to him at that place by 
Dr. Maton. I cannot refer to this and many other 
favours conferred upon me by this distinguished 
and most estimable physician without dwelling for 
a moment on the consequences of that introduc- 
tion. To me it proved one of those leading and 
influential events which colour all the subsequent 
ways of a man's life. I was about to commence 
practice : all the world was before me. In seeking 
the acquaintance of Jenner I was impelled mainly 
by a desire to do homage to a man whose pubHc 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 13/ 

and i)rivate character had already secured my 
warmest admiration. I little thought that it would 
so speedily lead to an intimacy, and ultimately to 
a friendship which terminated only at his death, 
and placed me in a relationship to his memory that 
no one could have anticipated. The greatness of 
his fame, his exalted talents, and the honours 
heaped upon him by all the most distinguished 
public bodies of the civilised world, while they 
made me desirous of offering my tribute of respect 
to him, forbade the expectation of more than such 
an acknowledgment as a youth, circumstanced as 
I was, might have expected. I soon, however, 
perceived that I had to do with an individual who 
did not square his manners by the cold formality 
of the world. He condescended as to an equal ; 
the restraint and embarrassment that might 
naturally have been felt in the presence of one so 
eminent vanished in an instant. The simple dig- 
nity of his aspect, the kind and familiar tone of his 
language, and the perfect sincerity and good faith 
manifested in all he said and did, could not fail to 
win the heart of any one not insensible to such 
qualities. Though more than twenty years have 
elapsed since this interview took place, I remember 
it, and all its accompaniments, with the most per- 
fect accuracy. He was dressed in a blue coat, 
white waistcoat, nankeen breeches, and white 
stockings.* All the tables in his apartment were 

* We are grateful to him who told us that Milton wore 



138 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

covered with letters and papers on the subject 
of vaccination, and the estabhshment of the Na- 
tional Vaccine Institution. Having recently come 
from Edinburgh, he talked to me of the excel- 
lent article which had lately appeared in the 
Edinburgh Review, relative to the vaccine con- 
troversy.^ He spoke with great good humour 

large buckles ; and that Washington broke in his own 
horses ; and in some future day the curious reader may be 
thankful for such particulars descriptive of the habits of 
Jenner. 

* The paper to which he alluded on this occasion was 
one of the most impressive that had been published since the 
promulgation of the vaccine discovery. Its intrinsic value 
was great, and its influence must have been felt wherever it 
was duly examined. It acquired, however, an added virtue 
from having been printed in a work which had obtained a 
most extensive circulation and powerfully affected the public 
mind. There were other circumstances favourable to the 
cause which it advocated. It did not appear in a medical 
work ; it was not written by a medical man, and it kept 
aloof from every thing like professional prejudice or party 
violence. It exhibited an eloquent and masterly analysis of 
the various points at issue between the different combat- 
ants; it clearly and forcibly balanced their arguments, and 
so convincingly and manifestly shewed on which side truth 
and justice lay, that all reasonable minds were satisfied. 

Several of the first sentences are worthy of a place in this 
work. I do not know that on any occasion the benefits 
arising from vaccination have been placed in a more striking 
and impressive aspect. " Medical subjects," it is observed, 
" ought in general, we think, to be left to the medical journ- 
als ; but the question as to the efficacy of vaccination is of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 139 

also of the conduct of the anti-vaccinists, and 
gave me some pamphlets illustrative of the con- 
such incalculable importance, and of sucli universal interest, 
as to excuse a little breach of privilege. We let our lawyers 
manage actions of debt and trespass as they think proper, 
without our interference ; but when the case touches life or 
reputation we insist upon being made parties to the consul- 
tation, and naturally endeavour, at least, to understand the 
grounds of the discussion. The question now before us is 
nothing less than whether a discovery has actually been 
made by which the lives of 40,000 persons may annually be 
saved in the British Islands alone, and double that number 
protected from lengthened suffering, deformity, mutilation, 
and incurable infirmity ! This is not a question, therefore, 
which is interesting only to the physiologist or the medical 
practitioner ; it concerns nearly every community in the 
universe, and conies home to the condition of almost every 
individual of the human race ; since it is difficult to conceive 
that there should be one being who would not be affected by 
its decision either in his own person, or by those of his 
nearest connexions. To the bulk of mankind wars and re- 
volutions are things of infinitely less importance ; and even 
to those who busy themselves in the tumult of public affairs 
it may be doubted whether anything can occur that will 
command so powerful and permanent an interest, since there 
are few to whom fame or freedom can be so intimately and 
constantly precious as personal safety and domestic aff'ec- 
tion." 

I have already had occasion to allude to the character of 
the vaccine controversy ; but my delineation was feeble when 
compared with tbe authoritative declarations of a writer well 
acquainted with literary and scientific warfare. " In the 
whole course of our censorial labours we have never had oc- 
casion to contemplate a scene so disgusting and humiliating 
as is presented by the greater part of this controversy ; nor 



140 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

troversy then carrying on. The day before I 
saw him he had had an interview with the Prin- 
cess of Wales^ and he shewed me a watch which 
Her Royal Highness had presented to him on that 
occasion. I did not see him again till the follow- 
ing year, after I had fixed myself at Gloucester. 
Our second interview took place in his own house 
at Berkeley. His eldest son Edward was then 
lying in the last stage of pulmonary consumption. 
He had repeated haemorrhages from the lungs, 
and was then evidently approaching his end. Dr. 
Parry of Bath was in the house. I was introduced 
into the sick-room, and there for the first time saw 
Mrs. Jenner, the anxious and constant attendant 
on her dying child. Jenner was particularly at- 
tached to this young man, and apparently for 
qualities which, in less generous natures, would 
have produced a different effect. He had been 

do we believe that the virulence of political animosity, or 
personal rivalry, or revenge, ever gave rise among the lowest 
and most prostituted scribblers to so much coarseness, illi- 
berality, violence, and absurdity as is here exhibited, by 
gentlemen of sense and education, discussing a point of pro- 
fessional science with a view to the good of mankind." The 
writer, notwithstanding this discouragement, proceeds with 
his task ; and in a most able and luminous manner seizes upon 
all the strong points of the argument, and, after weighing the 
evidence in a most impartial manner, comes to the conclusion 
that vaccination, if it do not absolutely and certainly secure 
the patient from the contagion of small-pox, gives him a se- 
curity at least as effectual as could be given by the old prac- 
tice of inoculation. — See Edinburgh Review, vol. ix. page 63. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 141 

always delicate in health, and had, moreover, in 
some respects, rather a defective understanding. 
His father felt these deficiencies, and considered 
them but as stronger claims to his attachment and 
his regard. Some years after, he wept when he 
talked to me of this son, and many times referred 
to the singular character of his mind with the 
most touching and affectionate recollections. 

Poor Edward lingered to the beginning of the 
year 1810. A letter written by Jenner to his 
friend Mr. Hicks contains strong proof of the in- 
tensity of his feelings and the depth of his suffer- 
ings. " I feel," said he, " greatly obliged to every 
one who attempts to console me in my present 
affliction ; but you, who know so much of the 
human mind, are convinced how vain are these 
friendly efforts. I had no conception till it hap- 
pened that the gash would have been so deep ; 
but God's will be done ! In the midst of my 
wretchedness a ray of comfort sometimes breaks 
in upon me and tells me my sorrowing will be pro- 
fitable to me. How mysterious and unsearchable 
are the ways of Providence ! God bless you. 

Your affectionate 

E. Jenner." 

Bevheley, Feb. lOth, 1810. 

" One would suppose," he observes, writing to 
another friend [John Ring], "that the mind would 
become in some measure reconciled to an event. 



142 LTFE OF DR. .TENNER. 

however melancholy in its nature, that one knows 
to be ine\'itable, when it has made such gradual 
approaches ; but I know, from sad experience, that 
the edge of sensibility is not thus to be blunted." 
But his domestic sorrows did not materially im- 

mi 

pede his efforts in the cause of vaccination. They 
were less interrupted, however, by the attacks of 
his opponents. After using the expressions just 
quoted, he observes, "^ Whether it be from age, 
long retirement, or what I cannot tell, but some 
how or other, I feel myself less and less disposed 
to notice the malevolence of my enemies ; and as I 
wish you quite as well as I do myself, I should be 
happy to see you follow my example, entirely on 
the principle of your enjoying more repose. The 
world is ungrateful, and will never requite you for 
your toils. Your satires against the anti-vaccinists 
are keen ; but the keenest of all are those which 
you engrave with the point of your lancet. Where 
is the man in a private station in the metropolis 
who has rescued so many from an untimely grave 
as yourself? This is a satire which must deeply 
wound the hearts of our opponents if they are not 
too callous to be penetrated. The paper inclosed 
is another satire on their absurdities. Would not 
some of the editors of the newspapers be glad to 
insert it ? The Duke of Sussex was some time 
since taken very ill at Gloucester. I attended His 
Royal Highness there ; and afterwards, for near a 
fortnight, at Berkeley. This gave me an opportunity 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 143 

of bringing up Corneiro, and of going fully into 
the subject of his abominable pamphlet. The 
Duke understood the matter so well that he could 
refute every charge which related to Portugal, and 
explained many things very minutely, particularly 
that respecting the royal infant, who he assured 
me was vaccinated (I think he said by Domeyer) 
in spite of all remonstrances." A short time after 
this event His Royal Highness, in testimony of his 
respect for Jenner, sent him by the Countess of 
Berkeley a very handsome hookah. In returning 
thanks for this very elegant present, Jenner ob- 
served, " Your Royal Highness's kindness in mak- 
ing this addition to the scanty number of gratifi- 
cations afforded me in this sequestered spot, will 
never be forgotten ; and smoking, I am sure, is a 
harmless one if used in moderation. A man who 
has a pipe at his command, independently of its 
salutary influence in some instances, has always a 
soothing companion. 

" It was with great pleasure I heard that your 
Royal Highness was enjoying so good a state of 
health. Guard well, Sir, your stomach and your 
skin, and I am persuaded you will live in safety 
from the future attacks of the malady that so often 
annoys you. Happy shall I be, if at any time I 
can do any thing to convince you how much I am 
your Royal Highness's 
obliged and devoted 

humble servant, 

Edward Jenner." 



144 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

The shock produced by the death of his son, 
and his incessant labours, materially affected his 
health. Writing on the 1st of April to Sir Thomas 
Bernard, he says, " Your letters are always pleasant 
to me. I was in your debt when you were good 
enough to send the last, and should have answered 
it long ago, but for a most afflictive event which has 
happened in my family — the death of my eldest 
son, an amiable youth, who had just reached his 
twenty-first year. This melancholy occurrence 
threw me into that state of dejection which renders 
me unfit to perform my ordinary duties, and I still 
feel enveloped as it were in clouds, so that all ob- 
jects wear a new and gloomy aspect. You wish 
me to come to town ; you will find me too torpid 
to perform any useful offices ; and I feel confident 
that even the cheerful company of yourself and 
those friends into whose society you have so often 
introduced me, would at present do me no ser- 
vice. I bend to the will of Providence, trusting in 
due time that I shall from this source derive that 
consolation which no other can afl^ord."" 

His symptoms became so distressing, that active 
means were deemed necessary to obviate them. 
In pursuance of this object he went to Bath. I 
was to have accompanied him, but was disap- 
pointed in my wishes. The following letter, which 
he wrote me on his return to Berkeley, is at once 
illustrative of his bodily and mental state. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 145 



Berkeley, June 15 th, 1810. 
My dear Doctor, 

The Bath scheme would have turned out well if it had 
not been for an unexpected chasm which occasioned a 
general disappointment ; but to none of the party so par- 
ticularly as myself, as I thought to have benefited by the 
union of your medical ideas with my friend Parry's, on 
my case. I have been cupped, calomeled, salted, &c. &c. 
and think the cascades do not roar so loud in my ears as 
they did, nor my head feel so heavy ; but still all is far 
from right. The constant disposition to drowsiness is a 
lamentable tax upon me. I should not say constant, but 
frequent, for I feel lively from breakfast time till about 
one o'clock, when the signal of acidity in my stomach 
is the signal also for nodding. For six days my only 
drink was water ; but finding my pulse sink from its old 
standard, 48 to 40, I venture again on two glasses of wine 
after dinner. I am ordered to migrate, and not to think. 
The first injunction I shall comply with, and go to town 
on Monday for a few days. On my return it is my inten- 
tion to throw myself upon Cheltenham in a probationary 
way. Should this be too much for me, my retreat is not 
far distant. 

You see I have enlisted Creaser in our cause, and you 
will find that he will not discredit it. The inclosed is 
from Filkin, surgeon of the Gloucester regiment of Mi- 
litia. We must not repine at the ill success he has met 
with. He is on that barren kind of land where science 
has not yet begun to vegetate. Poor Chatterton, by 
accident, sprang up on this soil ; but he was soon rooted 
up and flung away like a weed. 

VOL. II. L 



146 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Our friend Hicks goes with me to town ; I wish you 
were of the party. 

Adieu ! 

Most truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 



I find no proof of the torpor of which he com- 
plains above in his correspondence at this season. 
On the contrary, many of his letters, though 
tinged by the pensive hues of his affliction, are 
full of energy and vigour when the subject re- 
quired him to put forth his strength. 

Immediately on his return to Berkeley he had ano- 
ther painful duty to perform in watching the pro- 
gress of the fatal disease which put aperiod to the life 
of the late Earl Berkeley. During this attendance 
he had occasionally the aid of his friend, Dr. Parry 
of Bath. This intercourse led to a renewal of 
many of their ancient recollections. Some of Dr. 
Jenner's pathological -vdews necessarily became 
subjects of discussion, and I am very glad to find 
that so excellent and accomplished a judge as 
Dr. Parry did justice to his acquirements in this 
branch of knowledge. In a letter which is now 
before me, Dr. P. observes, " It will give me great 
pleasure to hear your pathological theories, be- 
cause, without flattery, I highly respect them all, 
and have no hesitation in saying, that it is your 
own fault if you are not still the first pathologist 
existing." He then goes on to remark in refer- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 147 

ence to the anti-vaccinists : — " For heaven's sake, 
thmk no more of these wasps, who hum and buz 
about you, and whom your hidifFerence and silence 
will freeze into utter oblivion. Let me again 
entreat you not to give them one moment's con- 
sideration, o^ms exegisti cere perennius. The great 
business is accomplished, and the blessing is ready 
for those who choose to avail themselves of it ; 
and with regard to those who reject it, the evil 
will be on their own heads." (December 8tli 
1810.) 

Dr. Jenner was released from his attendance at 
Berkeley Castle, by the death of the Earl, in the 
beginning of August. This distressing event was 
felt by him with great poignancy, and it materially 
deepened his other sources of suffering. Towards 
the end of September he changed his residence 
with his family to Cheltenham, and he had been 
but a short time there when he was stricken by 
another calamity in the death of his sister, Mrs. 
Black. This lady, and his elder brother, stood to 
him almost in the relation of parents, and he 
mourned her loss with the greatest sincerity. 

I was in frequent intercourse with him at this 
time, and had many opportunities of witnessing 
the distress and embarrassment occasioned by 
these domestic trials, and by the pressure arising 
from the great responsibility which he never 
ceased to feel respecting vaccination. Though, 
as far as silence was concerned, he xjould follow 

L 2 



148 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Dr. Parry's advice, yet he could not altogether 
escape from the annoyance occasioned by the 
blindness and wickedness of his traducers. The 
combined influence of all these causes sometimes 
rendered duties which he had formerly executed 
^vith ease, burdensome to him, and in this state it 
may readily be conceived that he would be willing 
to shrink from all labours that were not of a very 
pressing nature. He was of course disposed to 
avail himself of the help of his friends to relieve 
him from the burden, and he more than once 
honoured me by accepting my services in this 
way. 

Dr. Jenner was an original member of the Me- 
dico-Chirurgical Society. The first volume of 
their Transactions contains two papers which he 
contributed. One on the distemper in dogs was 
read on the 21st of March, 1809. This curious 
affection, according to his observations, had not 
been known in this country much above fifty years. 
The paper is short, but contains a very faithful 
description of the disease. It does not, however, 
as might have been expected, record any of his 
experiments instituted with a view to ascertain the 
effects of vaccination in preventing the distemper. 
There is great reason to believe that this influence 
is considerable. A friend of Dr. Jenner's, Mr. 
Skelton, a sporting gentleman in Yorkshire, sub- 
sequently made some very decisive trials. " Hav- 
ing selected," he observes, " three couples of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 149 

healthy pups of six weeks old, I inoculated three 
of them with the cow-pox under the left arm, a 
little above the elbow, which regularly matured. 
The other three with those inoculated were sent 
out to quarters. At a proper age they were all 
brought to the kennel. The former with other 
hounds were soon attacked with and died of the 
distemper, whilst the latter remained perfectly 
healthy, though surrounded by their infected 
companions, becoming the strongest hounds in 
the pack, and ha\'ing- certainly the best noses." 

The other paper published by Dr. Jenner re- 
lated chiefly to secondary small-pox. The facts 
which he had observed led him to infer that the 
susceptibility to receive variolous contagion re- 
mains through life, but under various modifica- 
tions or gradations. His principal design in 
publishing these observations was to guard those 
who may think fit to inoculate with variolous 
matter after vaccination, from unnecessary alarms ; 
a pustule may sometimes be thus excited on those 
who had pre\dously gone through the small-pox, 
febrile action of the constitution may follow, and, 
as has been often exemplified, a slight eruption. At 
the commencement of vaccination he deemed this 
test of security necessary ; but he felt confident 
that we have one of equal efficacy, and infinitely 
less hazardous, in the re-insertion of the vaccine 
lymph. 

Notwithstanding all the evidence that had been 



150 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

collectedj a great deal of wilful ignorance still 
remained regarding the character of vaccination. 
Rumours and assertions of the most unfriendly 
nature were eagerly circulated, and much more 
industry was exerted in the propagation of small- 
pox than could have been believed. There can 
be no doubt that the hesitation and indecision of 
medical men contributed essentially to this evil ; 
and it was imagined that a great moral duty, as 
well as a strong professional obligation, required 
that all well-informed and respectable medical 
men should take a decided line of conduct touch- 
ing the question which then so divided the public 
mind. Under this conviction an association of the 
faculty was formed in the county of Gloucester, 
the great object of which was to promote the 
vaccine, and to discourage the small-pox inocula- 
tion. The members proved their sincerity by 
voluntarily and publicly renouncing the latter, and 
that solely and entirely from a thorough conviction 
of the efficacy of the former. A short address, em- 
bodying the argument for adopting this principle, 
was circulated through the district, and very cor- 
dially and generally received. It fell to my lot to 
take an active part in this transaction. The utter 
renunciation of small-pox was, even at that time, 
considered a bold measure, and some could not 
readily perceive that it was the immediate and 
necessary consequence of the approval of vaccina- 
tion. They could not discover that to disseminate 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 151 

the small-pox with a full knowledge that they had it 
in their power to avert this scourge, was an act nei- 
ther quite consistent with high professional feeling, 
nor with their duty to their fellow-creatures. These 
principles found a most zealous and firm sup- 
porter in my late colleague, Charles Brandon 
Trye,* Esq. F.R.S. Senior Surgeon to the Glouces- 

* When co-operating with him for that purpose, I little 
thought that I should have so soon to deplore the termina- 
tion of his valuable life. I allude to this occurrence here, 
because it brought me for some days into close and constant 
professional attendance with Dr. Jenner. He had been sent 
for from Cheltenham, on the first approach of Mr. Trye's 
illness. Unhappily it wore from the very beginning a most 
unfavourable aspect ; it began on the 3rd of October, and 
terminated early on Monday the 7th (1811). During nearly 
the whole of that time, Jenner's services were unre- 
mitting. 

Trye was a man who had acquired a very high reputation 
in his profession ; he had a heartfelt respect for Jenner, and 
the feeling was mutual. He was descended from a very 
ancient family. He is well known to the profession by 
several works, and he acquired great celebrity for his skill 
and success in performing some of the most difficult opera- 
tions in surgery. But I am not so desirous of pointing the 
reader's attention to such things, as to some other parts of 
his character which are less common. He was remarkably 
devoid of ostentation, and was deeply imbued with a profound 
and fervent spirit of devotion. 

He never, I believe, performed an operation without re- 
tiring to meditate and pray, and to seek for guidance and 
assistance. He had committed many of his prayers to writ- 
ing, and so discreet and secret was he in this matter, that it 



152 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ter General Infirmary. This was not the only 
occasion in which he rendered efficient service to 
the cause of vaccination. His decided and manly 
character gave a powerful impulse to every cause 
that he espoused, while his extensive professional 
acquirements, and his eminent skill and dexte- 
rity as an operator, made his authority respected 
throughout the district in which he lived. Were 
this a fit occasion I would insert in this place his 
first published letter on the subject of vaccination. 
It conveyed all the caution of the philosopher with 
the warm, immixed approbation of a discovery as 
remarkable in its origin as it was important in its 
results. He sincerely respected Jenner ; but nei- 
ther private friendship nor any other motive could 
ever touch his mind, so as to bias his judgment on 
an important professional topic. He was the 
plainest and most straightforward man I ever met 
with. This occasioned an apparent abruptness of 
manner : but there was truth in all he said and 
in all he did. 

Jenner was particularly pleased with our asso- 
ciation : it afforded at once a test of the sincerity 
of those who professed themselves friendly to vac- 
cination ; it offered the best arguments against the 
practice of small-pox inoculation ; and promised, 
if conscientiously followed up, to extinguish 



was not known he had been tlius employed till his paper? 
were examined after his death. 



LIFE OF DR. JENXER. 153 

that pest altogether. We fondly hoped that the 
maxims and motives that governed us would ex- 
tend themselves, and that the whole moral and 
medical influence of the profession might be 
brought to bear in such a way on the prejudices 
of the public as ultimately to overthrow them. It 
had been well for the health of the community 
had our design prospered ; for it is unquestion- 
able, that one of the main causes of the con- 
tinuance of small-pox among us arose from the 
ambiguous conduct of those medical men who 
thought it no sin to employ either small-pox or 
cow-pox, as it might suit the caprice of their 
patients. 

About this period. Dr. Jenner was somewhat 
astonished by hearing of a notice of a motion in the 
House of Commons for a Bill to prevent the spread- 
ing of the small-pox. This bill was introduced by 
the late Mr. Fuller. It was prepared mthout any 
communication with Dr. Jenner. Suspecting that 
the provisions might not have been very well con- 
sidered, he posted to town to inquire into the 
matter. Mr. Fuller very kindty put the Bill into 
his hands for amendment. It was returned with 
the objectionable parts removed ; but to the great 
astonishment of Jenner, it was introduced to 
the House in its original form, and received, as 
he predicted, with aversion, and completely failed 
in its object. 

At the time that Mr. Fuller was endeavouring 



154 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

by legislative enactments to restrain the spreading 
of small-pox, several private individuals were 
attempting to accomplish the same object. Mr. 
Bryce, of Edinburgh, put forth a plan of this kind. 
It was much approved of by Dr. Jenner, but like all 
others with a similar view, was rendered difficult 
of execution by the liberty claimed by the people 
of this country, of following the bent of their own 
inclination. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 155 



CHAPTER V. 

CASE OF THE HONOURABLE ROBERT GROSVENOR — JENNER's 
SENTIMENTS ON THAT SUBJECT — HIS ATTEMPTS TO LIBERATE 
A FRENCH PRISONER — ELECTED FOREIGN ASSOCIATE OF THE 
NATIONAL INSTITUTE — SIR JOSEPH BANKS AND THE 
ORIGINAL PAPER ON VACCINATION — POEMS IN HONOUR OF 
VACCINATION. 

Dr. Jenner had himself a considerable illness 
in the spring of 1811, and he moreover had the sor- 
row of witnessing the advances of a painful and pro- 
tracted disease in the person of his late brother-in- 
law, Thomas Kingscote, esquire. He had occasion 
to be in town early in March ; but, I believe, it 
was only for a very few days. Affairs of a more 
urgent nature required his presence again in the 
capital, and he went there in the first week of June, 
1811. On his arrival he encountered one of the most 
unpleasant events that had befallen him in his 
vaccine practice. Alleged cases of small -pox after 
vaccination, had been reported before. Some of 
them, doubtless, were real ; but the majority un- 
questionably were distorted exaggerations. It was 
then, as it is now, that careful and skilful conductors 
of the vaccine practice met with few disappointments, 



156 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

while in the hands of others they were frequent. 
Dr. Jenner had for thirteen years been carrying 
on vaccine inoculation on a very extended scale. 
Of the many thousands who had been subsequently 
exposed to the influence of small-pox, not one was 
known to have been affected by that disease. I 
have already shown in the former volume that the 
statements touching the absolute protection afforded 
by vaccination were too unconditional ; but, certainly. 
Dr. Jenner's own experience, up to the time we are 
now speaking of, did afford countenance to these 
statements. 

On the 26th of May, 1811, the Honourable Ro- 
bert Grosvenor was seized with symptoms which 
denote the approach of a very violent disease. In 
four days he became delirious, and an eruption 
appeared on the face. At this time the existence 
of small-pox was not suspected, because he had been 
vaccinated by Dr. Jenner about ten years before. 
In the course of the following day, however, the 
eruption increased prodigiously, and some of the 
worst symptoms of a malignant and confluent small- 
pox showed themselves. 

Master Grosvenor was attended by Sir Henry Hal- 
ford and Sir Walter Farquhar. These gentlemen, 
in making their report of this case, observed that 
they entertained a most unfavourable opinion of the 
issue of the malady, having never seen an instance 
of recovery under so heavy an eruption. It seemed, 
however, to use their own words, " that the latter 
stages of the disease were passed through more 
vapidly in this case than usual ; and it may be a 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 157 

question whether this extraordinary circumstance 
as well as the ultimate recovery of Master Grosvenor, 
were not influenced hy previous vaccination," 

Dr. Jenner happened to be in London when this 
distressing disease w^as in progress, and he visited 
the patient, in company with Sir Walter Farquhar, 
on the 8th of June. By that time the disease was 
on the decline, and the symptoms, which but a few 
days before threatened a fatal termination, had be- 
gun to disappear. The other children of the earl, 
who had been vaccinated in 1801, were exposed to 
the contagion of the small-pox, under which their 
brother was suffering, and were also subjected to 
small-pox inoculation, without effect. 

This disastrous occurrence in the family of Lord 
Grosvenor, and several others of the same descrip- 
tion, which took place about this time, induced the 
board of the National Vaccine Establishment to pub- 
lish a special report. This measure, prudent and 
judicious in itself, was rendered necessary in conse- 
quence of the great interest attached to the subject. 
The reader who has attended to the previous dis- 
cussions in this work, will find no difficulty in ex- 
plaining events of this kind. The possibility of 
small-pox succeeding small-pox ha\ing been ascer- 
tained, no one need have been surprised that the 
same disease might occasionally succeed cow-pox. 
Dr. Jenner at once admitted the failure, and gave 
the true explanation of the occurrence.* The se- 

* It will be seen in another page that Dr. Jenner had not 
been perfectly satisfied with the progress of vaccination in this 
child. 



ir>8 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

verity of the disease in this ease afforded an excep- 
tion to what generally happens, the symptoms being 
usually exceedingly mild. The power of vaccination 
was not the less remarkable : for at the very time 
that the greatest danger is observable, and when 
death is most likely to ensue, the disease rapidly 
abated. The complete resistance also of all the 
other children to the small-pox contagion, demon- 
strated that the failure was to be ascribed to that 
peculiarity of constitution which probably would have 
left the patient exposed to a second attack of small- 
pox, had he previously had the disease. 

It was some time, of course, before these truths 
were duly appreciated. The immediate tendency of 
the event in Lord Grosvenor's family was to occasion 
no small alarm and consternation in the minds of 
those whose children had been vaccinated. Dr. 
Jenner was obliged to attend and render explanations 
to many persons in this state of doubt. He had 
many letters to answer on the same subject ; some 
of them written with great earnestness and appre- 
hension. Many persons immediately put the powers 
of vaccination to a test by ha\^ng their children ino- 
culated with small-pox. I cannot better explain this 
whole matter than by inserting some of Dr. Jenner's 
own sentiments written at the time of the event. 

To Miss Calcraft. 

Take a comprehensive view of vaccination, and then ask 
yourself what is this case ? You will find it a speck, a mere 
microscopic speck on the page which contains the history of 
the vaccine discovery. In the very first thing I wrote upon 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 159 

the subject, and many times since, I have said the occur- 
rence of such an event should excite no surprise ; because 
the cow-pox must possess preternatural powers, if it would 
give uniform security to the constitution, when it is well 
known the small-pox cannot ; for we have more than one 
thousand cases to prove the contrary, and fortunately seven- 
teen of them in the families of the nobility. We cannot 
alter the laws of nature ; they are immutable. But, indeed, 
I have often said it was wonderful that I should have gone 
on for such a series of years vaccinating so many thousands, 
many under very unfavourable circumstances, without meet- 
ing with any interruption to my success before. And now 
this single solitary instance has occurred, all my past labours 
are forgotten, and I am held up by many, perhaps the ma- 
jority of the higher classes, as an object of derision and con- 
tempt. There is that short-sightedness among them (I 
will not use a harsher term) which makes them identify a 
single failure with the general failure of the vaccine system. 
Before their dim eyes stand two cases in the family of Lord 
Grosvenor, which they cannot see, or will not. There are two 
children vaccinated ten years ago, who have been constantly 
exposed to the infection of the other child, and inoculated 
for the small-pox also ; but all without effect. The infected 
child would have died, — that is universally allowed, — but 
for the previous vaccination. There was but little secondary 
fever ; the pustules were much sooner in going off than in 
ordinary cases ; and, indeed, the whole progress of the dis- 
ease was different. It was modified and mitigated, and the 
boy was saved. What if ten, fifty, or a hundred such events 
should occur ? they will be balanced an hundred times over 
by those of a similar kind after small-pox. This is what I 
want to impress on the public mind ; but there will be great 
difficulty in bringing this about because the multitude decide 
without thinking. No less than three cases of this descrip- 
tion have happened in the family of one nobleman (Lord 
Rous). But I must check myself, lest I should tire you by 



160 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

going too far into the subject. I should not have said so 
much, had it not appeared to me that even your judgment 
was carried down the tide of popular clamour. I beg my 
compliments to Mrs. St. Quintin. I dare say her children 
are very secure ; but, if she has the weight of a feather on 
her mind, the safest and best test is vaccination with matter 
taken in its limpid state. I have stated my reasons for this 
over and over, in print and out of print. 
June Wth. 

In conjunction with the preceding extract, I 
subjoin one more from a letter addressed to Mr. 
Pruen, which has a direct bearing on the subject. 
It is valuable also, as affording another explicit 
testimony respecting the accuracy of the opinions 
delivered in the former volume. " In the eye of 
philosophy, or indeed of common sense, the failures 
that have happened in so great a mass of vaccina- 
tions are totally unworthy of serious attention. 
They should call forth the inquiry of the faculty 
to discover the cause if possible, but not their 
clamour ; and as for the public, I think your deci- 
sion in supposing them fit arbitrators in such a case 
as that which has appeared, is erroneous. They 
know no more of the laws of the animal economy 
than those of Lycurgus. I have ever considered the 
variolous and the vaccine radically and essentially 
the same. As the inoculation of the former has 
been known to fail in instances so numerous, it 
would be very extraordinary if the latter should 
always be exempt from failure. It would tend to in- 
validate my early doctrine on this point." 

Another letter written to myself on this subject 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 161 

puts the question in a different light, and is there- 
fore worthy of notice. 

Co ckspur -street. Charing Cross, 
June llth, 1811. 
My dear Friend, 
I should be obliged to you to send me, by the first coach, 
some of the Reports of our association. It will probably be 
my unhappy lot to be detained in this horrible place some 
days longer. It has unfortunately happened, that a failure 
in vaccination has appeared in the family of a nobleman 
here ; and, more unfortunately still, in a child vaccinated by 
me. The noise and confusion this case has created is not to 
be described. The vaccine lancet is sheathed ; and the long 
concealed variolous blade ordered to come forth. Charming ! 
This will soon cure the mania. The Town is a fool, — an 
idiot ; and will continue in this red-hot, — hissing-hot state 
about this affair, till something else starts up to draw aside 
its attention. I am determined to lock up my brains, and 
think no more pro bono publico ; and I advise you, my 
friend, to do the same ; for we are sure to get nothing but 
abuse for it. It is my intention to collect all the cases I 
can of small-pox, after supposed security from that disease. 
In this undertaking I hope to derive much assistance from 
you. The best plan will be to push out some of them as 
soon as possible. This would not be necessary on account 
of the present case, but it will prove the best shield to pro- 
tect us from the past, and those which are to come. 

Ever yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

The tone of the preceding letter shows a soreness 
somewhat unusual with him. The disaster in Lord 
Grosvenor's family had powerfully excited the public 
mind, and roused the anti-vaccinists to increased 

VOL. II. M 



1G2 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

efforts. But Jenner was ill at ease on other subjects. 
He had been required to give evidence before the 
House of Lords respecting the Berkeley Peerage ; 
and this, added to a clamour in high places on the 
subject of vaccination, would easily account for the 
acuteness of his feelings. An exhibition before any 
large assembly was always to him an embarrassing 
and perplexing affair. His own account of the 
species of mental torture that he endured when 
preparing for the annual festival of the Royal Jen- 
nerian Society, as stated to myself, will render it less 
a matter of wonder that he should have experienced 
an unusual degree of perturbation when before the 
assembled nobles of the land. 

" I can compare my feelings to those of no one 
but Cowper the poet, when his intellect at last gave 
way to his fears about the execution of his office in 
the House of Lords. It was reading Cowper's Life, I 
believe, that saved my own senses, by putting me fully 
in view of my danger. For many weeks before the 
meeting I began to be agitated, and, as it approached, 
I was actually deprived both of appetite and sleep ; 
and when the day came, I was obliged to deaden my 
sensibility and gain courage by brandy and opium. 
The meeting was at length interrupted by a dissolu- 
tion of Parliament, which sent the leading people to 
the country ; and what was at first merely postponed 
was ultimately abandoned, to my no small delight 
and satisfaction." 

Notwithstanding the unfavourable occurrence in 
Lord Grosvenor's family, vaccination continued to 
flourish, and he had the happiness to learn that the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER, 163 

deaths from small-pox in the bills of mortality were 
at this time reduced to five or six a week. This 
reduction was in a great degree to be ascribed to the 
well-directed efforts of the National Vaccine Esta- 
blishment. It will scarcely be believed in future 
times, that small-pox inoculation still continued to 
be practised at some of the principal establishments 
for the relief of the sick poor in London. In that 
number, I am sorry to be obliged to mention the 
Finsbury Dispensary. The Board of the National 
Vaccine Establishment exerted their influence with 
the directors of that institution, and the practice was 
abandoned, but it was still continued in the Small- 
pox Hospital ! ! ! 

I find a curious document, stating the expenses 
incurred by Dr. Jenner up to this time, in conse- 
quence of the two Parliamentary grants, and other 
contingencies immediately arising* from his discovery. 
Those connected with the first grant of ten thousand 
pounds, amounted to no less a sum than £977- 
The grant in 1807 was better managed: only 
£58. 18^. 10^. being required. The other sums 
which he expended in printing, &c. amounted nearly 
to £700. If to these we could add the numberless 
other sources of expenditure, or even one of the 
items, such as postage, without counting the value 
of his time and labour, it would be found that a very 
formidable amount would stand against the public 
grants. 

Dr. Jenner was enabled to leave London early in 
July, 1811. The annoyances he had recently en- 
countered, the state of Mrs. Jenner's health, and 

M 2 



164 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

that of her brother in Cheltenham, had an unfavour- 
able effect on his own. I remember finding him 
seriously distressed Ukewise by the fate of a young 
French officer, in whose welfare he took a deep in- 
terest. 

Captain Husson,belonged toDupont's army, and was 
one of those who capitulated after the defeat of that 
General at Baylen. Jenner felt for young Husson as 
for a son ; and exerted himself with unremitting ear- 
nestness to procure his liberation. Unfortunately, 
as I have already stated, his influence with the British 
Government was not so great as it was at one time with 
that of France. Either by direct appeals to the Empe- 
ror, or through the medium of Corvisart and Husson, 
he had succeeded in procuring the release of many 
persons. " This," he observes to a friend, " though 
somewhat gTatifying to my feelings, will convince 
you of the feebleness of my influence ; and feeble as 
it has ever been, it has now become more so from the 
following unfortunate occurrence. M. Husson, one 
of the medical gentlemen above referred to, has a 
brother. Captain Husson, a prisoner of war in this 
country. I petitioned for his release. It was the first 
request of the kind I had made to the British Govern- 
ment ; and it seemed to meet with a favourable 
reception. This joyful intelligence I communicated 
to Captain Husson : when, most unexpectedly, in- 
stead of acquiescence, a refusal arrived. This threw 
him into a state of desperation, and in the midst of 
it he broke his parole, and is now in a state of misery 
and confinement on board a prison-ship at Chatham. 
This hurts me excessively : as I cannot but look on 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 165 

myself as in some measure the innocent cause. I 
shall again exert myself for Captain Husson, con- 
ceiving that my first application could not have been 
well understood." The second application, I believe, 
was successful. At least, he concludes a letter to 
myself dated the 5th of April, 1811, in these words. 
" This day I received a letter from town, informing 
me that my petition to the Prince in behalf of Cap- 
tain Husson had been graciously received." 

I trust, if M. Husson or his brother should ever 
see these pages, they will believe that Dv. Jenner, 
whatever may have been the event of his application, 
was sincere and unremitting in his efforts ; although, 
while overwhelmed by domestic affliction, or the 
labours connected with his peculiar station, he may 
have sometimes omitted to reply to the letters of M. 
Husson : but for reasons which are ob"\aous, I wish 
to make it manifest, that he did not forget the claims 
which M. Husson and his countrymen had upon 
him for his best services. I am a witness, that such 
services were rendered ; and farther, to remove any 
blame that might be attached to Dr. Jenner for his 
silence, I myself, at his request, wrote to M. Husson, 
explaining his difficulties, stating what he had done, 
and was doing in behalf of his brother ; and that he 
was not unmindful of the great benefits conferred 
upon himself and the cause of vaccination by the 
French nation. 

I have an anxious desire that this matter may be 
well understood by all whom it may concern. From 
the altered manner of M. Husson, in speaking both 
of Dr. Jenner and vaccination in the Dictionnaire des 



16(5 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Sciences Medicales, which I have been obhged to 
refer to very pointedly in the former volume, I fear 
that he may have been imperfectly informed on this 
subject, and believed Dr. Jenner alike insensible to 
the calls of gratitude and of duty. Indeed, in a 
letter which is now before me, he seems almost to 
reproach Jenner, as if he really had not exerted him- 
self with the British Government so effectually as he 
might have done. He thought it not credible that 
they could refuse to the author of vaccination what 
the French government had granted to him. Little 
did he know how the prejudices of our rulers inter- 
posed on all occasions when a question arose re- 
specting any dealings with the person who then 
wielded the destinies of France. And, moreover, so 
small was Jenner's interest with those in authority, 
who chspensed favours in this country, that he never 
succeeded in obtaining an appointment for either of 
his nephews, or any other of his connexions. When 
recounting the ill-success of his many applications 
on their behalf, I have heard him good-humouredly 
remark, that he had once got a place for an excise- 
man, but nothing beyond it. 

In 1808 the National Institute of France had 
elected Jenner a corresponding member. The same 
distinguished body conferred a still higher honour 
upon him by placing him, on the 13th of May, 1811,* 
in the list of foreign associates. This vacancy was 
occasioned by the death of Dr. Maskelyne. The 
approbation of the Emperor and King was accorded 

* This honour was conferred on (he vaccination of the King 
of Rome. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 167 

to their choice at the Palace of Ilambouillet, on the 
19th of the same month. Sir Joseph Banks, in an- 
nouncing the honour, says — 

My dear Doctor, 

I have great pleasure in transmitting to you the notice of 
your election in the National Institute of France, in the place 
vacated by the demise of Dr. Maskelyne, and in congratu- 
lating you on your obtaining a place among a body of men 
who have so little humbled themselves before the arbitrary 
dispositions of their Sovereign as to have retained the title of 
National, when that of Imperial was offered to them, and 
who, I verily believe, are as little satisfied with the barljarous 
mode of warfare adopted by their chief, as we Englishmen 
can be. 

Adieu, my dear Doctor, 

Always faithfully yours, 

Joseph Banks. 
Soho-Square, 
Dec. 4th, 1811. 

On looking at the diploma forwarded by Delambre 
to Dr. Jenner, I observe a curious proof that the in- 
fluence of the Emperor had, at least in this instance, 
prevailed over the firmness of the members of the 
Institute. The engraved document was headed 
" Institut de France." In the copy before me, 
the abbreviation Imp. in a small hand is inserted 
after the word Institut. 

The cordial manner in which Sir Joseph commu- 
nicated this flattering mark of distinction, and his 
conduct on other occasions, in some degree oblite- 
rated from Jenner s mind the painful disappointment 



168 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

which he experienced when he assayed to have his 
first treatise on the Variolse Vaccinae pubKshed in 
the Transactions of the Royal Society. He has 
often mentioned the incident to me ; but I wished 
not to place it in a prominent situation, without at 
the same time showing that the person who at first 
was swayed by prejudice did not continue in error. 
I know not whether Sir Joseph had any secret ad- 
visers,* or whether, judging as others had done, he 
thought the matter altogether so extraordinary, that 
it could not with propriety find a place in the work 
for which it was originally destined. Dr. Haygarth, 
a most competent judge, entertained such sentiments 
w^hen the subject was first mentioned to him. We 
need not wonder, therefore, that others might de- 
cide in the same manner. I fear, notwithstanding 
every allowance, it must be admitted, that matters 
were managed somewhat uncourteously. When the 
subject was laid before to the President, Jenner was 
given to understand, that he should be cautious and 
l)rudent ; that he had already gained some credit 
by his communications to the Royal Society, and 
ought not to risk his reputation by presenting to 
the learned body anything which appeared so much 
at variance with established knowledge, and withal 
so incredible. 

Such were the opinions which were entertained of 
his discovery. I really am not inclined to bear hard 
upon the memory of the persons who so reasoned. 

* This point is set at rest by a letter of Dr. .Tenner to Mr. 
Moore, which will be found in ;i subsequent page. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 169 

Certainly they had not examined the subject fully; 
they had not investigated the admirable and conclu- 
sive e\'idence, as it is given in the inquiry ; and if they 
had, possibly conviction would not have followed. 
But be this as it may, Jenner was deterred from 
presenting his paper to the Royal Society ; and that 
body thereby lost the honour of placing among their 
most valuable records a contribution, which has 
done more for the relief of human misery than any 
work that man ever produced. 

Towards the close of this year he was gratified 
with an offering from an Italian muse. " II Trionfo 
della Vaccinia, Poema di Gioachino Ponta, Genovese/' 
was published at Parma, in 1810. The copy pre- 
sented to Jenner bears this inscription in the hand 
writing of the author. " Al chiarissimo Sig^. Dottore 
il Sig^ Edward Jenner, Genio benefico dell' umanita, 
in signo d'alta stima e devozione, I'Autore. Napoli, 
9th Nov. 1811." 

This work is beautifully printed, and with the 
notes occupies 286 pages. The author, in trans- 
mitting it, sent a very handsome letter to the follow- 
ing effect : 

In the course of last spring I did myself the honour, after 
having presented it to my Maecenas,* to send you a copy of 
my poem on the Triumph of Vaccination, for which mankind 
is so much indebted to you, and by which your name will be 
immortalized. The consul of Naples, who now resides at 
Tunis, was to have forwarded to the English consul this 

* Joachim Napoleon, King of the two Sicilies, ill-fated 
Murat ! 



170 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

book, together with another copy, which I sent him as a pre- 
sent, to induce him to take all possible care to convey this to 
you. The ship which was conveying it was taken, and all 
the goods of the consul sequestered or stolen. It hap- 
pened fortunately for me that your consul at Palermo knew 
of the arrest of these two volumes, and got them liberated. 
I do not know if he perused the letter which accompanied 
the copy dedicated to you ; I had no farther knowledge of 
the issue; the consul only knew that yours was sent to 
London. I will fain hope that you will have received it ; 
but should it not be so, in order to fulfil the great desire I 
have that you should receive it, I send you another copy 
through the means of the courteous Mr. Graham, a Scotch- 
man, who being exchanged for another distinguished prisoner 
of war is returning to his own country. 

I beg you. Sir, to accept this humble present of a work of 
which you are the sublime inspirer, and by which I have 
endeavoured to add to the rays of your glory. If peace 
should be concluded, and if I should have the means, which 
the post is now deprived of, I would myself present you 
with this tribute. 

Accept in the mean-time of the great esteem and good 
wishes of my heart, and the highest sentiments of considera- 
tion from. 

Sir, 

Your obedient humble servant, 

GlOACHINO PONTA. 

Naples, 
Nov. dih, 1811. 

This letter was translated, and a very faithful 
analysis of the poem itself was made from the origi- 
nal, by an excellent and accomplished lady, Miss 
Eliza Jenkins of Stone. She enjoyed the respect 
and friendship of Dr. Jenner, and most deservedly ; 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. l/l 

for her acquirements in ancient and modern litera- 
ture, as well as her numerous virtues, fully entitled 
her to the distinction. Stone is in the immediate 
vicinity of Berkeley ; and some of the happiest 
hours of the latter period of his life were spent in 
the society of this lady and her amiable sister. The 
poem of Ponta is divided into six cantos, and seems 
to have been formed on the ancient epic model. 
The action, or fable, as well as the characters and 
sentiments, evidently all have a reference to that 
lofty style of composition. 

The action centres in the discovery of the antidote 
to the awful infliction of the small-pox. The ma- 
chinery employed by the author in bringing about 
so great an event is such as modern poets have for 
the most part shunned. Gods and goddesses, spirits 
and imdsible agents, play their parts ; and the 
Fates ultimately reveal the secret to the " Immortal 
Jenner." After proposing the subject, and describ- 
ing the sufferings inflicted by the Arabian disease (as 
he styles it), and the insufficiency of all efforts to 
mitigate them, the pity of the Gods, after long delay, 
was excited, and Jenner was created to triumph over 
the malady. Then follows a tribute to the genius 
of the family of Napoleon. But it is not on martial 
exploits that the author intends to invoke his muse ; 
but to give an account of the ravages of the pestilence 
partly allegorical, and partly founded on the gene- 
rally received opinion of its breaking out in the time 
of the pseudo-prophet. The first three cantos de- 
scribe the consternation of Mahomet, at seeing death 



172 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

armed with such tremendous weapons. He invokes 
all the people subject to his authority to offer a 
grand holocaust to appease the offended deity. The 
other cantos contain a strange mixture of real with 
ideal personages, — Aaron, ^Esculapius, Hygeia, a 
Gnome (an evil genius), — all contribute to carry on 
the action. Towards the conclusion of the fourth 
canto, after introducing Jupiter, Venus, and Europa, 
and sundry other personages, the action is com- 
pleted, and it was blazoned forth, that the discovery 
which was to counteract the effects of the pestilence 
was to emanate from Berkeley, the birth-place of 
the immortal Jenner. To facilitate this great object, 
Jupiter decrees that Oromazes (a good genius) shall 
descend to the earth, to counteract in some degree 
the evil done by the Gnome, by imparting to Jenner 
the great secret. 

Scendi in Glocestro con veloci plume, 

Ivi uom vedrai, che in fronte ha una fiammella, 

E quando il mondo del diurno lume 

Fia muto e sveli notte ogni sua stella, 

Tu sfolgora di luce oltre il costume, 

E di te mostra fa subita e bella, 

E di^ a quel Sofo, Giove a te la cura 

Da di far scevera del Vaiuol Natura. 

Canto quinto, p. 186. 

The winged minister of Jove's high will flies to 
the banks of the Severn, and finds Jenner engaged 
in learned lucubrations on the Variolse, and sees a 
lovely band of virtues in his company. This divine 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 173 

genius then announces that his good and merciful 
actions had been seen, and that he was destined to 
still greater. 

Alio splendor raffiguro Jennero, 
Che vigil stava il medico talento 
Affaticando in freddo esame austero 
Meraviglioso ad operar portento ; 
E appunto al morbo Arabico il pensiero 
Di gran calcoli cinto aveva intento, 
E vide, che compagna a Jenner era 
Delle Virtudi la piu bella schiera. 

Canto quinto, p. 188. 

The sixth canto is chiefly occupied with the pro- 
gress of the vaccine discovery ; and there is a pretty 
and interesting account of the labours of the dif- 
ferent distinguished persons who exerted themselves 
in this cause. He lastly invokes the good genius to 
protect it, and entreats the young of both sexes to 
offer a due tribute of honour to Jenner. 

A Jenner questo altare, e il simulacro, 
E ai suoi seguaci e ai Re propizj e sacro. 

This is not an improper occasion to mention 
another effort of a foreign muse, entitled, " La 
D^couverte de la Vaccine, Poeme en trois Chants, 
par un M^decin." The author, who signs himself 
P. Py, D.M.M. (Aude) Narbonne, 18 r""''' 1816, 
discussed the origin of vaccination, the restora- 
tion of Louis XVIII. the merits of Jenner, and 
the benefits of his discovery, with great fervour. 



174 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

In this collocation he has assumed the licence 
of a poet ; and while he gives to England the 
honour of the discovery, ascribes to " la belle 
France' the glory of protecting and disseminating it. 
Much space cannot be allowed for a long quotation, 
but the following sentiments respecting Jenner are 
true in themselves, and gratifying from the pen of a 
French physician : — 

C'est lui qui nous apprit, du fond de I'Angleterre, 

Le remede au fleau des enfans de la terre ; 

Fut il jamais pour I'homme un sort plus glorieux 

Que celui qui la rende I'emule de nos Dieux ? 

De Faurore au couchant, de Tamise jusqu'a Gange, 

Tout se doit a Jenner, pour chanter sa louange. 

Seul, il a consacre notre destin futur ; 

Seul il merite aussi notre encens le plus pur. 

A gentleman, whose progress in literature Jenner 
had watched with the interest and anxiety of a 
friend, and who had already proved the possibility of 
combining poetic talent with antiquarian research, 
again strung his lyre in " An Ode to Hygeia on the 
Vaccine Inoculation." I here allude to the Rev. 
T. D. Fosbroke, the author of British Monachism, 
the Encyclopedia of Antiquities, and many other 
works. 

The origin of Vaccinia is thus described. 

EPODE. 

She was in verdant valleys born, Vaccinia hight ; 
A curious, wizard sage, who aye would pore 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 175 

On wondrous things from glens obscure as night, 

The goodly wand'rer to his cavern bore : 
Long was she coy; nor e'er would speak, but blush'd. 

Philosophy, to that wise sage long known. 
By him for this invoked, most softly hush'd 

Her fears, and drew her strangest things to own : 
" She sprung (she said) of lo and of Jove.'* 

Pregnant of her, (though nought is said in song,) 
When Juno's jealous ire had doom'd her rove 

In foul disguise amidst the horned throng, — 
The angry sire exclaim'd, '^ Be thou divine — 
The power o'er fell Variola be thine !" 

Another, who ranked high among the poets of the 
age, and who had a deep affection for the discoverer 
of vaccination, planned a poem upon this theme, 
which after long deliberation he had convinced 
himself '^ was capable in the highest degree of being 
poetically treated." He announced his intention to 
Jenner in a very impassioned letter ; but it is un- 
certain whether it was ever carried into execution. 
If not, one cannot but regret that so distinguished a 
writer as Mr. Coleridge should not have accom- 
plished his design. 

7, Portland-place, Hammersmith, 
near London, 2']th Sept. 1811. 

Dear Sir, 
I take the liberty of intruding on your time, first, to ask 
you where and in what publication I shall find the best and 
fullest history of the vaccine matter as preventive of the 
small-pox. I mean the year in which the thought first sug- 
gested itself to you, (and surely no honest heart would sus- 
pect me of the baseness of flattery if I had said, inspired 



176 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

into you by the All-preserver, as a counterpoise to the crush- 
ing weight of this unexampled war) and the progress of its 
realization to the present day. My motives are twofold : 
first and principally, the time is now come when the Courier 
(the paper of the widest circulation, and, as an evening 
paper, both more read in the country, and read at more 
leisure than the morning papers,) is open and prepared for a 
series of essays on this subject ; and the only painful 
thought that will mingle with the pleasure with which I 
shall write them, is, that it should at this day, and in this the 
native country of the discoverer and the discovery, be even 
expedient to write at all on the subject. My second motive 
is more selfish. I have planned a poem on this theme, 
which after long deliberation, I have convinced myself is 
capable in the highest degree of being poetically treated, 
according to our divine bard's own definition of poetry, 
as ^ simple, sensuous, (i. e. appealing to the senses, 
by imagery, sweetness of sound, &c.) and impassioned." — O, 
dear sir ! how must every good and warm-hearted man 
detest the hal^it of mouth panegyric and the fashion of 
smooth falsehood, were it only for this, — that it throws a 
damp on the honestest feelings of our nature when we speak 
or write to or of those whom we do indeed revere and love, 
and know that it is our duty to do so ; those concerning 
whom we feel as if they had lived centuries before our time, 
in the certainty that centuries after us all good and wise mei 
will so feel. This, this, dear sir, is true fame as contra- 
distinguished from the trifle, reputation ; the latter explains 
itself, quod iste putabat, hie putat, one man's echo of 
another man's fancy or supposition. The former is in truth 
<l>i)^i], u e. V (puTtv 01 KctXoKayadoi, through all ages, the united 
suffrage of the Church of Philosophy, the fatum or verdict 
unappealable. So only can we live and act exempt from the 
tyranny of time : and thus live still, and still act upon us, 
Hippocrates, Plato, Milton. And hence, too, while reputa- 
tion in any other sense than as moral character is a bubble. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 1/7 

fame is a ivorthy object for the best men, and an awful duty 
to those, whom Providence has gifted with the power to 
acquire it. For it is, in truth, no other than benevolence 
extended beyond the grave, active virtue no longer cooped 
in l)etween the cradle and the coffin. Excuse this overflow, 
and let me only add, that most grateful am I, and a con- 
solation it is to me for my own almost uselessness, that 
what I could most have wished to have done, — yea, had 
in lazy indefinite reveries early dreamt about doing, — has 
Ijeen eft'ected in my own lifetime, and by men whom I have 
seen, and many of whom I have called my friends ; in short, 
that I have known and personally loved Clarkson, Davy, 
Dr. Andrew Bell, and Jenner. 

But while I gratify my own feelings I am pressing pain- 
fully on yours. I will, therefore, avail myself of an acci- 
dent to change the subject. A very amiable lady, a par- 
ticular friend of mine, and dear to me as a sister, has l)een 
subject generally once or twice in a year to a severe tooth-ache. 
She has many decayed back teeth ; so many, as to put ex- 
traction almost out of the question ; and besides, from tlie 
circumstances of the case, and the manner in which her 
face, eyes, and head are aflected, I am convinced that the 
locality of the pain is in a great measure accidental ; that it is 
what I have heard called a nervous rheumatic aff'ection, and 
possibly dependent on some affection of the stomach or other 
parts of her inside. She is single, al)out six and twenty, 
has excellent health and spirits in all other respects, and 
bears this affliction with more than even feminine patience. 
Hot topical applications, such as tinctures of the pyrethrum, 
with ether, oil of cloves, &c. &c. give only momentary 
relief, or rather palliation. Her last attack was in No- 
vember last, when she was confined to her bed more 
than a month by it, and reduced to a skeleton. Yesterday 
she had a return, and I am sadly afraid of another fit of it. 
Should you remember any case in point in the course of 
your practice, and be able to suggest any mode of treatment, 

VOL. II. N 



17^ LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

I will not say that I should be most thankful, but only that 
you will make a truly estimable family both grateful and 
happy. My friend, Mr. Morgan, has under Mr. Andrews, 
to whom you were so kind as to give him a letter of introduc- 
tion, got rid entirely of his complaint. Though I still sus- 
pect it to have been symptomatic of some tendency, at least, 
to schirrus in some of the viscera, the liver probably. I 
have somewhere read or heard, that ipecacuanha in very 
large doses, so as not to act as an emetic, but as a sudorific, 
has effected great cures in rheumatic affections of uncertain, 
and, as they say, nervous kind. I have not yet read the 
answers, &c. &c. of Davy and Murray on the oxymuriatic, 
whether a chemical element or a compound ; but I own, 
that in Davy's first communication to the R. S. I appeared 
to myself to see a laxer logic than is common with him. I 
judge merely as a logician, taking the facts for granted, and 
applying the rules of logic as an algebraist, his rules to 
X. Y. Z. — With every wish for your life and health, believe 
me, dear sir, 

Most sincerely your respectful 
friend and servant, 

S. T. Coleridge. 
Be pleased to remember me to Mr. Pruen should you see 
him. 

I subjoin one more letter. It is from the Ho- 
nom'able and gallant Admiral Berkeley, who was 
then in command in the Tagus, The period at which 
it was written, as well as the events to which it 
refers, and the cordial friendship which it expresses 
for Jenner, all conspire to give it interest. 

Lisbon, March I6th, 1812. 
My dear Sir, 
Many thanks for the vaccine matter, as well as for your 
letter of December 1st, which I only received yesterday, 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. l?^ 

owing to the detention of the Melpomene at Spithead. We 
have had a very cold winter, for this climate, Anth more frost 
than has been known for a long period, and, even now, the 
weather resembles more the month of March in England 
than Lisbon. Your anecdote of the gods who squabbled 
about hot or cold baths amused me. And I hope to dedi- 
cate Cullum's new ones to Hygeia, and that the Portuguese 
goddesses will dip their charms with more convenience as 
well as delicacy. I have procured an old fort by the water- 
side, which was formerly used as a custom-house, and there 
being a very good house in it, CuUum has fitted it up for 
warm as well as cold baths, and a very convenient as well 
as an elegant specvdation it will be. No such thing in Lis- 
bon, and very much wanted. It is astonishing how much 
more the rheumatism affects every body here than in our 
climate. The air is so much thinner and sharp, and the 
transitions from heat and cold more frequent. Your account 
of the eau medicitial has stamped a credit upon it with me, 
that I own I did not give it before, and I should not hesitate 
taking it, if a paroxysm of gout should occur. But I think 
the rheumatism has driven him out of the house. Our 
troops are, in general, in the most perfect health : but it is 
surprising how the ague has been felt amongst the officers, 
and how it adheres to them, like the Walcheren fever. My 
son has, thank God ! enjoyed his health throughout the whole 
campaign, and has seen the whole of it, M'ith credit to him- 
self and satisfaction to his superiors. God preserve him 
through the whole, for he is a credit to his name. I am 
going up myself to the siege of Badajos, by desire of Lord 
Wellington, to meet him, and to see the effect of a noble 
battering train, which I have furnished from the navy. Lady 
Emily desires to be most kindly remembered to you, and 
is tolerably well, although the complaint still exists in the 
shape of a dumb gout, which swells her joints, and is painful 
at times, M'ithout inflammation or redness. I believe Dr. 
Cullum intends thanking you for all your kindness and 

N 2 



180 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

civil inquiries, which Dr. M'Neil, whom you saw at Chel- 
tenham some little time since, repeated to him this day. 
Of our native town you may conceive my affectionate regard 
for it to be equal to yours. While I have strength to hold 
my pen, I will sign myself your ever sincere friend, and 
very faithful obedient servant, 

G. Berkeley. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 181 



CHAPTER VI. 



LIBELS — PROGRESS OF VACCINATION — DEGREE OF M.D. BY 
DIPLOMA CONFERRED UPON DR. JENNER BY THE UNI- 
VERSITY OF OXFORD DISCUSSIONS IN THE COLLEGE OF 

PHYSICIANS — LORD BORINGDON's BILL TO RESTRAIN SMALL- 
POX — JENNER's OCCUPATIONS IN THE COUNTRY HIS IN- 
TERVIEWS Vl^ITH THE DUCHESS OF OLDENBURGH AND THE 
ALLIED SOVEREIGNS — ADDRESS FROM BRUNN IN MORAVIA 
— LETTER OF SCEMMERING, WITH DIPLOMA, FROM MUNICH. 



After an anxious and more than usually pro- 
tracted residence at Cheltenham, I find Jenner at 
Berkeley, early in February, 1812. Independent of 
domestic causes of disquiet, he was particularly an- 
noyed by the atrocious falsehoods of the anti-vaccin- 
ists. Some of his friends were inclined to urge him 
to seek redress in a court of law ; but I am most 
thankful to say that he did not follow their counsel. 
He had better advice conveyed to him by Mr. (after- 
wards Baron) Garrow, who spoke on the occasion like 
a man of wisdom, and with a full perception of the 
real weight of Jenner's character. When the sub- 
ject was mentioned to him by a friend, he observed. 



182 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

" the truth probably is, that I should have been too 
vain to have been consulted by the greatest human 
benefactor of the human race, and am therefore mor- 
tified by any thing which may deprive me of that 
gratification of my pride and vanity. You may, 
however, tell him, that there could indeed be very 
few libels which I should suffer such a man to dig- 
nify by noticing." Never was sounder advice given ; 
for, I believe, the libels and the libellers are both 
forgotten. 

The affairs of the National Vaccine Establishment 
were conducted with vigour and effect under the 
superintendence of the new board, of which Sir 
Francis Milman was the head. Mr. Moore, who ad- 
mired Jenner for his talents, and loved him for his 
virtues, executed the duties of his department with 
unremitting zeal. He continued to lament sincerely 
that Jenner was separated from the establishment. 

The Report for 1812 was of a peculiarly gratifying 
nature. Many of the most important documents 
which it contained were supplied by Dr. Jenner. A 
few of these are of so striking a nature that I must 
mention them. 

At the Havannah, though the small-pox had been 
extremely fatal in that city, no death had occurred 
from that disease for two years. In the Caraccas 
and in Spanish America, the small-pox had been ex- 
tinguished by vaccination. The same beneficial re- 
sults were obtained both at Milan and Vienna, in which 
latter place the average mortality from small-pox had 
amounted to eight hundred annually. The returns 
from France have been already alluded to in the first 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 183 

volume. From a report presented to the class of 
Physical Sciences of the Institute by Messrs. Ber- 
thoUet, Perc^, and Halle, it appears that of 2,671,662 
persons properly vaccinated, only seven had taken 
the small-pox, which is as 1 to 381,666. It is added 
that the well-authenticated instances of small-pox 
after small-pox are proportionably far more nume- 
rous. 

In Russia, from the year 1804 to 1812, 1,235,597 
were vaccinated, and in two years (1810 and 1811) 
the returns from the different stations in the Presi- 
dency of Madras gave 305,676 vaccinations ; of this 
number 245,125 were Hindoos. The following im- 
portant and interesting document accompanied the 
Russian Report. It is from the pen of Sir Alexander 
Crichton. 

St. Petersburgh, 12th Sept. 1812. 

Dear Sir, 

The reestablishment of peace between England and Russia 
being happily concluded, I embrace an early opportunity of 
sending you a letter on the state of vaccination in this em- 
pire, as I am convinced that the encouragement it meets with 
from the government, its gradual extension and success, 
cannot fail to be interesting to you. As all the reports on 
this subject, and indeed all those which regard every branch 
of medical police, or the health of the inhabitants, are ad- 
dressed to me, it is in my power to give you the most accu- 
rate account of the progress of your beneficial discovery. 
Having been, as you well know, one of your earliest advo- 
cates in England, and having never wavered in my opinion 
concerning its great advantages, you need not doubt that I 
do all in my power to encourage and support vaccination in 
Russia. 



184 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

I have annexed for you a list which I caused to be made 
out, of all the children who have been vaccinated in the Rus- 
sian empire from the year 1804 to 1812. It is arranged in 
such a manner that you will see the progress of vaccination 
in each government during each of the intervening years 
between 1804 and 1812, and to shew you the manner in 
which the evidence is collected, I have added one of the half 
yearly lists of one of the governments, translated by one of 
my secretaries into French. I have chosen one of the 
most distant and least civilised governments (Irkutsk) for 
this purpose. It is inhabited, as you well know, by different 
tribes of Tartars, chiefly by the Bouriates (or, as. in England 
they are commonly called, Bourations), and by the Tungu- 
sians. We have also in this government a great number of 
Mantchu Tartars, being probably the original stock of the 
Mogul race. You will find that one of your most zealous 
inoculators in these distant regions is a priest of the great 
Lama, himself a Lama. 

The whole number of children inoculated in the empire, 
concerning whom the government has received certain intel- 
ligence, amounts to 1,235,597. Now supposing, according 
to a well-founded rule of calculation, that before the intro- 
duction of vaccination every seventh child died annually of 
the small-pox, vaccination has saved the lives in this empire 
of 176,514 children; and in an empire like this, where the 
population is a great deal too scanty in proportion to its ex- 
tent, such a saving of human life is of the greatest impor- 
tance. Many generations must pass away before Russia 
will have any occasion to dread Mr. Malthus's predictions. 

In May 1811, the Emperor signed an ukase which has 
given more activity to vaccination throughout his empire 
than formerly existed, 

ORDERS. 

1 . All the clergy to co-operate with the beneficent views 
oi the Emperor in destroying the prejudices which exist 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 185 

among the people against the inoculation of the cow-pox, 
or as it is now called in Russia the pock of surety. 

2. To establish in each of the capitals and in every govern- 
ment town a committee of vaccination, consisting of the go- 
vernor, vice-governor, the marshal of the nobility, the most 
distinguished clergyman and the first physician of the 
government. This Committee issues its orders and advice 
to committees established in each district of each government, 
and those inferior committees are composed of the mayor of 
the district town, the first clergyman of the place, and the 
physician of the district, and the intendant of the district. 

8. The duty of the committees is, 

(a) To keep exact lists of all the children in the govern- 
ment who have not been inoculated. 

(b) To see that all children be inoculated by proper 
people. 

(c) To furnish good matter and proper instruments for 
vaccination. 

fd) To cause instructions to be given to pupils who devote 
themselves to this occupation. 

4. Permitting the committees to enact such by-laws, and 
to adopt such modifications of measures as local circum- 
stances may require. They are further ordered to make out 
accurate lists of all who have been inoculated in the districts 
and consequently in the government, and to transmit them 
to the minister of the police, from whom they are sent to 
my office. 

5. The Committees of vaccination are ordered to see that 
the practice and the art of vaccination be introduced into all 
schools and seminaries, and that the students of all classes 
be able to practise it before they leave the seminaries, and to 
see that all midwives be properly instructed in this art. 
The said Committees are to distribute a popular work on 
vaccination, printed at the expense of the crown, in all the 
languages in use throughout the empire, and which contains 
a clear, but abridged history of the disease, its real signs and 



186 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

manner of distinguishing the spurious kinds, with rules when 
to take the matter to inoculate, and treat the inflammation 
when accidentally increased, &c. 

Three years are allowed for vaccinating the whole empire, 
after which period there must not be found man, woman, or 
child, the newly born excepted, who have not been vacci- 
nated. 

The same ukase established appropriate rewards for the 
members of committees, and for inoculators who have been 
zealous in this good work, 

I have sent you, along with this letter, a case of instru- 
ments, which I have approved for vaccination, and which is 
distriliuted gratis to the committees. 1 have also sent you 
some of the caricature prints in favour of vaccination. These 
operate as much on the minds of the poor peasants as the 
most eloquent discourses of the clergy. 

Notwithstanding the supreme order of Ilis Imperial Ma- 
jesty, that all liis subjects be vaccinated within three years, 
we find, that powerful as His Majesty is, this cannot be ex- 
ecuted. There is a power greater than sovereignty, namely, 
the conscience or religious opinions of men, and in one or two 
of the distant governments there exists a peculiar religious 
sect, belonging to the Greek church, who esteem it a damna- 
ble crime to encourage the propagation of any disease, or to 
employ any doctors, or to swallow any medicines under the 
visitations of God. Reason has been employed in vain with 
these poor people ; they have been threatened with severe 
punishment in case they remained refractory on such points, 
but all to no purpose. They have no priesthood, but at- 
tempts have been made to gain those of the community who 
have most influence with them, but all to no purpose. You 
may well imagine that no punishment has been employed, 
though threatened; and the government has come to the wise 
resolution of leaving this dispute to time. 

I have thought that this short account of the state of vacci- 
nation in Russia would be acceptable to you. You may 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 187 

communicate it to my old friend and acquaintance, Bradley, 
if you deem it sufficiently interesting for his Journal. 
Dear Sir, yours very sincerely, 

Alex. Crichton. 

The documents which were transmitted to Dr. 
Jenner from the authorities in Bombay and Bengal 
proved that in the territories under their jurisdiction 
vaccination was carried on with undiminished suc- 
cess. Measures likev\dse had been taken to intro- 
duce the cow-pox into the territories of the Rajah of 
Coorg and the island of Java. 

When this island fell under the dominion of the 
English (in 1811), the late lamented Sir Stamford 
Raffles was appointed Lieutenant-Governor. With 
the wisdom and benevolence which distinguished all 
his public actSjhe immediately took measures to diffuse 
and perpetuate the practice of vaccination. In adjust- 
ing the revenue of the country portions of land at- 
tached to each village were set apart for the support 
of a vaccine establishment ; and a certain number of 
vaccinators were appointed for each district. These 
vaccinators were under the immediate superintend- 
ance of European surgeons, and the lands or Sawahs 
have had the word Jennerian attached to them. The 
Sawahs Jennerian thus handed over in perpetuity 
to support the cause of vaccination are recognized in 
all the rent rolls of the country. 

Sir Stamford Raffles on his arrival in England in 
1816, communicated these facts to Dr. Coley of 
Cheltenham, who published an account of them in 
the Medico-Chirurgical Journal for February 1817. 



188 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

He also transmitted them to Dr. Jenner, who ac- 
knowledged his kindness in the following letter. 

To Dr. Coi-ey, Cheltenham. 

My DEAR Sir, Berkeley, Sept. 5th, 1816. 

I am greatly obliged to you for your communication re- 
specting the introduction of the vaccine into the island of 
Java, and beg you to present my respectful compHments 
and thanks to Mr. Raffles for his very interesting letter on 
the subject, and to assure him how happy I should be in 
having the honour of a visit from him at Berkeley. I cer- 
tainly would pay my respects to him at Cheltenham, were 
I not at present so entangled with a varirety of engagements. 

It would doubtless be gladly received if a copy of the 
governor's letter were sent to the National Vaccine Esta- 
blishment, which is too complimentary for me to think of 
sending myself. It strikes me that it would prove beneficial, 
if some copies of the instructions for conducting the pro- 
cess of vaccination were sent from the National Vaccine Es- 
tablishment to Java, as they contain some minutiae perhaps 
not yet known to the medical practitioners there. Some of 
the Annual Reports of the Establishment would also be read 
with interest, and I am certain that Dr. Hervey would be 
glad to send them. 

I cannot conclude without thanking you for your labo- 
rious exertions during the late epidemic small-pox at Chel- 
tenham ; but how shocking it is to think, that the labours of 
any medical man should be called forth at the present period 
on such an occasion ; and in a town where, for a long series 
of years, I daily oifered my services gratuitously to the pub- 
lic. By your saying nothing on the subject, I infer that the 
small-pox has now quitted the town. 

Believe me, dear Sir, 

very truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

Sir Stamford accepted Dr. Jenner's invitation, and 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 189 

visited him at Berkeley. It may well be su}3posed 
that two such persons could not meet without find- 
ing many kindi'ed themes for mutual discussion and 
edification. Sir Stamford's pursuits in natural his- 
tory had been carried on with unbounded energy, 
and on the most magnificent scale. He had not 
then, it is true, made that splendid collection, which 
promised so much to enrich our knowledge of the 
productions of the East, and the destruction of which 
he was doomed to witness. The labours of twenty 
years all swept away, reduced to ashes in a few^ hours, 
was a trial which few men could have borne with 
equanimity. 

The University of Oxford at the commencement 
of vaccination had been injudiciously importuned 
to confer an honorary degree on Jenner. This at- 
tempt was very properly resisted. Such a common 
and undistinguishing mark of academical approba- 
tion was held not to be sufficient if the discovery 
turned out to be as important as it promised ; while, 
on the other hand, it did not become such a body to 
move in a matter of this kind till the value of the 
discovery had been fully proved. 

In the year 1813 the question was brought before 
the university, and in full convocation the degree of 
M.D. by diploma was unanimously voted to him. 
This proceeding, not less honourable to that distin- 
guished body than to the individual who was thus 
signalised, it was imagined would open the portals of 
the College of Physicians to him, and remove all 
objections to his taking a seat at the vaccine board ; 
but it will appear in the sequel that it turned out 
otherwise. 



190 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

He invited me to accompany liim when he went 
to receive the diploma; and I did so with much 
satisfaction. We left Cheltenham on the morning 
of Tuesday the 14th of December 1813, and arrived 
at Oxford in the evening. He was playful and in- 
genious as usual, during the progress of our journey, 
but at times a little depressed by anxiety for his son 
Robert, who had just returned from school with 
cough. He said that he so much resembled his son 
who died, that he could not but feel alarm. 

Next morning he was waited upon by Sir Chris- 
topher Pegge and Dr. Kidd, the professors of Ana- 
tomy and Chemistry. They presented the diploma 
with becoming expressions of respect. They men- 
tioned that it was an honour which had not been con- 
ferred on any man for nearly seventy years before. 
Jenner behaved with much simplicity and dignity. 
" It is remarkable," said he, " that I should have 
been the only one of a long line of ancestors and 
relations who was not educated at Oxford. They 
were determined to turn me into the meadows, in- 
stead of allowing me to flourish in the groves of 
Academus. It is better, perhaps," he then ob- 
served, " as it is, especially as I have arrived at your 
highest honours, without complying with your ordi- 
nary rules of discipline." He then reluctantly put on 
his gown and cap, because, he said, the thing was 
unusual to him, and he could not help thinking that 
he should be an object of remark in the eyes of 
others, forgetting for the instant that he was at Ox- 
ford, and not at Cheltenham. 

Almost all the learned societies in Europe had con- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 191 

ferret! their highest honours on Jenner. In thus 
coming forward to mark their sense of his eminent 
services and merits, they truly thought that all steps 
and gradations by which the fitness of ordinary men 
for such distinctions are ascertained, might in his 
case be dispensed w^th. There was no risk that such 
relaxation of the rules of academical discipline could 
ever lead to the establishment of an injurious prece- 
dent. Claims like Jenner's ever have been of rare 
occurrence, and the elevation of such a person, so 
far from tending to depreciate the value of literary 
or scientific distinctions, could have no other effect 
than to give them additional influence and lustre 
in the eyes of every just and generous man. The 
University of Oxford, jealous though she be of her 
honours, had not scrupled to give a noble example 
to all other learned corporations. Unfortunately 
this example was not followed, especially in one 
quarter where it would have been most graceful and 
becoming. Many members of the College of Phy- 
sicians of London had strong and right feelings on 
this subject. They were conscious that the name 
of Jenner might well have been associated in fellow- 
ship with that of Linacre, Caius, or Harvey, and 
gladly would they have accomplished this object, 
though not in the usual course required by their 
statutes. Several ineffectual efforts were made to 
bring about this very desirable measure, even before, 
I believe, the Oxford diploma had been granted. 
This occurrence, it was conceived, would immediately 
remove the strongest objection. " No," said some 
of the fellows, " it is true that Dr. Jenner, coming 



192 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

from Oxford as lie does, may, if he chooses, claim 
admission into our body, but he can only take his 
place with us after undergoing the usual examina- 
tions." The individuals who thus reasoned, after 
protracted debates carried their point. From a let- 
ter about to be submitted to the reader, it will ap- 
pear that Dr. Jenner was no party to any of these 
transactions. He never courted this nor any other 
such testimony ; and it may perhaps be questioned 
whether the learned body did not lose an opportu- 
nity of conferring- as much honour upon themselves 
as they could have bestowed upon the author of 
vaccination. This, I am well assured, was the con- 
viction of many of the most distinguished of its 
members, and no one entertained it more strongly 
than the late generous and warm-hearted Dr. Baillie. 
If I am not much misinformed, he spoke his senti- 
ments with unusual animation and warmth. As 
soon as Dr. Jenner knew of the discussion that had 
taken place, he wrote to the following effect to Dr. 
Cooke of Gower Street. 

You saw by my reply to your first letter that I was not 
ambitious of becoming a fellow of the College of Physicians ; 
your second has completely put an end to every feeling of 
the sort, and I hasten to request you to stop the progress of 
anything that may be preparing for my approach to War- 
wick Lane. In ray youth I went through the ordinary 
course of a classical education, obtained a toleraljle profi- 
ciency in the Latin language, and got a decent smattering of 
the Greek ; but the greater part of it has long since transmi- 
grated into heads better suited for its cultiA'ation. At my 
time of life to set about brushing up would be irksome to me 
beyond measure : I would not do it for a diadem. That 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 193 

indeed would be a bauble, I would not do it for John 
Hunter's Museum ; and that, you will allow, is no trifle. 
How fortunate I have been in receiving your kind commu- 
nication ! If the thing had gone on, it would have been em- 
barrassing to both parties. I wish you would frame a by- 
law for admitting men among you who would communicate 
new discoveries for the improvement of the practice of phy- 
sic. On this score (not alluding to vaccination), I could 
face your inquisition with some degree of firmness. 

March \5th, 1814, 

The next important public event that was intended 
to bear upon the practice of vaccination w^as a legis- 
lative measure to modify and restrain within certain 
limits the practice of small-pox inoculation. It was 
impossible by a peremptory decree, such as had been 
issued by the autocrat of Russia, to enforce vacci- 
nation in this country ; but it was perfectly consis- 
tent with our usages and constitution to place the 
practice of small-pox inoculation under some degree 
of restraint. In consequence of the adoption of vac- 
cination by most respectable medical men, many of 
the lower classes took up the small-pox lancet, and 
disseminated the disease in a very frightful manner. 
Some medical men, too, surrendered their own judg- 
ment at the bidding of their patients, and did not 
scruple to employ small-pox, when required so to do, 
even though they preferred vaccination. This was 
a case of conscience, which, as has been already 
stated, was warmly taken up in Jenner's own county ; 
and those who did so were desirous that their rea- 
soning should be admitted and acted upon by every 
professional man in the kingdom. They felt that the 

VOL. II. O 



194 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

fears of the public were likely to be fatally cherished 
by the lamentable indecision of every man who could 
be induced for any consideration to vaccinate with 
one hand, and to variolate with the other. The 
absolute abandonment of the latter practice by all 
who had satisfied themselves of the security afforded 
by vaccination, was considered to be a duty of a 
plain and commanding nature. There was great 
difficulty in getting some men to adopt this \dew of 
the question, and a few rather influential persons 
thought it not inconsistent publicly to recommend 
cow-pox, and yet to employ small-pox inoculation 
when required to do so. 

I am happy to say, that two years afterwards our 
principle was followed by the Colleges of Surgeons, 
both of London and Dublin, who publicly pledged 
themselves not to inoculate with small-pox ; and 
they recommended all their members to enter into 
similar engagements. 

With all these convincing testimonies from learned 
men, and unquestionable proof of the power of cow- 
pox in controlling and extinguishing small-pox 
wherever it was generally practised, it is rather 
humiliating to find Dr. Jenner traduced and libelled, 
and small-pox itself diffused in such an alarming and 
unrestrained manner, that it was attempted to check 
the latter evil by a parliamentary enactment. The 
board of the National Vaccine Establishment, I be- 
lieve, not only approved of this measure ; but, if I 
am not misinformed, the heads of the bill were di- 
gested and arranged under their superintendence. 
The bill itself for regulating the practice of small- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. l95 

pox inoculation, and checking the diffusion of that 
disease, was brought before the House of Lords on 
the 1st of July by Lord Boringdon. His lordship, 
on introducing it to the House, took occasion to ob- 
serve, that the principle on which it was founded 
had often been acted upon and recognised by the 
legislature. He showed, that in all ci\ilised commu- 
nities, indiiiduals were restrained from exercising 
unlimited dominion over their persons or pro- 
perty ; and that many statutes had been passed for 
preventing the spreading of contagious diseases. He 
particularly dwelt upon those which had been enacted 
in order to stay the progress of the plague. Arguing 
on these premises, he rightly contended that similar 
provisions ought to be put in force against the plague 
of small-pox. He therefore recommended that regu- 
lations should be adopted in all cases where this dis- 
ease existed, either in consequence of inoculation or 
casual infection. His lordship's design was not to 
interfere with the will of parents in adopting either 
vaccination or small-pox inoculation. " If, how- 
ever," said he, " the latter be chosen, it is desirable 
that the surrounding neighbourhood should as much 
as possible be protected from the spreading of the 
contagion." To secure this very desirable object, 
the bill contained sundry clauses and enactments, 
which I am sorry to say are still much called for. 
Others were of a more questionable nature, and were 
rather calculated (in this country, at least,) to give 
an air of levity to a very serious subject. In the 
case of children inoculated at the expense of the 
parish, it was very properly intended that the vaccine 

o2 



196 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

should alone be employed. The bill was opposed 
by the Lord Chancellor, and by Lord Ellenborough. 
Both these noble lords contended that the common 
law as it now stands was better calculated to prevent 
the spreading- of the small-pox than any of the pro- 
visions of the present bill. Lord EUenborough, after 
clearly and forcibly explaining the common law, and 
ridiculing some of the clauses of Lord Boringdon's 
bill, is reported thus to have spoken of vaccination 
itself. " No doubt," he observed, " it was of some 
use, but he did not concur in all the praise bestowed 
upon it in this bill ; but if the noble lord considered 
it a complete preventive of the small pox, he differed 
with him in opinion. At the same time, he had 
shewn his respect for the discovery, for he had had 
eight children vaccinated. He believed in its efficacy 
to a certain extent : it might prevent the disorder 
for eight or nine years, and was desirable in a large 
city like this, and where there was a large family of 
children." 

After a few words from Lord Redesdale, and a 
short reply from Lord Boringdon, the bill was with- 
drawn. It was certainly rather a crude measure ; 
the enactments had not been maturely considered ; 
some of them were inconsistent with the habits of 
the country, others were impracticable ; and the solid 
principle, alike recognised by the common and sta- 
tute law, was in some degree overlaid by the compa- 
ratively unimportant machinery of the bill. If, keep- 
ing steadily in view the principle just alluded to, it 
had been further enacted, that no one should be per- 
mitted to propagate small-pox by inoculation but a pro- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 197 

perly qualified professional man, and had the laws 
which forbid the exposure of persons labouring under 
contagious diseases been more clearly explained and 
enforced, every benefit that could have been expect- 
ed from legislative interference in this country would 
have been obtained. The only new enactment that 
was required, is at once so simple and so just, that 
one can scarcely anticipate any opposition to it ; and 
even now, were it adopted, it would be of infinite 
service. 

The fate of the bill was, I beheve, not unexpected 
by Dr. Jenner, but the concluding part of the obser- 
vations of Lord EUenborough were not less unlooked 
for than incorrect in themselves, and injurious in 
their consequences. 1 have seldom seen Jenner more 
disturbed than he was by this occurrence, and not 
certainly because he had any fears that the unsup- 
ported assertion of his lordship would prove correct, 
but because it unhappily accorded with popular pre- 
judices, and when uttered by such a person, in such 
an assembly, was calculated to do unspeakable mis- 
chief. His friends took the same view of the sub- 
ject, and were of opinion that something should be 
done to prove to the Chief Justice, that though his law 
might be good, his physic was bad. " Ponebat enim 
rumores ante salutem ! " But how to convince so dig- 
nified a person, speaking from his pri\aleged station in 
the Upper House, that this really was the case ; that 
he was unsettling the confidence of numberless 
anxious parents ; and that by attempting to deprive 
vaccination of more than half its virtues, he was pro- 
moting the practice which he professed himself will- 



198 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ing to control, was a question somewhat difficult of 
solution. 

It is a remarkable thing, that all evidence which 
had been accumulated on the subject was in direct 
opposition to his lordship's opinion. That derived 
from casual cases of cow-pox carried us back to a 
period of fifty or sixty years, and the direct testi- 
mony from the history of vaccination itself, led 
clearly to the conclusion, that the protection which 
it afforded against subsequent attacks of small-pox 
was as great as small-pox itself gives. The decla- 
rations, however, of the Chief Justice too much 
accorded with popular prejudices, and the anti-vacci- 
nists were doing all in their power to make them 
effective ; and doubtless were not a little proud of 
the co-operation of his lordship. Jenner's own feel- 
ings on the subject were, I believe, somewhat ex- 
cited by the incident which will be found in another 
part of this volume. The noble lord who had very 
indiscreetly put forward an unfounded statement in 
Jenner's hearing at St. James's, and had been re- 
buked for so doing, might, it was supposed, have not 
forgotten this occurrence when descanting on the 
same subject in another place. The reader may 
easily make allowance for the sensitiveness of Dr. 
Jenner on the subject ; for, though he was the last 
man in the world to be influenced by mere personal 
considerations, it was not to be supposed that he 
should be unmoved by the reiteration of sentiments 
deeply affecting the cause of vaccination, but espe- 
cially when uttered by an individual so high in sta- 
tion and authority. He therefore felt that the fallacy 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 199 

of the reasoning should be exposed, and the assump- 
tions on which it was founded contradicted by well 
attested and conclusive facts. A small pamphlet, 
containing such materials, was prepared by myself; 
but some delay having taken place in the publication, 
the subject became less urgent, and it was allowed 
to drop. 

I now gladly turn to scenes of a different kind — 
scenes more congenial to Jenner, more in unison 
with the prevailing tone of his character. The 
atmosphere of a large city never accorded well with 
his taste : still less could he endure the strife en- 
gendered by professional jealousy or emulation. 
He turned away from them with aversion ; and 
whenever he was compelled to encounter any thing 
of this kind, he resumed his peaceful and rural life 
with increased relish. I never saw this more strik- 
ingly exemplified than at this period. He had 
then occasional opportunities of breaking loose from 
all the sources of his care, and he enjoyed himself 
amidst the beauties of his neighbourhood in a man- 
ner which spoke as much for his wisdom, as it did 
for the purity and simplicity of his mind. 

One of his favourite haunts was Barrow Hill. It 
is situated in a peninsula, formed by the first and 
boldest sweep of the Severn. It rises very little 
above the surrounding country, and the stranger on 
approaching it could form no conception of the na- 
ture of the scenery it commands. The road from 
the village of Frampton passes through a low, but 
rich and well-wooded part of the vale ; but it pro- 
mises nothing in the way of picturesque beauty or 



200 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

grandeur. The ascent from the bottom of the hill 
to the top is a beautiful green sloping bank, and 
the greatest elevation is very inconsiderable. It was 
Jenner's habit to seek the summit when the sun was 
going down, and when the rapid course of the 
sweeping- tide had brought the Severn to its highest 
level. Under such circumstances, the \iew, from 
whatever point it was contemplated, was full of love- 
liness. Looking southwards, the riA'er expanded to 
a great breadth, and in consequence of the situation 
of a prominent headland on either side, it assumed 
the character of a lake spread beneath the specta- 
tor's feet, bounded on one side by the bold and 
picturesque features of the forest of Dean, and on 
tlie other seeming to lose itself in the flat surface of 
the vale, which, after a deep woody expanse, is itself 
terminated by the hills. In the distance beyond 
this land-locked reach, the opening into the Bristol 
Channel bursts upon the eye, and its vicinity to the 
mighty ocean may be discerned by the character of 
the vessels w^hich it bears upon its surface. Not 
like the little barks which he in wait for the filling 
of the river to enable them to pass over its shoals 
and its sand-banks, a tall and stately ship may now 
and then be seen stretching across the estuary, and 
bearing her cargo, it may be, from the Sister Isle, or 
" Nations besides from all the quartered winds." 

At the close of a summer's day, when a flood of 
golden light rushes through the openings which are 
formed by the deep valleys in the forest of Dean, 
and is reflected from the smooth surface of the water, 
the tranquil splendour of the scene is very captivat- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 201 

ing. Tlie lazy vessels which had been lying with 
their sails furled now begin to give signs of life and 
motion. The anchor is weighed, and the wings are 
expanded to the evening breeze, which, aided by the 
swift and high-swelling tide, carries them proudly 
along, till they approach almost to the spectator, 
and sweep round the beautiful bend of the river that 
nearly encircles the spot on which he stands. 

Looking westward and northward, the view is 
bounded by the forest of Dean. At one part it 
rises gently from the river side ; at another, it seems 
to start boldly and abruptly, and to oppose a firm 
and strong barrier to the farther encroachments of 
the Severn. The church of Awre stands on a 
sloping verge ; beyond it, rise in beautiful succes- 
sion undulating banks covered with orchards and 
oak-timber. Close to the banks of the river, and at 
the bottom of the more abrupt rising of the forest, 
lies the town of Newnham, and immediately above 
it, on the brow of the hill, is the village of Little 
Dean. Carrying the eye along the reach of the 
Severn, from Newnham, a bold precipitous bank is 
seen : it finely contrasts with the surrounding ob- 
jects, and shews its bare and almost perpendicular 
red surface where the contiguous landscape is soft 
and beautiful. This is Westbury Cliff, and here is 
the bone-bank, which has been already spoken of as 
one of the haunts of Jenner. He had a particular 
fondness for this scenery. It was endeared to him 
by many interesting associations. It was very near 
the residence of some of his oldest friends. It com- 
manded a view of the trees which overshadowed his 



202 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

much-loved home ; and he could also see Pyrton, 
Awre, the Hock Crib, Westbury Cliif, all interesting 
to him from the many and happy opportunities 
which they had afforded him for pursuing his favou- 
rite studies. In the summers of the years 1812, J 3, 
and 14, he enjoyed several days of delightful recrea- 
tion in re-visiting this spot. During the periods 
just mentioned he had, I believe, greater freedom 
from professional care, and was permitted more 
tranquilly to meditate on the great blessings which 
his discovery was daily conferring on mankind, 
than at any former period since its promulgation. 
Instead of courting the elevation which it naturally 
gave, he returned, with a mind uninfluenced by 
the distinction he had acquired, to all the simple 
enjoyments of early days. 

He promoted a little social meeting, which he 
called the Barrow Hill Club. The members were 
few, consisting of himself, Mr. Gardner,* Mr. Henry 

* Poor Gardner wrote a Poem, entitled Barrow Hill, de- 
scriptive of its scenery, from which the following lines are 
extracted. 

Whilst warm the vivid feelings glow, 
Softly I '11 mount yon gentle summit's brow. 
And gaze below where rough Sabrina pours 
Along the bending vale her Cambrian stores. 
Charm'd with the scene, the stream prolongs its stay, 
And gently ling'ring winds its lengthen'd way. 
Triumphant view ! New worlds before us rise. 
Flush on the gaze, and strain the busy eyes : 
The far-off blue-hill where the mantling cloud 
Weaves round its lofty brow a misty shroud ; 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 203 

Hicks, the Rev. Robert Halifax, myself, and now and 
then an occasional visitor. Two or three times in 
each of the summers just mentioned, we were in the 
habit of meeting at the Bell Inn in Frampton. 

The wide-stretcli'd field with yellow harvests warm. 

The whiten'd cottage, the encircled farm : 

The stream's bold reach along its redd'ning side. 

The march majestic of its solemn tide ; 

The shades of rugged rock and fringing wood. 

That undulating dance adown the flood ; 

Queen of the western streams, hail Severn, hail ! 

AVide boast of Cambria ! glory of the vale ! 

As Mr. Gardner's prose is better than his poetry, and as the 
following letter alludes to events quite in harmony with those 
described in the text, I subjoin it. 

To Dr. Jenner. 

Frampton, '2lsl May, 1817. 
My dear Friend, 

I received yours, with the vaccine virus inclosed, by Mr 
Pearson ; I very much thank you for your kindness. I have 
long practised the method of inoculation you describe, agreeable 
to your former instructions. From some unaccountable causes, 
the fame of vaccination seems to decline in this part of the 
country : I find my ofl'ers of gratuitous service very frequently 
rejected even by those whose former children have undergone 
the operation. 

Some parts of your letter awakened in my bosom emotions 
of the purest delight ; my mind was thrown back to the days of 
former years — the bread and cheese dinner under the fossil 
rock, the excursion to the garden cliff, and the dinner at Fra- 
milode passage ; and then, by a rapturous association of ideas, 
I was transplanted to the gardens of Berkeley, when in a sunny 
summer's morning we have traversed the town in search of 



204 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

After a temperate meal there, we generally retired 
to the hill. On such occasions Jenner's manner was 
peculiarly attractive. He was as free from all pride 
as though his name had never been heard of beyond' 

the most beautiful tulip, polyanthus, or carnation — your ho- 
noured departed relative being the chief of the party. But the 
recollection is too much — the tear flows as I write. 

My friend Mr. D. Loyd has lately presented me with the 
works of the Ayrshire bard, Burns, which I never had before 
seen, though many scattered pieces have occurred to my notice 
in reviews and magazines. He is a poet of the first order, and 
very superior to Walter Scott or Lord Byron, the fashionable 
favourites of the day. 

But what struck me very forcibly, was the masterly piece of 
biography, written by Dr. Currie, which occupies the whole 
of the first volume. I never saw so fine a performance of the 
kind : it unites the variegated expanded eloquence of Burke 
with the philosophical precision of Hume ; it is equally con- 
spicuous for just taste and sound criticism. He has aptly de- 
fined the nature of poetic talent, and truly appreciated the 
character of its possessor ; and although I am one of the lowest 
of the tribe, yet I know 1 have some faint sparks of its fire ; 
and I feel, very sensibly feel, the truth of Dr. Currie's obser- 
vations. I have felt it through my whole pilgrimage through 
this wilderness world ; yet I know not how it is, T feel at sixty 
much less indolence than I did when I was thirty. 

Currie far exceeds Gregory as a biographer : the latter's Life 
of Chatterton is comparatively a poor, a very poor performance. 
I should suppose that the author of the Memoirs of the Scottish 
Bard must be a good physician ; he certainly possesses the 
chief requisite, " a vigoi'ous, comprehensive, and philosophic 



mind.' 



I will take the earliest opportunity of seeing you at Berkeley, 
but it cannot be before the Midsummer holidays, which com- 
mence 20th of June. I can walk home with great ease. 

Cannot Mr. Halifax, yourself, &:c make a party at the Rock, 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 205 

the limits of the district which the eye surveyed. 
His mind was full of alacrity, and the playfulness of 
his mirth most admirably blended with the instruc- 
tive tone of his conversation, enlivened as it was 
by the beauty of the scene, and by early recollec- 
tions. 

The year 1814 was one of the most memorable in 
our memorable times. The abdication of Napoleon, 
the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty to France, 
the visit of the allied sovereigns to England, and the 
prospect of peace and repose to the world, gave rea- 
son to hope that the great ones of the earth, who, 
amidst strife and bloodshed, had expressed their 
obligations to the author of vaccination, would not 
forget him in the day of their triumph and of their 
glory. He had, in no small degree, indirectly aided 
the cause of their arms ; and something more than 
mere empty compliment w^as due to him for his sig- 
nal services. 

He had occasion to \dsit London in the end of 
April, 1814, and took up his residence at No. 7, 
Great Mary-le-bone Street. This, I believe, was the 
last visit he ever paid to the metropolis. He so- 
journed there for more than three months. His 

similar to that of ours in the summer of 1782 (thirty-five years 
since! " Tempus fiigit ! ") I can provide the bread and cheese 
and/«/ ale. This reverend gentleman is a truly generous and 
worthy character. He has kindly volunteered an annual de- 
posit on my behalf, a favour unrequested by any one, and of 
which I never could have entertained an idea, since our ac- 
quaintance has been comparatively short. 

I remain yours sincerely, 

Edward Gardner. 



206 LIFE OF DR JENNER. 

stay was somewhat prolonged in expectation of the 
arrival of the allied sovereigns. The Duchess of 
Oldenburg, sister to the Emperor of Russia, had 
had several interviews with him,^ and she was also 
present at a subsequent period when he was presented 
to the Emperor himself. 

Jenner had a peculiar delicacy of perception in all 
that regarded the grace and dignity of the female 
character. His conversations with the duchess de- 
lighted him exceedingly, and made some amends for 
the impatience with which he endured a London life. 
Writing to myself on this subject, on the 18th of 
May, and urging me to pay him a visit there, which 
I did, he says, " Though I can't get away, yet I am 
quite sick of the life I lead here, and certain I am 
that your presence would relieve me. The mighty 
potentates will soon be here ; and, I suppose, I shall 
see some of them. The Duchess of Oldenburg is a 
more interesting being than I ever met with in a 
station so elevated." He concludes this letter with 
an incident of a domestic nature. " Poor Mrs. 
Jenner * has suffered severely during my absence. 
So ill was she, that I held myself in readiness daily 
to go down on the arrival of the post. My last ac- 
counts have been very pleasant. Judge what a life 
of disquietude I have here." 

The account of his interview with the Emperor I 
insert very nearly in his own words. " I was very 

* She was constantly attended by Mr. Wood, one of Dr 
Jenner's oldest and most attached friends. This gentleman 
enjoyed the doctor's confidence, and attended to all his affairs 
durina; his absence from Cheltenham. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 207 

graciously received, and was probably the first man 
who had ever dared to contradict the autocrat. He 
said, 'Dr. Jenner, your feelings must be delightful. 
The consciousness of having so much benefited your 
race must be a never-failing source of pleasure, and 
I am happy to think that you have received the 
thanks, the applause, and the gratitude of the world.' 
I replied to His Majesty that my feelings were such 
as he described, and that I had received the thanks 
and the applause, but not the gratitude, of the world. 
His face flushed ; he said no more, but my daring 
seemed to give displeasure. In a short time, how- 
ever, he forgot it, and gave me a trait of character 
which shewed both great goodness of heart and 
knowledge of human nature. My inquiries respect- 
ing lymphatic diseases, and tubercles, and pulmo- 
nary consumption had reached the ears of the Grand 
Duchess. She was present, and requested me to de- 
tail to her brother, the Emperor, what I had formerly 
said to her Imperial Highness. In the course of my 
remarks I became embarrassed. She observed this, 
and so did the Emperor. ' Dr. Jenner,' said she, 
' you do not tell my brother what you have to say so 
accurately as you told me.' I excused myself by 
saying that I was not accustomed to speak in such a 
presence. His Majesty grasped me by the hand, and 
held me for some time, not quitting me till my con- 
fidence was restored by this warm-hearted and kind 
expression of his consideration." This circumstance 
gave Dr. Jenner much satisfaction. 

After the extraordinary events which led to the 
expulsion of Napoleon, and when kings and princes 



208 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

and warriors who had contributed to his downfall 
were about to visit the metropolis of that country 
which had invariably opposed his ambitious designs 
with uncompromising hostility, — it was thought that 
Dr. Jenner, who by his discovery had saved our own 
fleets and armies from the pestilential ravages of 
small-pox, and had rendered not less important ser- 
vice to the people, than to the military force of 
every potentate in Europe, — it was thought that such 
an individual, amidst the general shouts of triumph 
and of victory, would not be forgotten ; that a con- 
gress of sovereigns, brought together by a most re- 
markable combination of events, would feel happy to 
signalize collectively, as they had done individually, 
an invention not the least wonderful of those which 
marked an era of wonders. 

Dr. Jenner himself could not but feel a personal 
interest in such a combined and powerful display of 
general respect, should those, who on this memorable 
occasion were the representatives of the civilised 
world, think fit to shew it. The nature of his 
services was worthy a commemoration of this kind, 
and many thought that it would have been ea- 
gerly adopted. In this expectation, however, they 
were disappointed. Ingenuity was exhausted in 
heaping honours on those who had been engaged in 
taking away man's life, whilst the modest and unob- 
trusive individual, who could count millions preserved 
through his means, was permitted to enjoy his own 
self-satisfaction without any peculiar marks of public 
consideration. 

Most of the distinguished foreigners were desirous 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 20!) 

of being introduced to him. In addition to the Em- 
peror of Russia and his sister, he received a respect- 
ful intimation on the part of the King of Prussia, 
appointing a time for an interview. His majesty was 
the first crowned head who adopted the practice of 
vaccination in his own family ; Dr. Jenner having 
sent virus for the inoculation of the children of the 
princess royal of Prussia so early as the year 1799. 
The regulations which have been acted on in the 
Prussian dominions have been so efficacious as to 
give that country almost a complete immunit}' from 
small-pox. He also had interviews with Blucher, 
Platoff, and most of the principal personages. 

It is now, perhaps, of little moment to refer to 
occurrences which regarded merely temporal ho- 
nours or advantages, and which have not any neces- 
sary connexion with Jenner's character or reputation. 
It is right, however, in attempting to delineate the 
history of any individual, to bring forward the events 
and transactions which made up the sum of his 
experience in passing through life. It is on this 
principle that I mention the design that was enter- 
tained by some of his friends of addressing the allied 
sovereigns on his behalf. Count Orloff, then Russian 
ambassador to our court, who had a great respect 
and friendship for him, took a different view of this 
subject, and suggested that Jenner himself should 
memorialize the assembled monarchs on the score of 
his claims as an universal benefactor. He shrank 
from such a project, and it is better that it should 
have been so met by him than that he should have 
acted upon it, even though complete success might 
have been the result. 

VOL. II. P 



210 LIFE OF DR JENNER. 

On looking back, even at the distance of a few 
years, on events which when they arose appeared 
all important, it is astonishing how their character 
changes if viewed in connexion with higher and 
more enduring objects. The smiles and the favours 
of earthly potentates might have been coveted for 
Jenner ; he himself might have played the courtier 
on such an occasion, and he might have had his 
reward ; but what would that have availed him ? and 
what satisfaction would it give to those who now 
honour and revere his name had he been 

" Stuck o'er with titles, or hung round with strings," 

if such outward distinctions had been purchased by 
a surrender of the smallest portion of his own per- 
sonal integrity or dignity ? 

Another plan was at this time devised which had 
a different aim ; and one which, I think, it would 
have been gratifying to have seen carried fully into 
effect. The mothers whose offspring had already 
been protected by tlie vaccine shield, the daugh- 
ters whose beauty had been preserved by its benign 
influence, intended to unite in offering a tribute 
of their gratitude to the author of vaccination. To 
this object they were moved by the strongest feel- 
ings that can actuate the female breast. They re- 
membered the anxieties and perils inseparably con- 
nected with the progress of small-pox, in whatever 
form it was communicated. Protracted suffering, 
hideous deformity, shocking to the patient, frightful 
to the beholder, often terminated by death, or by 
permanent injury to the individual, blasting a mo- 
ther's joys or blighting her fondest hopes ; these. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 211 

and greater evils, more or less embittered the hap- 
piness of every family in the land before the adop- 
tion of vaccination. Mothers, seeing their offspring 
rescued from such a scourge ; daughters, knowing 
that their beauty, their health, their life, had been 
preserved ; and that, too, by the well-directed labours 
of one of the most meritorious and disinterested 
of their fellow-countrymen, did think that it became 
them to bear public and unequivocal testimony to 
such great and distinguished benefits. Such, at 
least, were the sentiments of some of the British 
fair. They were associated with many of their best 
and tenderest aifections ; and they were willing that 
the author of vaccination should not " fall away " 
till he experienced both their force and their since- 
rity. They were anxious to combine in one great and 
substantial effort the whole female influence of the 
realm, for the double purpose of cheering and re- 
warding the author, and of promoting the practice 
of vaccination. 

This praiseworthy design promised, at one period, 
to be attended with considerable success. It was 
ardently promoted by many ladies, and a noble- 
man who has ever felt the deepest respect for Jenner, 
I mean Lord Segrave, applied to her late Ma- 
jesty Queen Charlotte to patronize the scheme, to 
which she was graciously pleased to consent. It also 
found favour in the eyes of some of the highest per- 
sonages in the kingdom ; and there is great reason 
to believe that, l)ut for the distresses of the country 
after a long and arduous warfare, it would have been 
crowned with success. 

p 2 



212 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

All these things passed away ; and we find Jenner 
again at the end of the summer of this year (1814) 
in the midst of his domestic circle at Cheltenham. 
Many events connected with the practice of vaccina- 
tion itself kept him in a state of agitation ; and his 
family distresses were by no means slight. I had 
witnessed many of them myself ; and in a letter writ- 
ten to me at this period, he thus expresses himself: 
" You know how actively I have been employed here 
since my return from town ; and the inexpressible 
miseries I have endured from domestic affliction. The 
three servants are still in bed, I think convalescent ; 
but there is no marked termination of the fever ex- 
cept in Frank, who suffers only from hunger, as 
nothing seems to satisfy him. Mrs. Jenner is rather 
better ; but there is another on the sick list — alas ! 
myself. I was seized on Sunday with cholera, and 
sad work it has made with me. Within these four 
hours things have changed for the better, or I could 
not have answered your letter by return of post." 

Though the potentates did not, either in their indi- 
\'idual capacity when in England, or when assembled 
in congress at Vienna, confer any mark of distinc- 
tion on the author of vaccination, some of their sub- 
jects did, nevertheless, bear him nobly in their me- 
mory, and testify their admiration in the manner 
recorded in the following characteristic document. 
I give it exactly as it was sent, con\dnced that all 
will respect the feelings which incited the warm- 
hearted inhabitants of Briinn to bring the historical 
recollections of their country, the renowned deeds of 
their ancestors, into close alliance with the honour 



LIFE UF UR. JENNER. 213 

they were anxious to bestow on the inhabitant of 
another land, whose only claim to their veneration 
and esteem formed a striking contrast to the great 
events to which their letter alludes. The imperfect 
English, interspersed with half Latin and half Ger- 
man idioms, though it may raise a smile on the 
cheek of some fastidious critic, has added, in my 
mind, a deeper interest to the communication. 

To the Right Honourable Physician EdwardJ enner, Discoverer 
of the Cow-pock, the greatest Benefactor of Mankind. 

At London. 

Most honourable Doctor, 

At the most distant frontier of East Germany, in a coun- 
try where the Remain's army two thousand years before 
triumphing, and 444 the savages Huns under the com- 
mande of Attila, and 791 the Emperor Charles, the Huns 
with success combatting, passed, and where the Swedes 
under Gustav the Great 1615 have made tremble the ground 
of the country by the thousands of cannons, and there 
where even 1740 the Prussians and 1805 the French war- 
riors victorious appeared, in that remarkable country had 
the vaccined youth from Briinn, with the most cordial sen- 
timents of gratitude to Thee, a constant monument with 
thine breast-piece in the 65th year of thine age erected, even 
in the same time as the great English nation, by her con- 
stancy and intrepidity, rendered the liberty of the whole 
Europa, and as the greats regents Alexandre and William 
passed through that country. Accept generously, great man, 
that feeble sign of veneration and gratitude ; and Heaven 
may conserve your life to the most remote time ; and every 
year, in the presence of many thousand habitants, a great 
feast near that temple is celebrated for the discovery of 



214 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

vaccine. We will us estimate happy, if we can receive few 
lignes to prove us the sure reception of that letter. 
Most honourable Doctor, 

yours most obliged servants, 

Medicinae Doctor Rincolini, physician. 

^ (-first surgeon and vacciner of 

Llavigeb, J ^^ . ° . ^^ .. 

I Vaccnie Institute at Brunn. 

Briinn in Mo7-avia, the 20^^ October. 

A drawing of the " monument/' as it is called, 
accompanied this letter. In the centre of the temple 
the bust of Jenner stands upon a pedestal, on which 
is the following inscription : 

Divo Anglo 
Eduardo Jenner, 

LXV. 

iEtatis ejus Anno 

Vaccinata Brunensis 

Juventus 

MDCCCXIV. 

I am not certain that " the vaccined youth at 
Briinn" ever received Dr. Jenner's reply to this their 
cordial and animated address. Should, however, 
these pages reach their hands, they may be assured 
that their kindness and their generous warmth in 
addressing the discoverer of cow-pox was most 
deeply felt and acknowledged by him. I was with 
him when the document arrived ; and it gave 
him unqualified gratification. I know that it was 
his intention to have expressed such feelings for 
himself; but as I am not equally certain that this 
his wish was accomplished, it the more becomes me 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER, 215 

to record his sentiments, lest any one should ima- 
gine that he was uninfluenced by an address which 
did, indeed, awaken more pleasing emotions than 
almost any other testimony he received. 

Another communication, of a some v\ hat different 
description, I have great satisfaction in submitting to 
the reader. I regret that it did not arrest my atten- 
tion when carrying on the discussion on the iden- 
tity of small-pox and cow-pox in the first volume. 
The testimony of two such men as Soemmering and 
Hoffman is worthy of all respect and consideration. 
I can scarcely conceive any thing more striking than 
the manner in which that testimony was given. It 
is not the less valuable from being founded on the 
very same observations which guided the decision of 
Jenner. Standing as it does, it claims respect and 
attention ; but when supported, as it has been, by 
proofs of a different description, it carries with it 
the force of demonstration. Should any one take 
an interest in this question, they will not, I trust, 
find their trouble misapplied in reading the letter of 
Soemmering in conjunction with the evidence con- 
tained in the fifth and other chapters of the pre- 
ceding volume. 

Dear Sir, Munich, Nov. \si, 1814. 

I have the honour of presenting to you the diploma of 
our Royal Academy of Sciences, as a due acknowledgment 
of the superiority of that salutiferous genius, by whose infi- 
nite merit mankind stands delivered for ever from the most 
hideous and dreadful of all diseases. 

Bavaria can boast of being the country in which your 
glorious discovery not only found the highest applause, ])ut 



216 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

which from the very first beginning till the present day con- 
tinued regularly and stedfastly its universal introduction. 

As for my own part, having myself in my youth applied to 
study most minutely the appearances of the small-pox, and 
having examined it often through the microscope even after 
artificial injections of the cutaneous vessels, and recollecting 
the features of a certain sort of small-pox, and at the first 
look on the cow-pox was struck with its identity with the 
small-pox in their mildest — but, alas ! by far rarest form ; 
amongst others, I remember perfectly well of having ob- 
served, with my worthy friend the late Dr. Lehr, of Frank- 
fort on the Mayn, particularly in two cases, after inocula- 
tion with the small-pox virus, on the arm of healthy children 
six weeks old, on the breast of their equally healthy mothers 
only one single small-pox without any other pustule besides 
any where else. This pearl-like pustule, surrounded with a 
fine red areola, had perfectly the same appearance as the 
cow-pox, kept such a mild and short course, that my friend 
doubted whether such an extraordinary slight inoculation 
could be sufficient to the purpose. His doubts were the 
reason why I was called by him in consultation in these 
cases. Our meritoriously most famous physician in Ger- 
many in regard to small-pox, Dr. Ch. L. Hoff^man, Physi- 
cian to the late Elector of Mayence, a lynx-eyed man, 
though more than eighty years old, regarding attentively the 
first cow-pox shewn to him, energetically exclaimed, " This 
pox surely will secure against the small-pox^ being indeed 
nothing else but a real and true genuine small-pox of the mild- 
est sort ; and you all know that ten thousand poxes give no 
more security than a single one.'' 

He used to tell me confidently, as a result of his long ex- 
perience, " Beheve me, friend, there exists a certain form 
or a particular sort of small-pox, so mild, so regular, and of 
so short a duration, — in short, of such benignity, — that the 
patient, whatever regimen he follows, this sort of small-pox 
by no means will kill him ; nay, even in any way hurt him." 



LIFE OF UR. JENNER. 217 

But I must own I never saw a physician so extremely care- 
ful in the choice of the virus. He never lost a patient in- 
oculated by himself under many thousands ; and saw but 
one child marked, by the open fault of the mother. 

Give me leave to add to these observations, perhaps long 
before known to vou, that I invented and introduced the deno- 
mination, " guarding-poxes," now almost generally adopted, 
amongst other reasons amply detailed in my dissertation, 
" Priifung der Schulz-oder Kuh blattern durch Gogen imp- 
fung mit kinder blattern." 

I wished to denote by this denomination my idea of the 
perfect identity of the two diseases, " morbos non sua natura 
sed gradu diversi." 

May the blessings of so many millions whose lives you 
saved, or whose deformities you prevented, contriljute to ex- 
hilirate the days of their benefactor. I am, dear Sir, 
With the profoundest veneration. 

Your obedient and humble servant, 
Dr. S. Th. vox Soemmering, 

R. B. Geheimer Rath. 

The establishment of literary and scientific insti- 
tutions in our provincial towns forms a striking fea- 
ture in the character of the present times. The bear- 
ing and fructifying of the plant of knowledge, which, 
to use language that I love to quote, seems to havebeen 
appointed to this autumn of the world, was anxiously 
watched by Jenner. He even outran the spirit of 
the age, in attempting to cultivate this goodly tree. 
In this spirit he endeavoured to establish a literary 
and philosophical institution in Cheltenham in the 
year 1814. Several preliminary meetings were held 
at his house^ No. 8, St. George's Place, in the end 
of the preceding year. On the 3rd of February 1814, 



218 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

the first public meeting was held at the Assembly 
Rooms, when Dr. Jenner was formally elected Pre- 
sident of the Cheltenham Philosophical and Lite- 
rary Society ; and Mr. T. Morhall, Secretary. At 
this time, the number of members had increased to 
thirty. Papers were read by Dr. Parry (now of 
Bath), Dr. Boisragon, and myself. 

The Institution did not meet with that encourage- 
ment which had been anticipated. Shortly after its 
establishment, Dr. Jenner's bereavement by the 
death of his wife, and his consequent retirement 
to Berkeley, put a stop to his exertions, and it soon 
fell to the ground. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 219 



CHAPTER VII. 



DEATH OF MRS. JENNER — EPIDEMIC AT EDINBURGH — PUBLI- 
CATION OF SIR GILBERT BLANE's TRACT — VARIOLOID EPI- 
DEMICS. 



A CALAMITY, which had manifestly been long sus- 
pended over Jenner, and which he had often looked 
forward to with distressing apprehensions, was now 
at hand. During the whole of the last year, Mrs. 
Jenner's health, at all times feeble, became evidently 
more impaired. In the spring, however, she seemed 
to rally a little ; and the fears which were justly en- 
tertained for her safety, though not altogether re- 
moved, were in part mitigated. About the end of 
August, in addition to her usual pulmonic symptoms, 
she experienced an attack of bronchitis. Such a 
seizure in such a person was more alarming than it 
would have been under other circumstances. She 
was so slender, so attenuated, and so much deprived 
of all vigour of constitution by protracted illness, 
that she could not have existed except under the 
most constant care and vigilance. For many years 



220 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

she had lived almost in an artificial climate ; and for 
a considerable time before her last attack she was con- 
fined entirely to her room. 

I saw her very frequently at this time, and ha 
constant opportunities of witnessing both her hus- 
band's anxiety and her own patience and resig- 
nation. I visited her at Cheltenham the night be- 
fore she expired (Sept. 13, 1815); and when she 
was in full expectation of the fatal event. The im- 
pression made upon my mind by the scene altogether 
I can never forget. She had long been preparing 
for her final account, and her departure was marked 
by those accompaniments which generally attend the 
death of the righteous. 

I was with Dr. Jenner the day after this disastrous 
event : he grasped my hand with great emotion, and 
said, " Baron, I am a wretch !" Whoever has attended 
to the imperfect delineation of his character, which 
these pages contain, will readily perceive that feelings 
of this kind were not likely to be of a transient 
nature. His sensibiUty, though lively and acute, 
was capable of receiving the deepest and most abiding 
impressions. The death of Mrs. Jenner may be con- 
sidered as the signal for his final removal from pub- 
lic life. He retired immediately to Berkeley, and 
never, except for a day or two, quitted it again. 
His spirit, wounded and subdued, dwelt with affec- 
tionate recollections on the memory of her whom he 
had lost ; but it is not to be supposed, that he spent 
his time in unavailing sorrow; for it will soon appear 
that the latter years of his life, though darkened by 
domestic affliction, were passed in perfect confor- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 221 

mity with that devotion to the pursuit of useful 
knowledge which distinguished his early years. The 
following strikingly proves the truth of this state- 
ment. 

Berkeley, Sunday Night. 
My dear Baron, 
I know no one whom I should like to see here better than 
yourself ; and as often as you can find a little leisure, pray 
come, and exercise your pity. I am, of course, most 
wretched when alone ; as every surrounding object then the 
more forcibly reminds me of my irreparable loss. Every 
tree, shrub, flower, seems to speak. But yet no place on 
earth would at present suit me but this, and I trust my 
friends will not endeavour to take me away ; for, strange and 
contradictory as it may seem, the bitter cup has a kind of 
relish in it here, which it could afford no where else. 

Give me a task, and I will execute it as well as I can. Tell 
me which subject you want first. Put it down on a slip of 
paper when you come. I mean a list of what I promised 
you. 

God bless you. 

Sincerely yours, 

E. Jenner. 

One of the first events which called him from his se- 
clusion was of a very tragical description. A desperate 
conflict had taken place between a gang of poachers 
and the gamekeepers * of Lord Segrave, in which one 
of the latter lost his life. Dr. Jenner, as a magistrate, 
was obliged to exert himself on this occasion, and he 
assisted materially in procuring and arranging that 
chain of evidence by which the guilt was most clearly 

* In .January, 1810. 



222 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

brought home to the murderers; two of whom suffered 
the extreme penalty of the law, and their companions, 
twelve, I believe, in number, were transported for 
life. 

Lord Segrave distinguished himself not less by 
his personal intrepidity than by his judgment and 
discernment in detecting and capturing the leaders 
of the gang. 

Dr. Jenner attended the trial at Gloucester, and 
honoured me by staying in my house. He was very 
much affected by the result of it. Most of the cul- 
prits were young men, and the sons of respectable 
farmers ; and though he laboured for the punish- 
ment of the guilty, he could not but lament the con- 
sequences of the tragedy, which carried such lamen- 
tation and woe into so many families in his neigh- 
bourhood. 

During one of my visits to him at Berkeley in the 
month of October of this year, I was seized with vio- 
lent rigors, head-ache, and all the signs denoting the 
approach of a severe and acute disease. I made pre- 
parations for my speedy return home, but luckily for 
me I was prevented, and to his determination on this 
occasion, and his subsequent kind and judicious me- 
dical treatment, I probably owe my existence. 

The disease turned out to be inflammation about the 
pharynx, the fauces and the tonsils. During the 
whole of it I had many, many opportunities of wit- 
nessing the admirable qualities of this truly great 
man. His assiduities to myself were unceasing. He 
punctured my throat three different times ; and as 
an ordinary lancet was rather too short for the pur- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 223 

pose, devised an ingenious contrivance for ob\iating 
this difficulty. 

While I was at his house an express came to him 
from Bath, announcing the alarming illness of his 
friend Dr. Parry. He went off the next morning and 
returned the same evening, as he was uneasy about 
me ; I having been delirious in the night. 

Dr. Parry had been seized with apoplexy. He 
knew his friend Jenner when he went into the room. 
" He looked at me," said he, " earnestly for some 
time, then gTasped my hand, and by piteous moans 
and signs expressed how strongly he felt his situation." 

In the course of the following summer Jenner had 
a considerable illness. I found him very much pulled 
down by it. He had neglected himself. He was 
walking in the garden when I arrived. 

We had a great deal of conversation respecting vac- 
cination and the conduct of the National Vaccine In- 
stitution ; the Board having refused to attend to his 
cautions touching the interference of cutaneous 
diseases with the progress of the vaccine vesicle. 
" I am afraid," he observed, " that the extreme 
ignorance of medical men on this subject wiU 
destroy the advantages which the world ought to 
derive from the practice." I confirmed this, by 
what I had lately seen. " I want," he continued, " my 
medical friends to rally round me, and to propose 
some scheme for the more effectual diffusion of the 
genuine information that is required. The present 
constitution of the National Vaccine Institution is 
bad. The Marquis of Lansdowne and myself had 
arranged an excellent plan ; but the change of the 



224 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ministry knocked it on the head, and George Rose 
and Sir Lucas Pepys concocted the present imperfect 
scheme." Altogether he seemed rather dispirited, and 
somewhat disquieted by reports of failures, and by the 
disingenuous conduct of many. I slept at Berkeley 
and saw him in the morning. He was in bed, and I 
strictly enjoined him not to go out as he had done. 
" Tell Catherine and Robert so," said he, " for they 
think I am shamming ; and they would drag me about 
to the Ridge, and I don't know how many other 
places." I soon had cheering accounts, as the sub- 
joined letter will show. 

My dear Doctor, 

Having just heard that a person is going from hence to 
Gloucester to-morrow morning, I write to tell you that our 
^' stern alarms" will soon be " changed to merry meetings.'^ 

I am in every respect better. The pain in my head gone ; 
my respiration easy ; expectoration lessened ; but there is 
now no impediment to the separation of the mucus from the 
membranes. Still, however, there is that susceptibility that 
a single inhalation of air colder than the temperature of my 
bedchamber instantly makes me hoarse. I took several 
doses of the squills, but have omitted it from its singular 
effects. It called to my remembrance the terrible conse- 
quences of the dose of cayenne, by giving a glow that almost 
called up pyrosis. The difference, however, was as great as 
one to fifty. But does not this indicate a state of stomach 
that calls for some repairs ? I mentioned to you that eating 
or drinking any thing hastily produced palpitation, and that 
this has been the case with me for some time past. This 
palpitation entirely ceases when digestion has gone on to a 
certain extent. Flatus in the stomach has the same effect. 
It first came on some years ago from a fright, but I think I 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 225 

have felt more of it within these last twelve months than 
usual : much of it depends on the state of mind. Depression 
is sure to produce it, and spontaneous exhilaration (not wine) 
to take it off. We must talk a little of this on a future day. 
I did not leave my bed till yesterday afternoon, and had no 
conception I should have suffered such a diminution of mus- 
cular strength. To-day I feel a great increase of strength, 
but was excessively faint till I took a little animal food, and 
a small quantity of wine, largely diluted with water. 

I am thinking of taking some infusion of colomba with 
soda, as a tonic suitable for such a stomach as mine. But, 
perhaps, I shall see you ere long. I am tired. So adieu, my 
dear Baron, with best affections, truly yours, 

E. Jenner. 

9 o'clock, Friday night, 2nd August, 1817. 

In the former volume I placed the evidence re- 
specting the existence of the variolae among the in- 
ferior animals, I trust, in its true light. That the 
disease is sometimes met vdth in the horse was de- 
monstrated by the observations of Jenner, and cor- 
roborated by the experience of Drs. Loy, Sacco, and 
others. The attentive reader will likewise have ob- 
served, that the mistake in considering that disease, 
which is vulgarly called the grease, as the source of 
the cow-pox, was subsequently corrected by Dr. 
Jenner himself. It was shewn that the horse* is lia- 
ble, as well as the cow, to an eruptive disease of a 
variolous character ; and that that disease, when 
communicated to man, is capable of affording pro- 
tection against small-pox, even though it had never 
passed through the cow. For the most part, how- 

* See vol. i. p. 242. 
VOL. II. Q 



226 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ever, the equine affection was seldom recognised in 
the dairies except in connexion with a similar dis- 
order in the cows. The last time, I believe, that Dr. 
Jenner had an opportunity of tracing this connexion 
was in 1817, and I copy the following memorandum 
from a manuscript written on the 1st of April of that 
year. 

" Rise and progress of the equine matter from the 
farm of Allen at Wansell. From a horse to Allen ; 
from Allen to two or three of his milch cows ; from 
the cows to James Cole, a young man who milked 
at the farm ; from James Cole to John Powell by 
inoculation from a vesicle on the hand of Cole ; and 
to Anne Powell, an infant ; from Powell to Samuel 
Rudder ; from Rudder to Sophia Orpin, and to Henry 
Martin ; from H. Martin to Elizabeth Martin. All 
this went on with perfect regularity for eight 
months, when it became intermixed with other mat- 
ter, so that no journal was kept afterwards. Proof 
was obtained of the patients being duly protected." 

I find other entries to the same effect. One on 
the 17th of May runs thus: "Took matter from 
Jane King (equine direct), for the National Vaccine 
Estabhshment. The pustules beautifully correct." 
The matter from this source was, I believe, very ex- 
tensively diffused. I received supplies of it ; and it 
was likewise sent to Scotland. I may mention, at 
the same time, that some years before this period 
Mr. Melon of Lichfield had found the equine virus in 
his neighbourhood. He sent a portion to Dr. Jen- 
ner ; and I believe it proved efficacious. 

In the following year I sent him some equine mat- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 227 

ter, which I obtained from the hands of a boy who 
had been infected directly from the horse. In this 
case the disease assumed a pustular form, and ex- 
tended over both arms. 

April 25th, 1818. 

Yesterday H. Shrapnell brought me the equine virus and 
your drawing, which conveys so good an idea of the disease, 
that no one who has seen it can doul)t that the vesicles con- 
tain the true and genuine life-preserving fluid. I have in- 
serted some of it into a child's arm ; but I shall be vexed if 
you and some of your young men at the Infirmary have not 
done the samcAvith the fluid fresh from the hand. On Wed- 
nesday, at half-past five, I am threatened with a batch of 
fossil-hunters. Halifax heads the gang. Will you trust 
yourself among such folk ? With best aff"ections, yours, 
my dear doctor, very truly, Edward Jenner. 

After recounting the history of the variolas vac- 
cinae in the former volume, I observe (p. 240), 
" from these facts, it may fairly be inferred that the 
disease will hereafter be found among- cows in other 
parts of the world." This prediction has been veri- 
fied in a very remarkable manner by occurrences in 
the northern parts of Bengal. In reading the account 
of this epizootic, as drawn up by Mr. MTherson, 
superintendant of vaccination at Moorshedabad, one 
would almost think that he was copying the lan- 
guage of Lancisi, or Lanzoni, or Layard, who had 
witnessed similar pestilences in Europe ; and it is 
not less remarkable that the same names are given 
to it by the natives, by which they designate the 
variolse in the human subject. While I cannot help 

Q 2 



228 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

rejoicing in this additional testimony to the truth of 
the doctrines which I have advocated, I cannot re- 
frain from expressing my surprise that the ample 
historical records which completely prove the fre- 
quent existence of variolse among cattle should have 
been so entirely forgotten. Mr. M'Pherson's ac- 
count is altogether so curious and important that I 
deem it necessary to subjoin it. 

On inquiring amongst the natives, I learned that the cows 
in Bengal are subject to a disease, which usually makes its 
appearance about the latter end of August or early in Sep- 
tember, to which the same names are given as to variolee in 
the human subject, viz. bussunt, mhata, or gotee ; and on 
the 24th of August I was informed that several cows be- 
longing to a native at Moidapore were affected. I conse- 
quently determined on again attempting to regenerate the 
vaccine virus from the original source. 

The animals which were at first affected, amounting in 
one shed to eighteen or twenty, had been for a day or two 
previously dull and stupid ; they were afterwards seized with 
distressing cough, and much phlegm collected in the mouth 
and fauces. The animals had apparently, at this time, no 
inclination for food, or, at all events, they were unable to 
satisfy their hunger : their sufferings seemed to be greatest 
on the 5th and 6th days, when consideraljle fever and 
pvistules made their appearance all over the body, especially 
on the abdomen, which terminated in ulceration, the hair 
falling off wherever a pustule had run its course. The 
mouth and fauces appeared to be the principal seat of 
the disease, being in som€ instances one mass of ulceration, 
which in all probability extended to the stomach and alimen- 
tary canal. 

In those cases where the mouth was very much affected, 
the animals died apparently from inanition ; whereas in 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 229 

those cases in which the power of mastication, or even of 
swallowing, was retained, recovery was much more rapid 
than might have been expected from the previous severe 
sufferings and reduced state of the animals : the mortality 
may be calculated at from 15 to 20 per cent. 

From the above description of the disease, the board will 
immediately observe, that it assumes a much more serious 
complexion in this country than we have been taught to 
beheve it does at home. I say taught, because, I presume, 
it has fallen to the lot of few to witness the disease in Eng- 
land ; and it must be inferred, from Dr. Jenner's and other 
medical writings on this subject, that the animal not only 
continued to secrete milk, but that the milk was used ; while, 
in this country, the little that is secreted is never made use 
of, and perhaps, owing to this very circumstance, the gual- 
lahs (or milkers) in India are not affected with cow-pox, as 
is the case with this description of persons in Gloucester- 
shire, and other counties in England, where the disease is 
most prevalent. 

It is an extraordinary fact, and worthy of remark, that, 
while the cows were thus affected, no case of variolee amongst 
the natives in the village presented itself ; and although the 
people were ardently averse from handling or going much 
amongst the cattle at the time of disease, still they all 
scouted the idea of infection, stating they never heard of any 
one contracting disease from the cow; consequently they 
were under no alarm on that score. 

In consequence of the extreme jealousy with which all my 
inquiries on this subject were watched by the Hindoos, 
coupled with my own anxiety to conceal the object in view, 
I should have found very great difficulty in prosecuting my 
investigations, had not the disease assumed the character of 
an epidemic ; all the cattle in the neighbourhood becoming 
affected, and, amongst others, two belonging to one of my 
own vaccinators. I had them covered with blankets, leaving 
merely the udder and teats exposed to the air ; on the se- 



530 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

venth day, two small pustules made their appearance on the 
teats of one, which dried up on the 10th, and the crusts 
were removed on the 12th day. 

From these crusts eleven native children were inoculated ; 
no effects whatsoever were produced on six of this num1)er ; 
two had very slight inflammation on the arms, on the third 
and fifth days ; two had considerable local inflammation and 
shght heat of surface on the fifth, sixth, and seventh days ; 
but no vesicle formed, although there was marked induration 
round tlie puncture. The remaining child's arm was slightly 
inflamed on the fourth morning, and a vesicle was apparent 
the next day, which continued to increase till the 9th day, 
when I was much gratified to find that it assumed all the 
characteristics of true vaccine. 

The poor little child, the subject of this experiment, was 
about five months old, and suffered much from fever for 
four days, by which he was greatly reduced, but very soon 
recovered. 

Two children were vaccinated from this patient, with the 
most complete success; but the symptomatic fever was 
more severe than I have ever ol)served it in former cases. 
Five children were vaccinated from those just mentioned, 
and the result was equally successful ; after which no difti- 
culty was experienced in disseminating the disease. 

With the view, however, of satisfying myself that the 
true cow-pox was introduced, I had two of the children who 
had been vaccinated with the fresh virus inoculated with 
small-pox, and both were happily found to be secure. Ano- 
ther instance of the preservative powers of the new lymph 
deserves mention. Five children, in the Gorah Bazaar at 
Burhampore, were vaccinated, and shortly afterwards were 
accidentally exposed to variolous contagion, by residing in 
the same huts where the disease was raging very dreadfully, 
but not one of those vaccinated was in the slightest degree 
affected by variolce. 

Many of the children belonging to his majesty's 49th 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 231 

regiment, and others in the families of the residents, both 
civil and military, at this station and its vicinity, have been 
vaccinated with the regenerated virus. My friend. Dr. 
French (who invariably has recourse to Bryce's test), Mr. 
Skipton, the superintending surgeon, and several other me- 
dical gentlemen have expressed themselves completely 
satisfied with the result. 

It is a gratifying fact, that since the introduction of the 
new lymph, the symptomatic fever has been more marked, 
and the natives have much greater confidence in the efficacy 
of the operation 5 in proof of which I need merely mention, 
that the number presented for vaccination, within the last 
three months, has much exceeded that of any similar period 
for the previous two years. 

Variola has been more or less prevalent in this neigh- 
bourhood for the last seven months, and is now committing 
dreadful ravages in several parts of the city. Many instances 
are daily presenting themselves of the disease attacking 
those who have been previously affected, either naturally or 
by inoculation; and 1 am credibly informed that several of 
the latter have fallen victims to this dreadful scourge. It is 
melancholy to reflect, that a set of ignorant and mercenary 
beings (such as the Tickadars in this country) are permitted 
annually to regenerate the disease, and thereby keep up a 
continual source of contagion, by which thousands of lives 
- are sacrificed. 

Accompanying I have the pleasure to send some vaccine 
crusts and ivory points, armed with virus, taken two days 
since, from which I entertain no doubt the disease will be 
readily introduced in Calcutta ; and should more be re- 
quired, it shall be immediately supplied. 

I take this opportunity of acquainting the board, that I 
have applied to government for one month's leave of absence 
from my station to visit the Presidency, which I hope to 
reach by the 12th proximo, when it will afford me much 



232 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

pleasure to yield any farther information that may be re- 
quired on this interesting subject. 

Moorshedabad, November 2dth, 1832. 

(See Transactions of the Medical and Physical Society of 
Calcutta, vol. vi.) 

In connexion with this subject, it is of importance 
to remark, that the Variolse Equinse have recently 
been observed in Bohemia by M. C. G. Kahlert, M.D. 
and assistant professor of the veterinary art in the 
University of Prague. The work containing this me- 
moir was most kindly transmitted to me by Dr. de 
Carro of Carlsbad. (See Almanach de Carlsbad for 
1833.) 

In the course of the year 1818a virulent epidemic 
small-pox prevailed in many parts of Great Britain 
as well as on the Continent. At the same time an 
increased hostility was evinced to the practice of 
vaccination. Doubts of its efficacy, which had been 
artfully excited in England, were propagated to 
other parts of the world. Dr. Jenner received inti- 
mations of this kind from a gi'eat many quarters, 
and professional gentlemen of some name took up 
the opinion of the anti-vaccinists, and almost de- ' 
clared themselves converts to their doctrines. The 
events which occurred at Edinburgh, and several 
other places in Scotland, seemed to the persons to 
whom I allude, to justify this conduct. The small- 
pox there, was unusually fatal and malignant. It 
killed a very large proportion of those whom it at- 
tacked in the natural way ; and it likewise spread to 
many who had previously had small-pox, as well as 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER, 233 

cow-pox. Dr. Jenner believed imperfect vaccination, 
or some cause which interfered with the regular and 
complete progress of that affection, to be the main 
sources of such evils. He admitted that small-pox 
might succeed perfect vaccination, just as small-pox 
does succeed small-pox ; but the great number of 
failures which were reported to have occurred, he 
thought, could only be accounted for by supposing 
that some circumstances interrupted the proper in- 
fluence of vaccination on the system. One of these 
he conceived to be the existence of cutaneous disease ; 
and this led to the publication of his circular letter, 
which was intended to draw forth the opinions of 
professional men on this point. There was a very 
solid foundation for his statements on this subject, 
though many have hesitated concerning them ; but, 
be this as it may, there can be no doubt of the truth 
of his main proposition, namely, that where vaccine 
failures were very frequent, there must have been 
some imperfection either in the virus or in the 
progress of the affection. This fact is rendered 
abundantly manifest by the different degrees of suc- 
cess which have attended the practice of different 
individuals. After very minute inquiry I do not 
know of more than six or eight cases of small-pox 
after cow-pox among all Dr. Jenner's patients. This 
proportion is probably no more than might have oc- 
curred, had he inoculated for smaU-pox instead of 
cow-pox. 

Some of the difficulties which perplexed the sub- 
ject in Edinburgh, arose from a degree of uncertainty 
that prevailed regarding the character of the epi- 



234 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

demic at its first appearance. Dr. Hennen was in- 
clined to think that the disease was varicella or 
chicken-pox, of a malignant character. He soon was 
obliged to abandon this notion. It however tended, 
I conceive, to render the investigations, which were 
carried on at Edinburgh, somewhat more intricate 
than they otherwise would have been. Dr. Thomp- 
son, indeed, went further than Dr. Hennen ; and in 
a very elaborate work endeavoured to prove that the 
varicella, instead of being a distinct and peculiar dis- 
ease, as had been generally supposed, was only a variety 
or modification of small-pox. He was led to this con- 
clusion from the gTcat prevalence of the eruptive dis- 
ease among those who had previously had small-pox as 
well as cow-pox ; and hence he believed it possible, 
that in many previous epidemics, where similar events 
had taken place, the truth had been obscured by 
gi\'ing the disease a specific name, such as swine- 
pock, or chicken-pock ; when, in fact, it was a disease 
of a variolous nature and origin ; * and like to that 
which then raged in Edinburgh, and other places. 
This latter position, I think, has been almost demon- 
strated ; and it can scarcely now be doubted that the 

* Dr. Sacco, of Milan, has taken another view of this question. 
See his paper in the Appendix, No. IV. This document was 
kindly extracted and translated for me from Hufeland's Jour- 
nal, by Dr. Prichard of Bristol. Dr. Sacco unquestionably is 
the most extensive vaccinator in the world. All that comes 
from him on this subject is peculiarly worthy of attention ; and 
I have much satisfaction in availing myself of his support to 
the opinion, which I have uniformly avowed, that the protec- 
tion aflbrded by the genuine Variola3 Vaccinae is not of a partial 
or evanescent character. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 235 

iinvvilliiigness to believe that small-pox could occur 
twice in the same person, had suggested the expe- 
dient of getting rid of the difficulty by giving the 
disorder a new appellation. Whether the other part 
of the position has been equally well made out, I 
shall not presume to decide. My own impression, 
however, from all that I have seen, is, that the vari- 
cella, strictly so called, is a disease sid generis ; and 
that it is not of the same nature as variola. 

A remark of Dr. Hennen, in his very excellent paper 
on eruptive diseases, satisfies me, that he was very 
near the truth when he asserted the affinity between 
small-pox and cow-pox. It is very singular that me- 
dical men should have been so averse to admit this 
doctrine, which had been so clearly announced by 
Dr. Jenner ; and should have exerted their ingenuity 
in detecting differences, instead of tracing analogies, 
which, when duly understood, tend to remove all 
difficulties. 

" So perfectly con"vinced am I," observed Dr. Hen- 
nen, " of the preventing and modifying powers of the 
vaccine inoculation, that I should never hesitate 
about employing it, even though it were probable 
that my patient had imbibed the small-pox infec- 
tion ; nor should I be deterred from the practice by 
the idle supposition of the nurse that I was too late, 
or the learned objection of the doctor that the two 
diseases could not co-exist ; experience very clearly 
demonstrating, that there is still something in the 
mutual relations of these diseases to each other that 
has not yet been satisfactorily elucidated.''' 

I cannot of course quote this latter sentiment 



236 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

without deriving satisfaction from the con\dction 
that so acute an observer had taken that view of the 
subject which it has been my great object to explain 
and confirm^ both by past history and recent expe- 
rience. I cannot doubt that had the investigation 
been pursued by Dr. Hennen, and had all the evi- 
dence which has since been acquired been laid before 
him, I should have found him a firm supporter of 
the doctrine which I have espoused. 

In the former volume I quoted the emphatic lan- 
guage of Dr. Thompson expressive of his opinions of 
vaccination, after it had passed through the fiery 
ordeal at Edinburgh. I cannot do less than give 
some of the sentiments of Dr. Hennen on the same 
occasion. — " After the most mature deliberation, I 
must explicitly avow, that nothing has occurred in 
these cases which has in the smallest degree shaken 
my opinion of the great and pre-eminent importance 
of the practice of vaccination ; whether we view it 
as a preventive of small-pox in a vast majority of 
cases, or as a most effectual neutralizer of its malig- 
nity in the comparatively few instances in which, 
from some pecuUarity of constitution, or some ano- 
maly in the process hitherto not fully developed, it 
has failed to afford this permanent security. 

" On the contrary, it appears to me that the whole 
series of cases which I have given, present the most 
triumphant evidence in favour of vaccination, and 
place in a most conspicuous point of view the infinite 
advantages to be derived from the process when duly 
conducted."* 

* See Edin. Medical and Surgical Journal, vol. xiv. page 456. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 23/ 

There can be no doubt that during the first years 
of vaccine inoculation there had been great careless- 
ness and inattention in conducting the practice. At 
this time, too, (1818) there were numerous, and, I 
believe, well-founded complaints of the bad quality 
of the vaccine lymph itself. Dr. Jenner received 
hints of this kind from Italy, from America, and 
many parts of England. These unfavourable ac- 
counts were generally coupled with some sinister 
and injurious rumours touching his owti confi- 
dence in vaccination. Here, then, we have an accu- 
mulation of evils and misrepresentations, which 
could not fail materially to annoy him. There was 
great clamour about the prevalence of small- pox 
after vaccination, a general complaint of the dete- 
rioration of the vaccine lymph, and lastly, a repeti- 
tion of the absurd statement of his distrust of his 
own solemn asseverations. Strange enough ! at this 
very time, when people were willing to under- 
value and undermine vaccination in this country, a 
neighbouring nation, somewhat jealous of the fame 
of England, put forth claims to that invention. The 
manner in which the French managed this affair 
has been already stated. I recur to it here chiefly 
to mark the peculiarity of Jenner's situation. His 
countrymen were depreciating his discovery at the 
moment that another people esteemed it so highly, 
as almost to make it a subject of national con- 
tention. 

The greatly exaggerated statements on the subject 
of the vaccine failures, and the hesitating manner in 
which respectable individuals spoke on the subject. 



238 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

threatened to lead to a considerable abandonment 
of the practice. Under such circumstances^ the excel- 
lent and honourable Sir Gilbert Blane, whose services 
at the commencement of vaccination have already 
been commemorated, proved by the most conclusive 
reasoning, and an appeal to the most authentic 
documents, that the importance of the vaccine dis- 
covery was in no essential points lowered by the 
failures which were alleged to have taken place. 

In order to bring this matter to the test of calcu- 
lation, he selected four periods, each of fifteen years, 
for the purpose of exhibiting the comparative mor- 
tality of small-pox. The last series comprehended 
the time in which the vaccine inoculation had been 
so far diffused as to produce a notable effect on the 
deaths from this disease. The result of the whole was, 
that even under the very imperfect practice of vaccina- 
tion which had taken place in the metropolis, 23,134 
lives had been saved in the fifteen years alluded to ; 
that is, from 1804 to 1818 inclusive. "It will be 
seen by an inspection of the tables," Sir Gilbert adds, 
" that in that time there have been great fluctua- 
tions in the number of deaths. This has been owing 
partly to the small-pox inoculation of out-patients 
having by an unaccountable infatuation been kept 
up at the small -pox hospital for several years after 
the virtue of vaccination had been fully confirmed. 
The greater number of deaths in 1805 may chiefly 
be referred to this cause. Since the suppression * of 

* Small-pox inoculation of out-patients was discontinued, 
April 28, 1808. The small-pox inoculation of in-patients was 
persisted in till the 30th of June, 18-22 ! ! ! 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 239 

this practice, the adoption of vaccination, though 
in a degree so incomplete, in consequence of public 
prejudice created entirely by mischievous publica- 
tions, has been unable to prevent a considerable 
though fluctuating mortality from small-pox. The 
late mortality from small-pox, though little more 
than half of what it was in former times, might have 
been entirely saved, if vaccination had been carried 
to the same extent as in many cities and in whole 
districts on the Continent of Europe, in Peru and 
Ceylon." 

Sir Gilbert next showed, that making every allow- 
ance for the adverse circumstances which had been 
reported, vaccination, if duly and vigorously prac- 
tised, was able to control, and even to extirpate, 
small-pox. He fully admitted the occurrence of 
those cases of mitigated small-pox after vaccination 
which were then prevalent. He showed, however, 
from their general mildness, that they could scarce 
be called faihires ; for though vaccination some- 
times fails in preventing small-pox, it seldom fails to 
prevent death. 

I should have great satisfaction in entering more 
at large into the reasoning of Sir Gilbert, had it been 
compatible with the design of this work. This 
essay produced a very beneficial effect on the public 
mind. It contained a clear, temperate, and authentic 
statement of facts ; and although it conceded more 
to the anti-vaccinists than was necessary, it proved 
that even if every case of vaccination were to be 
followed by the mild or mitigated small-pox, it 
would be an unspeakable benefit to mankind, by dis- 



240 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

arming that disease of all its virulence and all its 
danger. Tlie whole character of this production, 
and the just and animated style in which the learned 
and venerable baronet advocated the cause of truth 
and humanity, was very acceptable to Dr. Jenner. 
Although he was not disposed to go so far as Sir 
Gilbert, he nevertheless looked upon the production 
as so judicious, and so full of sound and incontro- 
vertible argument, that he was very anxious to ex- 
tend its circulation beyond the limits of the book in 
which it was originally printed."*^ 

" From some unaccountable delay," he observes, 
" the last volume of the Transactions of the Me- 
dico-Chirurgical Society did not reach me till a 
few days ago. I dashed at your paper the mo- 
ment I opened it ; and I should set no value on 
my feelings if I could not with truth assure you, 
that its perusal afforded me the highest gratifi- 
cation. It is exactly the thing the public have 
long wanted. A statement so clear and so decisive 
cannot fail to make a beneficial impression even in 
its present state of confinement ; but if I may be 
allowed to burst the blue walls of its prison-house, I 
would, with yours and the consent of the Society, set 
it free, and give it the liberty of ranging the world 
over. Two or three hundred copies might be dispersed 
with certainty of great advantage. In such a case 
would you like to make any additions ? I know you 
would not wish to crowd it with examples of the ex- 
tinction of small-pox, where vaccination had been 
universally adopted ; but to the powerful ones you 

* Medico-Chirurgical Transactions. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 241 

have fiflduced, there is one observation more that 
might be made with the most striking effect ; and 
that is, the absence of the disease from our armies 
during nearly the whole of the late war, which took 
place in consequence of a mandate from the com- 
mander-in-chief, namely, that every recruit on join- 
ing his regiment should be immediately vaccinated, 
unless he bore the incontestible proofs of his pre- 
vious security. This, when contrasted with the re- 
collection of the incessant losses by small-pox among 
the troops in former wars, becomes a most interesting 
fact. 

" With regard to the mitigated disease which 
sometimes follows vaccination, I can positively say, 
and shall be borne out in my assertion by those who 
are in future days to follow me, that it is the off- 
spring entirely of incaution in those who conduct 
the vaccine process. On what does the inexpli- 
cable change which guards the constitution fi'om 
the fang of the small-pox depend ? On nothing but 
a correct state of the pustules on the arm excited by 
the insertion of the virus ; and why are these pus- 
tules sometimes incorrect, losing their characteristic 
shape, and performing their office partially ? But 
having gone pretty far on this subject in my former 
letter, I shall not trouble you with a twice-told tale." 

This letter is not dated, but I presume it must 
have been written about the beginning of August 
1819. 



VOL. IT. R 



242 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

SUMMARY OF FACTS RELATING TO VACCINATION — ITS INFLU- 
ENCE ON THE MORTALITY OF INFANTS, AND ON POPULATION 
— PUBLICATION OF THE CIRCULAR — LETTER TO DR. CHARLES 
PARRY — PAPER ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

It is now nearly forty years since the practice of 
vaccination was publicly adopted in England. In 
drawing this subject to a close, it becomes me to 
revert to the opinions of Jenner, to compare his 
doctrines with the experience acquired during the 
whole of that long period ; and to ascertain how far 
they have, thereby, been confirmed or refuted. I 
could wish at the same time to devote some atten- 
tion to questions of a subsidiary nature ; to point 
out the connexion of his discovery with the increase 
of population, and to explain how it may have con- 
tributed to an increase or decrease of the mortality 
attendant on other affections. 

The discussions which have been published in the 
first volume respecting the history of the Variolse 
and the Variolse Vaccinae, and the illustrations 
thereby given of the sentiments and statements of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 243 

Jenner, will render the first of these objects of compa- 
ratively easy attainment. We are not now perplexed 
with difficulties respecting the origin or nature of 
cow-pox ; nor is there any room for much specula- 
tion as to its prophylactic powers, that is to say, 
these powers are alike in nature with those belong- 
ing to small-pox itself ; and, if human science could 
enable us to detect those changes in the constitution 
which, for the most part, render an individual who 
has had small-pox, insusceptible of future attacks, 
then we might explain why the Variolse Vaccinse 
exerts a similar influence. Such being the fact, the 
main questions which it behoves us to put are these : 
1st, Has the cow-pox retained those distinctive 
marks which characterised it when it was first dis- 
covered? 2ndly, Has the true virus, after passing 
through the constitutions of hundreds or thousands 
of individuals, lost in any degree its prophylactic 
powers ? Does, in short, the affection, at this day, 
wear the same aspect, and produce the same effect, 
as on its first introduction ? 

I have endeavoured to calculate the proportions 
of failures in vaccination ; but there is much greater 
difficulty in arriving at the exact truth in this matter 
than might at first be conceived. This difficulty 
arises more from the imperfection of our observa- 
tions than from the nature of the subject itself. In 
situations where vaccination has been performed with 
great care, the number of cases of failure is ex- 
tremely small : whereas, the reports of failures from 
other quarters are so numerous, that, were they 
not counteracted by better testimony, men's con- 

R 2 



244 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

fidence in vaccination might be shaken. It is quite 
fair to conclude, when great discrepancies occur, 
that there must be some fault either in the observer 
or the reporter ; for it is not possible that such dif- 
ferences should exist if the practice had l>een con- 
ducted with equal attention. 

Without, therefore, dwelling farther on this sub- 
ject at present, I believe that the experience of every 
well-conducted public institution, as well as of every 
individual who has fairly investigated the present 
and past state of vaccine inoculation, will justify me 
in affirming that cow-pox is now what it was at the 
beginning. There are instances where the same 
virus has been passed from one human subject to 
another for more than thirty years, and its transmis- 
sion during that period must have been through 
fifteen or sixteen hundred different individuals, yet 
no degeneration of its properties has taken place. 
Though the vaccinations which have been performed 
by Dr. Jenner and his followers in this district fully 
warrant this statement, it is nevertheless always 
proper to employ recent lymph from the cow when 
it can be procured. 

I need scarcely observe that results of this kind 
can have been obtained only where the greatest at- 
tention was paid to the perfectness of the virus in 
the first instance, as well as during every subsequent 
inoculation. I have already shewn how much Dr. 
Jenner insisted upon the necessity of this caution, 
because he knew that the virus might be deteriorated 
in many ways ; and that it was possible by inoculating 
with such to produce a spurious or imperfect vesicle 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 245 

which gave no real protection. It is undeniable 
that a very large number of reported failures are to 
be ascribed to the ignorance of, or want of attention 
to, these important points. It must, nevertheless 
be admitted, that small-pox has occurred after the 
most perfect vaccination. The number of such 
cases, as far as the experience of this district goes, 
I should say, is not greater than that of small-pox 
after small-pox.*" This statement appears to me to 
be made out from two sources. There are parishes 

* There are no sufficient data to enable us to determine the 
exact proportion of persons that may be attacked with small- 
pox after having been vaccinated. By far the most valuable 
document that has appeared in this country has been obtained 
from the Royal Military Asylum at Chelsea. The return em- 
braces a period from 1803 to 1833. The number of children 
reputed to have had small-pox previous to admission was 2532 : 
of which number, 1887 were boys, 645 girls. The number of 
boys reputed to have been vaccinated previous to admission was 
245)8; of girls, 562. Making a general total of 3060. 

The number who had small-pox, after reputed small-pox, 
was 26 : 15 boys and 11 girls. The number who had small-pox 
after reputed vaccination was 24 : 19 boys and 5 girls. 

The number vaccinated at the Asylum subsequent to admis- 
sion was 628 : 460 boys, 168 girls. Of this whole number, 
only 2 boys and 1 girl caught the small-pox. 

The number who died of small-pox at the Asylum was 
4 boys and 1 girl ; of these 5 children, 3 had the disease after 
reputed small-pox, and 2 had never been vaccinated or under- 
o-one small-pox before. (See Appendix to Report from Select 
Committee on the Vaccine Board). 

This document, so far as it goes, fully supports Dr. Jenner's 
assertion, that the protection afforded by vaccination duly per- 
formed is quite equal to that afforded by small-pox itself. 



246 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

in this county where vaccination has been assidu- 
ously and skilfully performed from the commence- 
ment. They have enjoyed an almost complete 
immunity from small-pox, even though this disease 
has been raging in the surrounding neighbourhood. 
Again, it has been found that, when small-pox has 
made its appearance, and spread epidemically, it 
attacked both those who had had small-pox pre- 
viously, and those who had been vaccinated. This 
single fact, if there were none other, proves the 
affinity of the two affections ; and the identity of the 
laws by which they are governed. 

The records from which a body of mecUcal statis- 
tics may be collected are yet far from being complete. 
Facts enough, however, have been accumulated to 
enable us to prove that the mean duration of human 
life has very much increased in those countries 
where ci-vdlisation and medical science prevail. 

From accurate calculations made in this country, 
it would seem that there has been a surprising in- 
crease in the duration of life within the last fifty years. 
In 1 780 the annual mortality of England and Wales 
was calculated to be one in for fj/ ; in 1821, the 
yearly mortality was one in fifty-ciglit, or one in 
sixty ; so that in forfj/ years the mortality has 
decreased nearly one-third. In order to point out 
the connexion between this decrease and the prac- 
tice of vaccination, it is proper to observe, that the 
ratio has materially increased since the year 1 80 1 . 
In that year the calculation was one in fortj/seven, 
affording only a difference of seven between that and 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 24/ 

the preceding twenty years : whereas, the difference 
in the succeeding twenty, that is to say, from 1801 
to 1821, was no less than thirteen. 

It is not easy to ascertain precisely how much of 
this addition to the duration of human life is to be 
ascribed to the influence of vaccination. The great 
improvements that have taken place in all the phy- 
sical sciences, the increased attention which has 
been bestowed on Medical Police, the advances that 
have been made both in the knowledge and prac- 
tice of medicine itself ; all have contributed to these 
interesting results : but the effect of controlling or 
subduing the mortality of such a scourge as small- 
pox, must have been great and extensive. Leaving 
this part of the subject for the present, I shall pro- 
ceed to elucidate another, for which more precise 
and accurate data have been afforded. Tlie mor- 
tality of children has always been a painful subject 
of meditation. This mortality varies considerably 
in cities and towns, villages and country parishes. 
Some very valuable information has been published 
on this topic by Mr. Roberton, of Manchester, in 
his work on the mortality and physical management 
of children. According to his tables it would appear 
that the mortality of children under ten years of age, 
in cities and large towns, was ,51.39 ; in smaller towns 
and cities, it is 48.9/ ; in village parishes, 49.90 ; in 
agricultural parishes, it is 35.40. It would appear 
that the mortaUty of those under ten in foreign 
countries approaches that of our own. In the 
German tables, it is reported to be 43 per cent, for 
the country, 47.7 for small towns, and 50.2 for 



248 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Ijarge cities. Duvillard gives 44.89 as the average 
of the kingdom of France, which is within a fraction 
of the rate of infantile mortahty in this country, it 
being 44.91. 

It is somewhat remarkable that the same ratio of 
mortality in after-life does not hold between this 
country and those just mentioned. If the calcula- 
tions made, at least, be correct, it would seem that 
while the average annual mortality in England and 
Wales is about one in shvti/, that of France is oiie in 
forty. In Prussia and Naples it is stated to vary 
from 1 in 33 to 1 in 35. In Wirtemberg it is 1 in 33. 
The countries which are said to approach nearest to 
England are the Pays de Vaud, Sweden, and Hol- 
land : the first affording an average of 1 in 49 ; the 
latter two, 1 in 48. Should the facts really be as 
above stated, they afford astonishing testimony to 
the superior salubrity of England over the most 
favoured spots of Europe. 

Notwithstanding the proofs of the power of vacci- 
nation in diminishing the mortality from small-pox, 
it has been a question whether infantile mortality 
has been diminished ; it having been supposed that 
the beneficial effects of vaccination were counter- 
vailed by a greater mortality in the other diseases 
of children. This very discouraging statement was 
published by Dr. Watt, of Glasgow, in an appendix 
to his work on Chincough. This opinion, which 
was hastily adopted and unwisely promulgated, has 
unquestionably had a great effect in retarding the 
progress of vaccination. It, unfortunately, gave 
countenance to some of the worst prejudices of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 249 

those who were opposed to the practice. It has 
now, however, been demonstrated that his conclu- 
sions rested upon a fallacy which ought to have been 
avoided. He expressed himself as utterly astonished 
to find the number of deaths under ten years as 
great in 1812 as it had been in 1783. In making 
this calculation he seems to have forgotten, that 
Glasgow, during that period, had more than doubled 
its working population. This important fact is very 
fully illustrated by Mr. Roberton. In the year 
1/83, the per centage of deaths under ten years for 
Glasgow, was 53.48, while the annual mortality of all 
ages was 26.7. In the six years preceding 1812, 
the per centage of deaths under ten years is 55.49, 
and the annual mortality of all ages is 1 in 40.8. It 
thus appears that the relative proportion of deaths 
under the tenth year is greater in the latter than in 
the former period : but, if we take into account 
the increased population of that city, it will be 
seen that the actual mortality under ten years, in 
1812, was nearly one-third less than in the first- 
mentioned period. It is somewhat remarkable, that 
the tables published by Dr. Watt himself did not 
lead him to the correction of his error. In his first 
period, namely, from 1780 to 1785, the population of 
Glasgow was reckoned at 44,360, and the mortality 
was 1 in 26.7 ; while in the last-mentioned period, 
namely, from 1801 to 1811, the population had 
amounted to 96,977, while the mortality was only 
1 in 40.8. 

Dr. Casper, in his essay on the mortality among 
chikh'en in Berlin, has fully proved, that whilst the 



250 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

mortality from small-pox has been evidently dimi- 
nished, that from other diseases has, in like manner, 
lessened. In twenty years antecedent to the first 
introduction of cow-pox, the deaths under puberty 
were as 51 to 100. In eight years succeeding 1814, 
the deaths were only 42 in 100. Dr. Casper was 
not satisfied with these general results ; for he has 
proved, by the most direct and conclusive evidence, 
that the other diseases of children have really be- 
come less fatal as vaccination has been more gene- 
rally employed. In four years previous to 1790, the 
deaths among children from all chseases, exclusive 
of small-pox, were 39 in 100. In four years pre- 
vious to 1823, they were only 34 in 100. According 
to the same authority, the two diseases, namely, 
measles and scarlet-fever, which were supposed to 
have increased in severity since the introduction of 
vaccination, have been, in fact, neither more prevalent 
nor more fatal, but rather an actual diminution of 
the mortality from measles has taken place. All that 
I have been able to learn in this district fully con- 
firms this statement. The healthiness of children 
has been augmented rather than diminished ; and if 
in any epidemic of measles or scarlet-fever a greater 
mortality should arise, it may fairly be ascribed 
to the increased number exposed to its influence, 
rather than to any exacerbation in its type or cha- 
racter. 

Since the introduction of vaccination the morta- 
lity of those under two years of age has been greatly 
diminished : but between this age and that of ten, it 
is affirmed that the mortality has proportionally 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 251 

increased. The inference drawn from this state- 
ment has been, that as small-pox in former times 
chiefly extended its ravages by sweeping away chil- 
dren under two years, what is gained in the saving 
of life by vaccination, is lost by an increased mor- 
tality fi'om the other infantile diseases. It seems 
that a greater number of childi'en now die of measles 
than formerly ; but there is no satisfactory proof 
that this disease itself has become more severe since 
the practice of vaccination. There is, in short, no 
e^ddence that in a given number of cases of measles 
the mortality is greater than when small-pox was 
prevalent. It is clear, that unless facts of this kind 
can be adduced, the argument is of no value ; and 
the phenomenon can be explained on more accurate 
principles. Formerly, a variolous epidemic so com- 
pletely swept away the population under ten years 
of age, as to leave comparatively few to be exposed 
to the influence of other epidemics. Mr. Roberton 
has confirmed this statement by authentic documents 
deduced from the history of variolous epidemics in 
Warrington and Chester. In the latter place, Dr. 
Haygarth reports that there were, in the year 1774, 
546 deaths ; of these, 334 were under ten years, and 
202 were caused by small-pox. 

This part of the subject has been very ably 
treated by Mr. Edmonds. From his tables it ap- 
pears that the mortality in England under five years 
of age is now only half as great as it formerly was sup- 
posed to have been. He has shewn that this is the 
case both absolutelj/ and relativelj/ to the mortality 
at all other ages. It is believed by the best authori- 



252 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ties, that before the introduction of vaccination, there 
died under the age of five years, out of one hundred 
born, sixty in London, and forty in all England. 
During the twenty years ending with 1830, there 
died under the age of five years, out of one hundred 
born, only thirty in London, and twenty in all Eng- 
land.* 

On the whole, I feel perfectly assured that vacci- 
nation has not only had a direct and positive in- 
fluence in subduing or diminishing the mortality 
from small-pox, but that it has, likewise, had a be- 
neficial effect in maintaining the human constitu- 
tion against the attacks of other diseases. There is 
much reason to believe that small-pox left those 
whom it attacked, much more susceptible of illness. 
Scrofula, for example, in all its forms, was certainly 
very often excited ; and, in particular, pulmonary 
consumption. The time, perhaps, is not yet arrived 
for drawing accurate conclusions regarding the in- 
crease or decrease of such diseases. It, nevertheless, 
appears from the London Bills of Mortality, that 
since the year 1808, the deaths from pulmonary 
consumption have been decreasing, and it is unde- 
niable, that the mortality from all diseases above 
ten years, is nearly as much diminished as that 
under ten. 

I might fill a volume in recording the evidence 
that vaccination, when extensively and efficiently 
performed, can extirpate small-pox. Wherever the 
practice has been judiciously followed up, its success, 

* See British Medical Almauack, 1837. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 



253 



in this respect, has been nearly complete. The mea- 
sures taken by the government of Sweden have already 
been mentioned in the former volume of this work. 
The following document will tell with what success. 

In the year 1779 the small-pox destroyed 15,000 persons. 
1784 . . . 12,000 



1800 
1801 
1822 
1823 



12,000 

G,000 

11 

37 



For a period of eight years not a single case of 
small-pox occurred in the dominions of His Danish 
Majesty. The whole inhabitants had been vaccinated. 

Between 1752 and 1762, the small-pox carried 
off in Copenhagen alone 2644 victims ; from 1762 to 
1772, it carried off 2116 ; from 1772 to 1782, 2233 ; 
from 1782 to 1792, 2785 ; but from the introduction 
of vaccination, in ) 802, to the end of 1818, only 153 
persons have died of the small-pox ; namely. 



1802 


73 


1811 





1803 


5 


1812 





1804 


13 


1813 





1805 


5 


1814 





180G 


5 


1815 





1807 


2 


1816 





1808 


40 


1817 





180J) 


5 


1818 





1810 


4 







158 



(See Annals of Philosophy, August, 1819.) 

I am not ignorant of the history of the variolous 
epidemics which of late years have prevailed in dif- 



254 LIFE OF BR. JENNER. 

ferent parts of Europe. I know that in Lombardy, 
in Denmark, and in France, as well as in England 
and other places, disasters of this kind have taken 
place. 

It has been imagined, from occurrences which 
arose during these epidemics, that the protecting 
power of vaccination is weakened by the lapse of 
years : not having myself witnessed any facts of this 
description, I cannot decide whether or not the 
opinion is well founded. The experience of this 
district, the birthplace of vaccination, does not 
countenance the idea. All those that I have heard 
of who were vaccinated thirty or more years ago, 
appear to have resisted small-pox contagion as 
much as if they had previously had that disease. I 
may also add, that I have never seen but one fatal 
case of small-pox after vaccination, during the whole 
of my professional life, although my acquaintance 
with the medical gentlemen of this and the adjoin- 
ing counties was very extensive, especially when I 
held the appointment of Physician to the General 
Infirmary. As far, therefore, as my knowledge 
goes, I would repeat Dr. Jenner's maxim, and say, 
that vaccination, duly performed, will protect the 
constitution as much as small-pox itself. 

It can scarcely, in my opinion, be doubted, where 
small-pox has prevailed after cow-pox, that there has 
been some imperfection in the vaccine process, and 
that thereby another maxim of the author of vacci- 
nation is illustrated, which tells us, that these im- 
perfections may be propagated, and that they will 
afford varying degrees of protection, according as 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 255 

they recede from, or approach to, the perfect 
standard. 

I am especially struck with the force of these 
remarks when I look at some of the recent accomits 
from Denmark. From Dr. Wendt's book, it appears 
that re-vaccination is employed in the Danish army 
to counteract the contagion of variola. He men- 
tions, that in the year 1835, out of 31/3 persons 
between the ages of twenty and twenty-five, 21/5 
were successfully re-vaccinated, while 998 resisted 
the infection. This is an enormous proportion ; for 
every one of the larger number would have been 
liable to an attack of small-pox. I cannot avoid 
thinking, therefore, that the first vaccinations had 
been imperfect. 

The results of re-vaccination in the Prussian 
army have Hkewise led to the belief that the suc- 
ceptibility to small-pox among the vaccinated is 
annually increasing. Thus, of 100 re-vaccinations in 
1833, 31 were successful; 37 in 1834; 39 in 1835; 
and 43 in 1836. How it may be in other parts of 
the world, I cannot say ; but I am constrained to 
repeat, that nothing has happened in this vicinity to 
countenance such a statement. I cannot, therefore, 
arrive at any other conclusion than that the defect 
is not in vaccination itself, but in the manner of con- 
ducting the process, or in the employment of imper- 
fect virus. 

Amid all these discouraging circumstances, it is 
with the greatest satisfaction I refer to the bills of 
mortality for London during the year 1 837 ; which 
give only 217 deaths by small-pox. This is the 



256 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

smallest number that has ever been recorded in any 
one year since the first establishment of this register. 
It would be a glorious triumph if, through the ex- 
ertions of the different vaccine establishments, Lon- 
don should be fi'eed even for a season from this 
scourge. 

It is calculated that within the last fifteen years 
the population of Europe has been augmented by 
nearly twenty-nine millions.* The cessation of hos- 
tilities and the cultivation of the arts of peace will, 
in some degree, account for this great increase. It 
will, nevertheless, be found that the removal of one 
prolific source of mortality, by the introduction of 
vaccination, has tended materially to this result. 
In Prussia, where the practice was very early 
adopted, it is proved by accurate statistical investi- 
gations, that from the years 1817 to 182/, the in- 
crease of population amounted to 1,849,561. In 
this period are included some of those years in which 
Dr. Casper demonstrated the great diminution in 
the number of deaths among children at Berlin. 

In Sweden and in Denmark, where vaccination 
was also adopted and enforced by the influence of 
the government, population has been making rapid 
strides. In the latter country the increase is cal- 
culated at the rate of two per cent. In Sweden it is 
not quite so much. In European Russia it is sup- 
posed that from the year 1815 to the present time 
7,000,000 have been added to its population. It is 
important to remark, that this increase is not so 

* N.B. This was written in 18-31. 



LIFE OF DR. JKNNER. 2')/ 

much owing to an access of births, as to the (hmi- 
niition in the number of deaths. 

In Austria the results are as striking and satisfac- 
tory. According to the returns pubHshed by the 
geographical board at Vienna, it is inferred that the 
increase on the population of 1815, has in twelve 
years amounted to more than 27 per cent. The 
population being in 1815, 27,000,000; more than 
7,000,000 have been since added to its numbers. 

It is a remarkable fact that the rate of increase 
has been slower in France than in many other parts 
of Europe. From the work lately published by the 
Baron Dupin, it appears, that the annual increase on 
each milhon is 6536. This gives a total annual 
augmentation of about 200,000. 

The rate of increase in Great Britain and Ireland 
has been nearly double that of France : Great Bri- 
tain ha\'ing increased by 200,000 annually ; and 
Ireland in at least the same ratio. So that the 
actual increase in the population of the United King- 
dom has in the same space of time equalled that of 
France. 

The following statement, taken from the work of 
M. Dupin, affords an interesting view of the rate of 
increase in the population of the principal states in 
Europe. 

Annual increase upon each million of inhabitants. 
Prussia . 27,027 Russia . 10,527 

Britain . 16,6(57 Austria . 10,114 

Netherlands 12,372 France . 6,-536 

Two Sicilies 11,111 

M. Dupin ascribes the low rate of increase in 

VOL. II. s 



258 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

France, in some decree, to the neglect of vaccina- 
tion, particularly in the south, which appears to be 
much behind the north in every improvement. It 
is, however, most important to repeat that, though 
the number of inhabitants in France has not in- 
creased in the same ratio with other countries, the 
degree of mortality is materially diminished. The 
births are said to be less numerous than they were 
in the year 1780 ; and yet it is affirmed that the 
annual addition made to the population is greater 
by 44,000 than it was at that period. 

M. Berard gives the same cheering statements, 
though somewhat in a different way. In 1/80 the 
deaths annually in France were as 1 in 30. From 
1817 to 1824 they were as 1 in 40 : while it ap- 
peared that, during the same period, the difference 
between the deaths and the births was nearly 200,000 
in favour of the latter. The cause of this beneficial 
alteration in the rate of mortality is well illustrated 
in the Memoir of M. Benoiston de Chateauneuf, who 
has proved that, in 1 780, fifty out of every hundred 
new born infants died in the two first years of life ; 
at present, only 38.3 : which gives an augmentation 
of one-fourth (of lives) in the hundred. It is during 
this infantile period of life that the influence of vac- 
cination is most sensibly evinced, and much of this 
favourable result is, doubtless, to be ascribed to it. In 
the subsequent periods of life, results nearly as gratify- 
ing have been ascertained by M. Chateauneuf : thus, 
formerly, before ten years of age, 55 died ; at pre- 
sent, 43.7 : 21.5 reached the age of fifty ; now 32.5 : 
fifteen attained the age of sixty ; now, twenty-four. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 259 

It is admitted on all hands that our population 
has been increasing rapidly since the beginning of 
the present century. There has not only been a 
much larger proportion of births ; but, what is more 
to my purpose, a considerable diminution in the 
proportion of deaths. In the early part of the pre- 
ceding century the proportion of births to deaths, in 
three successive decades, was as follows. 



fears. 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Proportion. 


1710 


143,735 


145,146 


900 to 1000 


1720 


159,000 


105,956 


903 to 1000 


1730 


1GG,514 


182,579 


912 to 1000 



After the year 1/40 this losing account began to 
alter, and the proportion of births to deaths to in- 
crease steadily, but slowly. In the year 1800 the 
births were 263,408, the deaths were 193,476 ; giving 
a proportion of births to deaths of 1361 to 1000. 
In the year 1810 the ratio had increased to 1 5 1 8 to 
1000. And in the year 1820, the numbers stood 
thus: births, 334,007; deaths, 208,153. Propor- 
tion, 1605 to 1000. 

The same results are still more strikingly exempli- 
fied by a reference to the population of England and 
Wales since the beginning of the last century, as 
deduced by Mr. Rickman from the births only. In 
fifty years, namely, from I7OO to 1750, the increase 
amounted only to 900,092 ; whereas in fifty years, 
from 1770 to 1821, the increase was no less than 
4,657,000. Great as this increase is, it is rendered 
more remarkable in that by far the greatest amount 

s 2 



260 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

of it has taken place within the last twenty years of 
the period, nearly three milhons having been added 
in that time.* 

It is impossible to say what may have been the 
exact effects of vaccination in producing these re- 
sults ; but that they must have been very great no 
one can doubt who is aware of the comparative mor- 
tality of infantile diseases, and the great proportion 
that it bears to the total number of deaths at all 
ages. 

Tt is at once my duty, while it yields me pleasure, 
to present the gratifying details which have just been 
closed, in connexion wdth the personal feelings and 
character of Jenner himself. Unhappily, his race was 
run before the full tide of gratulation, with which the 
discoverer of vaccination might now be hailed, had 
reached his ear. The reader, however, cannot fail 
to observe that, even from the outset, Jenner s con- 
fidence was as firm as it was just and well-founded. 
But, after all, it is a marvellous subject ; and even 
those who have watched its progress, who have 
anticipated and longed for the success that has 
attended it, cannot, when the accumulated evi- 
dence is brought fully to bear upon the lives and 
happiness of kindreds, and tongues, and nations, 
avoid wondering at the signal mercies with which, in 
these days, Providence has crowned the exertions of 
one of our fellow creatures. 

* See evidence on the poor-laws taken before the House of 
Lords (18;>1) ; but especially the tables and remarks delivered 
in by John Barton, esq. See also the excellent work on medi- 
cal statistics by Dr. Hawkins. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 261 

Wonderful as have been the events of the last years, 
great as has been the advancement of human know- 
ledge, and rapid as has been the progress in all the 
arts calculated to promote the comfort and con- 
venience of life, the most remarkable phenomenon 
is, certainly, not that we have subdued the ele- 
ments to our use — not that we can multiply at will the 
products of our ingenuity — not that we have brought 
mechanical agents to take the place of active and 
intelligent beings ; but that we have been enabled to 
stay the power of death — to keep him for a season 
from his victims — and to say that the day of grace 
and preparation has been lengthened. 

In thus exulting in the benefits of vaccination, it 
will be seen that I cannot fall in with the lamenta- 
tions of the whining economists who look upon an 
increase of population with an evil eye, and permit 
selfish and limited views of what is best for the well- 
being of the community to interfere with the richest 
blessings of Pro\adence to man*. 

As we approach towards the conclusion of Jenner's 
life, his opinions, whether on vaccination or any other 
subject, assume a more solemn and impressive cha- 
racter. The matured reflections of a well- disciplined 
mind, conscientiously and perseveringly directed to 
any scientific object, will always command attention ; 
but when the immediate consequences of such inves- 

* La Place, in a conversation with Sir James Mackintosh, at 
Madame de Romford's, said, that the vaccine, when it supplants 
the small-pox, will add three years to the medium duration of 
human life. — See Life of Mackintosh, vol. ii. page 322. 



262 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

tigation touch the Hves and security of the public, 
a deeper interest is added to the inquiry. No man 
more strongly felt the power of such truths than 
Jenner : in short, the whole of his labours were pre- 
eminently distinguished by their intimate alhance 
with great results bearing immediately on the well- 
being and happiness of society. Under a keen sense 
of his responsibility he wrote, and it is this circum- 
stance which gives to all his communications an air 
of trustworthiness and sincerity that entitles them 
to the utmost consideration. 

The value of his labours, when gauged by this rule, 
has by no means been appreciated. It has not been 
duly felt either by his professional brethren or by the 
public, that there was a moral grandeur associated 
with his humility and perseverance. The time, I 
trust, is coming when justice will be rendered to his 
memory; when it will be acknowledged that those 
qualities which give the principal excellence to scien- 
tific pursuits did, in a pecuhar manner, adorn and 
dignify his mind. Why, it may be asked, should I 
recur to this train of feeling ? Because it is but jus- 
tice to him, and holds out to medical men an exami)le 
worthy of all imitation. 

In the greater number of discussions that occupy 
the attention of professional men, such qualities sel- 
dom maintain a prominent place. The play of inge- 
nuity, the contention of wit or learning, the subtle 
exercises of the understanding, may all in turn divide 
their care, and afford temporary subjects for amuse- 
ment or instruction. Such have been the founda- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 263 

tions of most medical theories. In general their ap- 
plication to practice is too indefinite and uncertain 
to render the authors of them amenable to any other 
than a speculative or intellectual tribunal, whose 
awards do not necessarily infer any moral delin- 
quency. It was not so with regard to vaccination ; 
and doubtless every word written by Jenner on that 
subject came from him, not as an indi\ddual emulous 
of distinction, but desirous of advancing truth and 
promoting the essential well-being of his fellow-crea- 
tures. The envy and rivalship that he encountered, 
tended very much to obscure and counteract these 
excellences. He was always looked upon as a sus- 
pected witness, even though his evidence was corro- 
borated by an abundance of impartial and disinter- 
ested testimony. At the outset of the investigation 
such fastidiousness was not unbecoming ; but to see 
it persisted in after every reasonable doubt had been 
removed, and with no other effect than to damage a 
good cause, and to inflict unnecessary pain on a just 
and generous man, is a lamentable proof of the blind- 
ness of the understanding, and of the obliquity of the 
heart. 

The feelings of hostility towards him became more 
virulent and vindictive with every alleged case of 
failure. He was held answerable for every supposed 
misadventure of this kind, while the real merits of 
his discovery were artfully overlooked, and his cau- 
tions and admonitions, in too many cases, disre- 
garded. Under the pressure of popular obloquy of 
this description, he continued firm to his principles, 



264 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

and vindicated his doctrines with mildness and 
wisdom. 

" I have searched" (says he, writing to a corres- 
pondent) " in vain for a record respecting the person 
you name to me, who has had the small-pox after 
being vaccinated by me ten years ago. From the 
date you fix, it probably took place at the time I per- 
mitted persons of all descriptions, not only those of 
the town, but from the districts around, to come to 
me weekly. The small-pox was at their heels^ and 
this drove them to my house in immense numbers. 
I was literally mobbed, driven to a corner, and made 
a prisoner, necessitated to submit to their will. ' The 
man shall do me neoct.'' ' No, he sha'nt ; he shall do 
me,' was the language I was often obliged to hear 
and submit to. For many successive inoculating 
days the numbers that assembled were, on the 
average, about three hundred. The taking of notes, 
or the observance of anything like order and regu- 
larity, was out of the question. However, I perse- 
vered with patient submission, and completely gained 
the grand point I aimed at : the small-pox was sub- 
dued in every direction. Though this was the for- 
tunate result, yet it would be absurd to suppose that 
out of this vast body all could go through the disease 
with that correctness which protects them from small- 
pox infection ; in numerous instances, indeed, they 
did not afford me an opportunity of judging of their 
security by ever returning to shew me their arms ; 
and this teazing occurrence not unfrequently hap- 
pened among the common people of Cheltenham, 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 265 

when I vaccinated on a reduced scale. But now, 
sir, more immediately to the consideration of your 
communication. Let us admit that the individual in 
question went through the vaccine in all its stages 
with the most perfect regularity, and that, at the ex- 
piration of ten years, she became infected with the 
small-pox, and had that disease with as much regu- 
larity as if she never had been under the influence of 
vaccination. What then ? Is the small-pox itself a 
perfect and constant guarantee against future infec- 
tion ? Where is the medical man, possessed of expe- 
rience in his profession, and of an inquiring mind, 
who will not answer this question in the negative ? 
Cheltenham is certainly not exempt from this devia- 
tion in a general law of the animal economy, as it 
exhibits abundant testimony of the contrary ; one 
instance, indeed, is so very remarkable, that it is 
worthy of being recorded : I allude to that of the 
lady of Mr. Gwinnett, who has had the small-pox 
Jive times. 

" When the small-pox appeared in Cheltenham two 
summers ago in one of the lanes which leads out 
of the High Street, though the situation was ex- 
posed, and numbers of children who had been vac- 
cinated were within reach of the infection, yet 
none of them took the disease. However, it hap- 
pened that a young fellow, who had been inoculated 
some years ago for the small-pox at Upton, was not 
so fortunate. He became infected, and had this dis- 
temper with some degree of severity. His case, by 
the way, was one of those which illustrates the truth 
of my observation respecting the cause that proves 



266 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

an impediment, in either inoculation, to that con- 
stitutional change which nature demands as a safe- 
guard against future infection. This young man, at 
the time of his being inoculated, had Tinea Capitis, 
and for some years after. 

" Not long since I was called to a footman in a gen- 
tleman's family, whose case was precisely similar to 
that just stated, except that it was more severe. On 
examining the inoculated arm, I found the cicatrix 
more extensive than usual, which convinced me of 
some irregularity in the progress of the disease. 
And here I will observe, as a good practical remark, 
if you are ever called upon to form a prognostic as 
to safety in a vaccinated child, that a cicatrix much 
beyond the usual boundary, should always be looked 
upon with a suspicious eye ; for it is impossible that 
the progress of the vesicle can have been correct 
when this appearance presents itself; and in the 
vaccine, you know, the appearance of the arm is our 
oiili/ guide. 

" I find myself imperceptibly drawn into practical 
remarks ; and, as this is the case, I will mention one 
more, on which I cannot lay too much stress, namely, 
robbing the vesicles too frequently of their contents. 
How often have I seen, where there has been but 
one only, that this poor solitary thing, which is ex- 
pected to perform an office of such immense import- 
ance, has been cut and mangled day after day in the 
rudest manner ! This has not only happened in the 
early periods of the vaccine practice, but the evil 
still exists, as I witnessed it on an infant in Chelten- 
ham not many months before my departure ; and \^ 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 267 

have been doomed again and again, in spite of all 
my remonstrances, to be a spectator of this danger- 
ous practice both in London and elsewhere."* 

The foregoing very interesting letter (written in 
1817) contains a summary of all his doctrines, to- 
gether with some of the most important practical 
directions for conducting vaccination. The case of 
the Honourable Mr. Grosvenor has been already 
particularly detailed. In one of Jenner's note books 
of this date, I find some additional facts recorded 
which it is not unsuitable to lay before the reader 
in this place. " I vaccinated this young gentleman 
in a puny state of health at about a month old. 
Lady Grosvenor was timid, and prevailed on me to 
de\date from my usual mode of practice ; and to 
make one puncture only ; and the pustule it excited 
was unfortunately deranged in its progress by being 
rubbed by the nurse. The small-pox, which followed, 
went through its course in a shorter period than usual, 
and scarcely left any mark." Again, he observes to 
another correspondent about the same time, " The 
failures of small-pox inoculation far exceed those of 
the vaccine in those districts where I have vaccinated 
on a large scale. This is, in proportion to the num- 
bers, as the latter, I imagine, exceed the former by 
ten to one ; and of what import are the few that 
have occurred, as they have not produced fatal con- 
sequences ? " Let us contrast these statements with 
his remarks on one of those varioloid epidemics, as 
they were called. " I wish it were in my power to 
give you any information respecting the circum- 
* Letter to Dr. Colcy, from Dr. Jenncr's Journal, 181-5 to 1820. 



268 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

stance you mention at East Sheen. I have not been 
within a hundred miles of the spot these three years. 
But it strikes me as very extraordinary that more 
than twenty individuals assembled together, and 
who came from different districts, and consequently 
were vaccinated by different practitioners, should all 
have had this eruptive disease, which w^as called the 
small-pox. I really cannot conceive that such a 
thing could have happened, if they had been vacci- 
nated by a cobbler. I am told, too, that the usher 
of the school shared the same fate as the boys." 

The purport of these extracts is to show, first, 
Dr. Jenner's great carefulness in conducting the 
process of vaccination ; and secondly, his consequent 
success. Although he could not always watch the 
progress, I have reason to know that the estimate 
of his success, as given above, has not been falsified 
by disastrous events since his death. 

I will now submit to the reader an extract from a 
letter to Sir Gilbert Blane, written in 1819, which 
more immediately bears upon the varioloid disease 
as it appeared in Scotland about that time. " I 
have often said, and I still declare it, that if ever 
anything occurred which militated against my early 
assertion respecting vaccination, namely, that if 
properly conducted, it would afford a security 
against small-pox as perfect as the inoculation of 
small-pox itself, I would immediately proclaim it 
to the world. The principle of vaccination is good, 
it is immutable ; but its application has been bad, 
and continues to be so. The practice is conducted 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 269 

heedlessly in many respects, but chiefly with inatten- 
tion to a subject I brought before the public so long 
since as the year 1804. The paper, a copy of which 
I now send you, came out that year in the Medical 
and Physical Journal for the month of August." 

The minuteness of his attention to every devia- 
tion from the correct progress of the vaccine vesicle 
will clearly explain the reason of the all but uni- 
form success of his practice. I wish to impress 
this fact most strongly ; because every medical man, 
by similar caution, might obtain the same results. 
I could add many extracts from his journals and 
letters, all proving his unceasing vigilance and 
caution. The state of the virus to be inserted, the 
condition of the skin of the person about to be 
vaccinated, the character of the vesicle itself, and 
the necessity of allowing one, at least, to run its 
course undisturbed, were points uniformly insisted 
on. In compliance with the doctrines often stated 
in these volumes, and when alarm possessed some 
minds for the security of their offspring, and would 
have induced them to put that subject to the test by 
the employment of small-pox inoculation, he invari- 
ably dissuaded from this practice. He considered it 
dangerous to the individual as well as to the com- 
munity. He was aware that equal security and less 
risk was to be obtained by re-vaccination. Out of 
numberless proofs of this kind I select the following 
from one of his journals written nearly twenty-six 
years ago : " Whenever there is a shadow of doubt 
upon the mind respecting a child being perfectly 



270 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

vaccinated, I always recommend the insertion of a 
little vaccine fluid." * 

Another fact illustrates the accuracy of his obser- 
vation and the correctness of his judgment. His 
doctrines led him to believe that whatever offered 
an impediment to vaccination would stand in the 
way of variolation likewise. " Vaccinated Richard 
Stephens, a recruit in the Gloucester Militia, in one 
arm; Henry Jenner, in the other arm, aged 19. 
He has Strophilus Pilaris of Willan, and has been 
exposed to small-pox without effect. This man re- 
mained uninfected." (Journal, February 1812.) 

This was one of the facts which induced Dr. Jenner 
to believe that cutaneous affections interfered with 
the progress of vaccination. But why refer to private 
journals and unpublished documents ? The same 
thing has been announced times out of number by 
Dr. Jenner in every form. The following sentence 
concludes a pamphlet first published in 1808, and 
republished verbatim in 1811. "At the com- 
mencement of vaccination, I deemed this test of 
security (i. e. the insertion of small-pox matter) 
necessary ; but I now feel confident that we have 
one of equal efficacy, and infinitely less hazardous, 
in the re-insertion of the vaccine lymph." 

When I read these and other most plain and in- 
telligible propositions laid down by such a man as 
Jenner, and find those who ought to be better ac- 
quainted with the subject reasoning as if they had 

* LeUer to Mrs. Fleet, Darent, near Dartford, Kent, No- 
vember 17tli, 1811. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 2/1 

no existence, disregarding his accumulated experi- 
ence, and disfiguring a simple and beautiful system 
by their dogmatical and unsatisfactory commenta- 
ries, I almost despair of the successful progress of 
scientific truth in our profession. But the very 
same fact was announced at a still earlier period, 
more hesitatingly, it is true, but still with sufficient 
clearness and form to mark well the mind of the 
writer. The very first paper of instructions pub- 
lished, I believe, by Jenner in the commencement of 
1 799, contained these, among other important state- 
ments. 

" A little practice in vaccine inoculation attentively 
conducted, impresses on the mind the perfect cha- 
racter of the vaccine pustule ; therefore, when a 
deviation arises, of whatever kind it may be, com- 
mon prudence points out the necessity of re-inocu- 
lation, first, with vaccine virus of the most active kind, 
and secondly, should this be ineffectual, with vario- 
lous virus. But if the constitution shows an insus- 
ceptibility/ of one, it commonly does of the other" 

For some time before his death he was employed 
in reviewing his own opinions, and in comparing 
them with the facts which had been obtained from 
the experience of his brethren throughout the world. 
Had his life been spared, it was his intention to 
have presented to the public a digest of the whole, 
matured, and, as far as possible, perfected by his 
own uninterrupted investigations. Though this his 
deliberate judgment has not been thus set down, it 
is satisfactory to know that enough has been re- 
corded to leave us in full possession of all his views. 



2/2 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

The reported failures of vaccination, and the oc- 
currence of several violent variolous epidemics in 
different parts of the country, induced him to endea- 
vour to rouse the attention of professional men to 
those points in the practice of vaccination which he 
deemed essential to its success. With such inten- 
tions, he printed a circular letter early in 1821, which 
was sent to most of the respectable medical men in the 
kingdom ; in it he directed their observation to the 
three following questions : — First, whether the vac- 
cine vesicle goes through its course with the same 
regularity when the skin is under the influence of 
any herpetic or other eruptive disease, as when it is 
free from such affections ; secondly, whether the 
existence of such eruptive diseases causes any re- 
sistence to the due action of vaccine lymph when in- 
serted into the arms ; thirdly, whether cases of 
small-pox after vaccination had occurred to the 
observer ; and if so, whether such occurrences could 
be ascribed to any deviation in the progress of the 
vaccine pustule, in consequence of the existence of 
herpetic or other eruptions at the time of vaccination. 

From personal knowledge, I have no doubt that 
his doctrines on this point are, in the main, per- 
fectly correct. There are some who think and teach 
differently ; but to say the least of it, this is neither 
wise nor prudent. It is admitted on all hands, that 
the progress of the vaccine pustule, from its fii'st 
appearance till it has done its office in the constitu- 
tion, is a delicate and a very important one. That 
so small an outward appearance should produce such 
extensive changes in the animal frame, is one of the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 273 

most remarkable phenomena in pathology. It is 
likewise admitted by those who do not hold Jenner's 
opinions, that the more decided interference with 
the vaccine vesicle will mar its full salutary effects ; 
why, therefore, it may be asked, may not a less per- 
ceptible disturbance produce similar results ? As it 
is not my purpose or object here to enter into minute 
detail, and as I am much more anxious about sound 
and useful practice, I would again strongly urge all 
who conduct vaccine inoculation to look upon the 
subject in a plain practical point of view. Seeing, 
therefore, that our aim is to rescue the constitution 
from the attacks of an extremely malignant and fatal 
disease, by means of a very slight affection, it is im- 
possible to be too cautious in every thing that regards 
the latter. 

It is bare justice to Dr. Jenner to exact the per- 
formance of these conditions ; but it is an act of more 
imperative duty as regards the safety of the vacci- 
nated, and the welfare of the community. I would 
hope and beUeve that the effect of the circular has 
been to draw men's attention more to these points, 
and to prevent that loose, unsatisfactory, and un- 
scientific practice, which could not but lead to disap- 
pointment, and injure the character of vaccination. 

The answers which Dr. Jenner received to his cir- 
cular were numerous, and in general satisfactory. 
I will not refer to any from his professional brethren ; 
but the following letter from the excellent rector of 
Leckhamstead, near Buckingham, speaks so judi- 
ciously and wisely, and, besides, contains some 
facts so valuable, that I am induced to present it. The 

VOL. II. T 



274 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

writer, it will be remembered, distinguished himself 
as an ardent and successful promoter of vaccination ; 
and his testimony is of great value. 

Leckhamstead, near Buckingham, June 29, 1820. 

Dear Sir, 

Your letter did not reach Buckingham till June 23rd, 
though dated the 12th. The object of inquiry appears to be 
the extent to which cutaneous diseases reject or modify the 
vaccine virus, so as to render the efficacy and security doubt- 
ful. I have looked over a number of copies of communica- 
tions to Dr. Harvey, and will with great pleasure send you 
the transcripts of the interference of variolous and vaccine 
infection, and the superseding power of the latter if applied 
in time, six of which took place at Old Stratford in 1816, 
among the children of one family, being the whole time 
vmder the same roof. The distress and alarm at that time 
were extremely great, as the inhabitants were recovering 
from the measles when the small-pox broke out. The 
anxiety of the parents was such that I was induced, con- 
trary to my own opinion, to vaccinate several where 
the fever of measles had not completely subsided : the con- 
sequence of which was nothing more than that the vac- 
cine virus lay dormant in its cell till the field was clear, and 
came into action two or three days later; but afterwards 
proceeded in as regular and decided a manner as in con- 
stitutions which were not previously engaged. 

I discovered at a very early period that the itch was not 
an impediment; as to the shingles, I cannot speak. The 
grand rejecting agent in infants is the tooth rash, or, as it 
is here commonly called, the red gum, especially while 
it continues bright and active. Dr. William Cleaver (when 
Bishop of Chester) promoted an extensive variolous in- 
ocvdation in his diocese. Some years after, he asked me 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 275 

if I could account for the very frequent failure of communi- 
cating the infection to young children. I told him that it 
applied equally to the vaccine; though frequently, if the 
virus was fresh and active, it would be suspended in its 
career for a time only, but push forward with success at last. 
I beg to assure you. Sir, that nothing I have met with 
has, in the slightest degree, shaken my faith in the vaccine. 
I have seven children, the eldest sixteen, all vaccinated by 
myself; and of 14,305, all within a few miles of this place, 
I have never heard of a single fatal disappointment ; and of 
only two or three cases of modified, or what I should feel 
inclined to call superficial, or cutaneous small-pox. As to 
remote or derivative diseases, I know of no such thing fairly 
to be ascribed to the cow-pox ; and I have ample means of 
knowing if such a thing had taken place, as the people of 
my two parishes, and many in the neighbourhood, are, some- 
how or other, continually coming under my consideration for 
medical assistance. My communications of late years have 
been to Dr. Harvey, according to the directions of the Na- 
tional Establishment ; but I have met with no demand for 
inoculation since February 1S20, simply from the absence of 
any stimulating alarm. I am, dear Sir, 

With the highest respect. 
Your most obedient humble servant, 

T. T. A. Reed, Rector of Leckhamstead. 

Mr. Reed had, in 1806, printed and distributed a 
little tract for the encouragement of those who enter- 
tained any doubt respecting the efficacy of vaccine 
inoculation. It contains a brief and conclusive his- 
tory of the practice of vaccination, and is peculiarly 
honourable to this benevolent clergyman, who so 
actively exerted himself. 

In connexion with Dr. Jenner's letter on the 
influence of eruptive diseases on the progress of the 

T 2 



276 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

vaccine vesicle, I now proceed to mention another on 
a subject which had occupied his attention for many 
years. This, his last pubUshed work, came out in 
1822. It was entitled, "A Letter to Charles Henry 
Parry, M.D. F.R.S. &c. &c. &c. on the Influence of 
Artificial Eruptions in certain Diseases incidental to 
the Human Body." It is not my intention to enter 
much at length into the doctrines contained in this 
publication. It was printed in the quarto form, and 
extended to about sixty-six pages. It was some- 
what remarkable that Jenner's first published obser- 
vations referred to the preparation of the tartar 
emetic, and that his last were directed to the agency 
of this medicine in curing disease. This subject 
occupied his mind very intensely for some time 
before his death, and it afi'ords (I think) a proof that 
he had permitted his favourite method of reasoning 
by analogy to carry him farther than perhaps was 
wise. He threw out his opinions, however, with 
great modesty, putting them forward rather as ques- 
tions or speculations than as doctrines or dogmas. 
It contained, nevertheless, many excellent practical 
facts and observations. It would open up a large 
field of physiological and pathological remark were I 
to attempt to give an account of the views which he 
entertained. For those who are desirous of infor- 
mation on these points, I must refer to the publica- 
tion itself. It is interesting, nevertheless, to find 
Jenner at the close of a long life busied with topics 
calculated to advance our knowledge of diseases, 
and add to our means of removing them. He car- 
ried on an extensive correspondence with his pro- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 277 

fessional friends ; he collected cases illustrative of 
his opinions ; and altogether pursued his work with 
as much ardour and earnestness, as if he had been 
commencing his career, and never had effected any 
thing for mankind.* 

Not many months after the publication of this 
paper, Dr. Parry lost his father ; Jenner w^as one of 
his oldest and most attached friends. He went to 
Bath to attend his funeral, which took place about 
the middle of January 1822. " Poor Parry ! " he ob- 
serves. " I have just returned from Bath, where I 
went to attend his remains to the silent tomb. The 
manifestations of regard and affection exhibited by 
all ranks from Sion Hill to the Abbey, bore unequi- 
vocal testimony to his worth and talents." 

The Observations on the Migrations of Birds were 
read before the Royal Society on November 27, 1823. 
They were presented to Sir Humphrey Davy by 
the Rev. G. C. Jenner, who, to use his own words, 
" had the peculiar happiness to accompany his uncle 
in most of the investigations of the phenomena of mi- 
gration." " Had it pleased Pro\idence to have spared 
him a little longer, he might probably have corrected 
some inaccuracies in the style and order of his 
paper, that may now, perhaps, appear conspicuous to 
the reader, but which I did not conceive myself jus- 
tified in attempting." 

It was not the intention of the paper to give a 
general history of the migration of birds^ but rather 

* During tlie progress of these his last labours, he was 
assisted by Mr. now Dr. John Fosbroke, for whose success and 
well-being he always expressed an anxious concern. 



2/8 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

to communicate some facts, with respect to the cause 
which impels the bird, at certain seasons of the year, 
to quit one country for another. He first proves by 
well-selected incidents, that birds do migrate ; and of 
course he rebuts that doctrine which ascribes their 
disappearance to a state of hybernation. 

I cannot quit this production without alluding 
to its character as a literary composition. Though 
it did not receive the last polish of the author s 
hand, there are several parts of it which have evi- 
dently been finished with great care. Some of the 
descriptions, indeed, are exceedingly beautiful ; and 
could not have been written by any one who did not 
unite scientific accuracy with a poetical imagination. 
The following passage, I feel assured, will fully justify 
these remarks : 

" First, the robin, and not the lark, as has been 
generally imagined, as soon as twilight has drawn 
the imperceptible line between night and day, be- 
gins his lonely song. How sweetly does this harmo- 
nize with the soft dawning of day ! He goes on till 
the twinkling sunbeams begin to tell him his notes 
no longer accord with the rising scene. Up starts the 
lark ; and with him a variety of sprightly songsters, 
whose lively notes are in perfect correspondence with 
the gaiety of the morning. The general warbling 
continues, with now and then an interruption, for 
reasons before assigned, by the transient croak of 
the raven, the screaming of the jay and the swift, or 
the pert chattering of the daw. The nightingale, 
unwearied by the vocal exertions of the night, with- 
draws not proudly by day from his inferiors in song, 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 279 

but joins them in the general harmony. The thrush 
is wisely placed on the summit of some lofty tree, that 
its loud and piercing notes may be softened by distance 
before they reach the ear ; while the mellow black- 
bird seeks the inferior branches. Should the sun, 
having been eclipsed with a cloud, shine forth with 
fresh effulgence, how frequently we see the goldfinch 
perch on some blossomed bough, and hear his song 
poured forth in a strain peculiarly energetic, much 
more sonorous and lively now than at any other 
time ; while the sun full shining on his beautiful 
plumes, displays his golden wings and crimson chest 
to charming advantage. The notes of the cuckoo 
blend with this cheering concert in a perfectly 
pleasing manner, and for a short time are highly 
grateful to the ear ; but sweet as this singular song 
is, it would tire by its uniformity were it not given in 
so transient a manner. At length, the evening ad- 
vances, the performers gradually retire, and the con- 
cert softly dies away. The sun is seen no more. The 
robin again sets up his twilight song, till the still 
more serene hour of night sends him to the bower to 
rest ; and now, to close the scene in full and perfect 
harmony, no sooner is the voice of the robin hushed, 
and night again spreads a gloom over the horizon, 
than the owl sends forth his slow and solemn tones. 
They are more than plaintive and less than melan- 
choly ; and tend to inspire the imagination with a 
train of contemplations well adapted to the serious 
hour. Thus we see that birds, the subject of my 
present inquiry, have no inconsiderable share in har- 
monising some of the most beautiful and interesting 
scenes in nature." 



280 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 



CHAPTER IX. 



DOMESTIC HABITS AND PERSONAL CHARACTER — DEATH AND 

FUNERAL. 

It is a source of great satisfaction to all who were 
acquainted with Jenner, to reflect on the moderation 
and wisdom with which he conducted himself during 
the whole of the painful controversy that arose out 
of his discovery. He had a mind of peculiar deli- 
cacy, and he regarded his fair fame with trembling 
jealousy; but he knew that his researches had been 
conducted with perfect fairness, that he had no 
personal or selfish feelings to gratify, and that a 
magnanimous and virtuous desire to render his 
knowledge a source of advantage to his fellow-crea- 
tures, guided all his actions. Though often stung 
by the severe and unmerited reproaches of open 
enemies, and wounded still more by the desertion 
of his familiar friends ; yet, under these circum- 
stances, of all others most trying to the spirit of man, 
and most likely to stir up within him the hot and 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 281 

vehement passions of our nature, he was enabled to 
preserve hunself cahn and unruffled. The attempts 
to injure his reputation, to impeach his moral cha- 
racter, or to interfere with that distinction and re- 
ward which his country conferred upon him, caUed 
forth no angry expressions. His composure and his 
forgiving disposition under trials of this kind cannot 
be too much admired, or too often held up for ex- 
ample. 

He was blest with a helpmate, who not only herself 
experienced " peace amidst billows," but was per- 
mitted to extend the influence of that spirit which 
sustained and comforted her to all around. When 
vexed and harassed, he knew where to seek refuge ; 
he knew where dwelt love and truth ; he knew where 
to flee from unjust judgments, and to make his appeal 
where it never was made in vain. I do not mean to 
affirm that Dr. Jenner at all times, or during the 
whole course of his life, participated in the deep 
and inexhaustible sources of strength and consola- 
tion which so manifestly nourished the heart and 
guided the understanding of his partner ; but I 
should act unjustly by that principle which directed 
her, were I not to avow it as my firm conviction 
that it is to her devout and holy life, and her meek 
and firm and consistent conduct that we are, in 
some measure, enabled to dwell with so much plea- 
sure upon the memory of her husband. To such 
an influence it must be ascribed that he was kept so 
free from the taint of human passions and imperfec- 
tions when they were most likely to be excited ; that 
he shewed so much genuine modesty, so cordial a 



282 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

desire to do good to his enemies, and all those other 
qualities that grow not from an earthly root. 

I remember, when discussing with him certain 
questions touching the condition of man in this life, 
and dwelling upon his hopes, his fears, his pains, and 
his joys, and coming to the conclusions which merely 
human reason discloses to us ; and when dwelling on 
the deformity of the heart, our blindness, our igno- 
rance, the evils connected with our physical struc- 
ture, our crimes, our calamities, and our unfathom- 
able capacity both for suffering and for enjoyment ; 
he observed, Mrs. Jenner can explain all these 
things : they cause no difficulties to her. 

The observations which this remark suggested 
were not pursued at the time, but were often re- 
curred to on subsequent occasions. As he ap- 
proached nearer to his own end, his conversations 
with myself were generally more or less tinged with 
such views as occur to a serious mind when con- 
templating the handiwork of the Creator. In all 
the confusion and disorder which appears in the 
physical world, and in all the anomalies and errors 
which deface the moral, he saw convincing demon- 
stration that He who formed all things out of no- 
thing still wields and guides the machinery of his 
mighty creation. 

In his early days he certainly, I fear, had fallen 
into that error too common among men who have 
been much occupied in the pursuit of mere human 
knowledge — he did not clearly discern the differ- 
ence between the things which are made known to 
us through the medium of our senses and our rea- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 283 

soiling faculties, and those which come to us with 
higher claims, both upon our affections and our 
understanding. Manifold evils have arisen from 
this cause. Great and rapid as has been the ad- 
vancement of every science, it is to be feared that 
the state of mind of the enquirers has not always 
accorded with true wisdom ; that they have some- 
times mistaken the farthest end and aim of all know- 
ledge, as well as the best means of attaining it. 

One of the most remarkable features in Jenner's 
character, when treating of questions of a moral or 
scientific nature, was a devout expression of his con- 
sciousness of the omnipresence of the Deity. He 
believed that this great truth was too much over- 
looked in our systems of education ; that it ought to 
be constantly impressed upon the youthful heart, 
and that the obligations which it implied, as 
well as the inward truth and purity which it re- 
quired, should be rendered more familiar to all. 
Mrs. Jenner was constantly occupied in teaching 
these lessons to the poor around her in schools, 
which she established for the purpose of affording 
a scriptural education. He, building upon this 
foundation, wished to add instruction of a more 
practical description, deduced from their daily ex- 
perience, and illustrated by a reference to those 
works of wisdom and beauty which the universe 
supplies. He always contended that -some aid of 
this kind was necessary to impress completely upon 
the character of the lower ranks those maxims which 
they derived from their teachers. He had other 
views, too, in recommending such a plan ; he thought 



284 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

that the lot of the poor might be ameliorated, and 
many sources of amusement and information laid 
open to them which they are at present deprived of ; 
that the flowers of the field and the wonders of the 
animal creation might supply them with subjects of 
useful knowledge and pious meditation. 

The state of Mrs. Jenner s health often required 
the unremitting and anxious care of her husband. 
She had been long threatened with a pulmonary com- 
plaint of a serious character, and was besides aifected 
with another disorder of a painful and distressing 
nature. For years before her death she was chiefly 
confined to her own apartments. The tenderness 
and delicacy with which Jenner superintended the 
arrangement of every thing that could be thought 
of for her comfort, the administration of her medi- 
cine and the preparation of her food, (which a difli- 
culty of deglutition rendered necessary,) all indicated 
the warmest attachment and the kindest feelings. 
The unaffected cheerfulness and thankfulness with 
which, amid her pains, she received such offices, was 
truly instructive. This temper was conspicuous at 
all times — in the days of comparative health as well 
as at the hour of death. 

Dr. Jenner's personal appearance to a stranger at 
first sight was not very striking ; but it was impossi- 
ble to observe him, even for a few moments, without 
discovering those peculiarities which distinguished 
him from all others. This individuaUty became 
more remarkable the more he was known ; and all 
the friends who watched him longest, and have seen 
most of his mind and of his conduct, with one voice 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 285 

declare, that there was a something about him which 
they never witnessed in any other man. The first 
things that a stranger would remark were the gen- 
tleness, the simplicity, the artlessness of his manner. 
There was a total absence of all ostentation or dis- 
play ; so much so, that in the ordinary intercourse 
of society he appeared as a person who had no claims 
to notice. He was perfectly unreserved, and free 
from all guile. He carried his heart and his mind 
so openly, so undisguisedly, that all might read them. 
You could not converse with him, you could not 
enter his house nor his study, without seeing what 
sort of man dwelt there. 

His professional avocations and the nature of hi^ 
pursuits obliged him to conduct his inquiries in a 
desultory way. At no period of his life could he give 
himself up to continued or protracted attention to 
one object : there was, nevertheless, a steadiness in 
working out his researches, amid all the breaks and 
interruptions which he met with, that can only be- 
long to minds constituted as his was. 

The objects of his studies generally lay scattered 
around him ; and, as he used often to say himself, 
seemingly in chaotic confusion. Fossils, and other 
specimens of natural history, anatomical preparations, 
books, papers, letters — all presented themselves in 
strange disorder ; but every article bore the impress 
of the genius that presided there. The fossils were 
marked by small pieces of paper pasted on them, 
having their names and the places where they were 
found inscribed in his own plain and distinct hand- 
writing. His materials for thought and conversation 



286 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

were thus constantly before him ; and a visitor, on 
entering his apartment, would find in abundance 
traces of all his private occupations. He seemed to 
have no secrets of any kind ; and, notwithstanding a 
long experience with the world, he acted to the last 
as if all mankind were trustworthy, and free from sel- 
fishness as himself. He had a working head, being 
never idle, and accumulated a great store of original 
observations. These treasures he imparted most 
generously and liberally. Indeed his chief pleasure 
seemed to be in pouring out the ample riches of his 
mind to every one who enjoyed his acquaintance. 
He had often reason to lament this unbounded con- 
fidence ; but such ungrateful returns neither chilled 
his ardour nor ruffled his temper. 

In the success of his researches he was a proof of 
the felicity with which an humble spirit is rewarded 
w^ho proceeds to investigate that great field of know- 
ledge, " which has been passed to man by so large a 
charter from God." He was not arrogant nor con- 
fident, but was contented to learn with all the do- 
cility of a child. 

In prosecuting his investigations into unexplored 
regions, analogy was his favourite guide. This 
method is characteristic of all original minds ; and 
although it is often carried too far, it has been, when 
duly' and cautiously followed, the parent of some of 
the greatest inventions. To it we are, in great de- 
gree, indebted for the discovery of the properties of 
the Variolse Vaccinae. In comparing that affection 
with the disease it was intended to counteract, he 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 287 

gained his chief knowledge, and was ultimately- 
enabled so to establish their points of difference, as 
to render the information he had acquired of the 
highest practical utility. For this sound and saga- 
cious mode of reasoning he w^as principally indebted 
to his own vigorous understanding. He had not 
derived much aid from those helps which wise men 
have devised for keeping the intellect in its proper 
course while searching for truth ; and to this cause 
we may probably ascribe some of the errors into 
which, it must be confessed, he occasionally fell. 
His analogies were sometimes hurried forw ard on the 
wings of imagination ; and, of course, were not al- 
ways accurate or conclusive. His language, too, on 
scientific subjects, though for the most part remark- 
ably simple and precise, was, on some occasions, of 
too figurative a cast. This rich and flowery garb 
often seemed to overlay sterling treasure, and by 
those who could not penetrate below the surface he 
has been deemed rather visionary.* But, truly, it 

* I am glad to liave a confirmation of the above remarks from 
the pen of his illustrious friend the late Sir Humphrey Davy. 

" I remember," says Sir Humphrey, " in 1809, having had a 
long conversation with the late Dr. Jenner on the habits of ani- 
mals. He was original and ingenious, but I think was sometimes 
carried too far by the remoteness of his analogies. We were 
discussing the possibility of the uses of earthworms to man. I 
was more disposed to consider the dunghill and putrefaction as 
useful to the worm, rather than the worm as an agent important 
to man in the economy of nature ; but Dr. Jenner would not 
allow my reason. He said the earthworms, particularly about 
the time of the vernal equinox, were much under and along the 



288 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

was a misapprehension. His comparisons were often 
most happy and appropriate ; and of this I can 
scarcely refer to a better example than a reply that 
he made to Charles Fox, which will be found in a 
subsequent page. 

As faithfulness is one of the first qualities of a 
biographer, I may here notice what I take to be a 
fair instance of his analogical reasoning pushed to an 
undue extent. In his work on artificial eruptions, 
most of his anticipations of the benefits to be obtained 
from them in different diseases were evidently de- 
duced from a supposed affinity between those that 
are artificial and those that are natural. Though 
the analogy is correct in some respects, it certainly 
does not hold true to the extent which he imagined, 
nor are the benefits, great as they have been proved 
to be, altogether of that nature which he had con- 
jectured. * 

In witnessing the variety of external things, and 
in marking their properties, he seems to have pos- 
sessed a mind much allied to the pure and unsophist- 
icated character of some of our old English worthies ; 
and were I to attempt to find associates with whom 

surface of our moist meadow lands ; and wherever they move, 
they leave a train of mucus behind them, which becomes manure 
to the plant. In this respect they act, as the slug does, in 
furnishing materials for food to the vegetable kingdom ; and 
under the surface, they break the stiff clods in pieces, and 
finally divide the soil. 

" They feed likewise entirely on inorganic matter, and are 
rather the scavengers than the tyrants of the vegetable system." 
(See Davy's Life of Davy, vol. ii. p. 389). 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 289 

he would in an especial manner have assimilated, I 
think I should seek to link him in triple union with 
honest Isaak Walton and the pious and engaging 
Evelyn. When I read some of the descriptions of 
the former, but especially that lovely and heart- 
stirring passage where the mention of the doubling 
and redoubling notes of the nightingale is so finely 
employed to arouse men to the beauties of this crea- 
tion, and to point their hopes to another, I have often 
been reminded of delineations of a similar kind in 
the writings of Jenner. That passage towards the 
conclusion of his paper on the migration of birds, 
which has been given at page 2/9, will serve as an 
illustration. 

His latter days were occasionally gladdened by 
the studies and pursuits of his youthful years. Geo- 
logy, which had made such rapid strides since he 
commenced his enquiries, continued to interest him 
to the last. He had several visits from the learned 
and distinguished Professor Buckland, with whom, 
and the Rev. R Halifax of Standish, he examined 
the trap rocks at Micklewood, and the corals and 
agates at Woodford. He also, with the assistance 
of Mr Henry Shrapnell, arranged his own specimens 
of natural history. 

His domestic happiness after the death of Mrs. 
Jenner was necessarily much impaired. Another 
bereavement, though of a different kind, which (Oc- 
curred not long before his death, rendered his state 
still more desolate. His only daughter Catherine 
was on the 7th of August 1822, married to John 

VOL, II. u 



290 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Yeend Bedford, Esq. of Southbank, Edgbaston, near 
Birmingham. The day that this event took place, 
he sent me the following note. " Pray don't desert 
this forlorn cottage, but come sometimes, and chase 
away my melancholy hours. 

" With best affections, 
''Edw. Jenner. 

" Chantry Collage, 7lh Avgust, 1822." 

The union had taken place with his entire appro- 
bation. This amiable lady was delivered of a daugh- 
ter on the 1st of August 1833, and expired on the 5th 
of the same month. This only offspring of the mar- 
riage is named Catherine Sarah Jenner. 

His habits were in perfect accordance with the un- 
affected simplicity of his mind ; and never, probably, 
did there exist an individual to whom the pomp and 
ceremony, which are so pleasing to many, would have 
been more burdensome. Unrestrained by the for- 
mality and reserve of artificial society, he loved to 
enjoy that freedom, in his intercourse with his friends, 
which v/as always gratifying to them, and congenial 
to his own taste. 

In his latter years he was not a very early riser ; 
but he always spent some part of his time in his 
study before he appeared at the breakfast table. 
When in London and at Cheltenham, he generally 
assembled his scientific and literary friends around 
him at this hour. Some came for the pleasure of 
his conversation ; some to receive instruction in the 
history and practice of vaccination. In the country, 
where his guests were generally his own immediate 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 291 

connexions or his intimate friends, the originality of 
his character came out in the most engaging man- 
ner. He almost always brought some intellectual 
offering to the morning repast. A new fact in na- 
tural history, a fossil, or some of the results of his 
meditations, supplied materials for conversation ; but, 
in default of these, he would produce an epigram, or 
a fugitive jeu d'esprit ; and did not disdain even a 
pun when it came in his w^ay. His mirth and gaiety, 
except when under the pressure of domestic calamity 
or bodily illness, never long forsook him ; and even in 
his old age, the facility with which he adapted his 
conversation and his manners to the most juvenile 
of his associates was truly interesting. To have seen 
and heard him at such times, one could hardly be- 
lieve that he was advanced in years, or that these 
years had been crowded with events so important. 

Though thus kind, and free, and familiar, there 
was nothing of levity in his deportment ; and, when 
occasion required, he could well sustain the dig- 
nity of his name and station. In the drawing-room 
at St. James's he chanced to overhear a noble 
lord, who was high in office, mentioning his 
name, and repeating the idle calumny which had 
been propagated concerning his own want of confi- 
dence in vaccination, in consequence of his acting as 
has been already stated in the case of his son Robert. 
He, with the greatest promptitude and decision, re- 
futed the charge and abashed the reporter. His 
person was not known to the noble lord, but with 
entire composure he advanced to his lordship, and 

u 2 



292 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

looking fully in his face, calmly observed, " I am Dr. 
Jenner." The effect of this well-timed rebuke was 
instantaneous. The noble lord, though " made of 
sterner stuff" than most men, immediately retreated, 
and left Jenner in possession of the field. 

As he knew how to comport himself with men 
of elevated rank, he could condescend to his in- 
feriors in the most benevolent and gracious man- 
ner. He loved to visit and to converse with them ; 
to observe their domestic habits, and the little 
peculiarities in language or demeanour which dif- 
ferent districts exhibit ; but he especially delighted 
in discovering any traces of originality, any indi_ 
cations of that vivida vis animi which might with a 
little help enable the possessor to emerge from his 
humble station. Young Worgan, who became tutor 
to his eldest son, was fostered by him in this way, and 
there are many others still li\ing who have equally 
partaken of his encouragement and of his bounty. 

He was particularly fond of conversing with peo- 
ple in the lower walks of life who w ere of a religious 
character. I know one venerable individual of this 
kind, w^ho has likewise given proofs of very consider- 
able musical genius. Though compelled to labour 
at an humble trade, and little indebted to educa- 
tion, poor Thomas Cam contrived, while living in a 
secluded hamlet, to acquire such a knowledge of the 
theory of music as to be able to compose pieces of 
considerable length, and adapted to a great variety of 
instruments, some of which he had never seen or 
heard. Jenner on one occasion brought him to the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 293 

Music-meeting at Gloucester. There he witnessed 
an orchestra more varied and complete than any 
he had ever before contemplated. He listened 
with extraordinary satisfaction ; and when Jenner 
asked him if he was not astonished at the strange 
concord of sweet sounds issuing from a number of 
instruments new to him, " Oh ! " said he, " I knowed 
how it would all be." Several of this poor man's 
compositions have been printed ; and I am told by 
good judges that, considering his opportunities, they 
are very astonishing. 

Every indication of talent or genius, in whatever 
situation found, was sure to gain his notice and con- 
sideration. I remember to have seen him, a short 
time before his death, listening with great attention 
to the demonstrations of a very humble lecturer on 
astronomy. The Doctor had collected all his young 
friends in Berkeley about him in his own house, and 
the lecturer, though very insufficiently provided with 
instruments, and little beholden to any thing but his 
own exertions for his knowledge, was, nevertheless, 
animated and ardent. His apparatus and his draw- 
ings were all constructed by himself; and, rude 
though they were, they fixed the attention of the 
younger part of the audience, and in so doing amply 
gratified Jenner. It ought at the same time to be 
mentioned, that neither Dr. Jenner's previous educa- 
tion nor his habits gave him a relish for any of the 
branches of pure science. He seemed to have a pecu- 
liar horror of arithmetical questions. He wasoften jocu- 
lar on this defect in his nature ; and I believe he fre- 
quently paid severely for it ; as he would rather attend 



294 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

to any thing than pounds, shillings, and pence. A 
neighbour was once expending a great many words 
to draw his attention to some aifairs of this kind. He 
expressed himself perfectly satisfied ; but not so his 
neighbour. He continued to dwell upon the different 
items till Jenner's patience became exhausted ; and 
he exclaimed that he w^ould rather look for an hour 
at a mite through a microscope than have his time 
taken up with such things. 

Whether in the country or in town, his eye was 
constantly in search of subjects for observation. 
He seldom or never passed a butcher's shop with- 
out a peep at its contents ; because he often found 
something to illustrate his views of comparative ana- 
tomy and pathology. He generally carried a large 
pocket-book with him ; and recorded his thoughts 
as they occurred. He very often also adopted an- 
other practice, namely, that of writing his reflections 
on detached scraps and fragments of paper; and many, 
consequently, have either perished or been rendered 
useless for want of connexion : these " disjecta 
membra " being not very susceptible of arrangement 
or combination by any other than the mind which 
produced them. 

Though the general cast of his character exhibited a 
happy union of great solemnity and seriousness with 
extraordinary playfulness, amounting at times even to 
the height of mirth and jocularity ; yet no one ever 
found these latter qualities misplaced, or obtruding 
themselves unseasonably. Almost all the great inci- 
dents of his life tended rather to suppress them, and 
to keep them in the shade. In the early part of this 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 295 

work it has been shewn, Avhen meditating on the 
grand results of his vaccine experiments, how devout 
were his feeHngs. Towards the close of his life many 
incidents argue the increasing power of that prin- 
ciple. He frequently expressed his regret that 
mankind were so little alive to the value of vacci- 
nation. Among the last words that he addressed 
to me, not many days before his fatal seizure, he 
used this remarkable expression : " I am not sur- 
prised that men are not thankful to me ; but I wonder 
that they are not grateful to God for the good 
which he has made me the instrument of conveying 
to my fellow creatures." He had a great reverence 
for the Scriptures ; and when he presented copies of 
them to his god-children or others, they never went 
from his hands without some inscription, declaratory 
of his veneration ; one such, I subjoin. 

" To Augusta Bertie Parry, with the best wishes 
and affections of her god- father, Edward Jenner ; who 
most devoutty hopes, as this is the best book that 
ever was written, she will give it not only the first 
place in her librar}^, but convince those who love her 
dearly, that it occupies the first place in her heart." 

I find some fragments of prayers strongly expres- 
sive of deep and humble submission to the divine 
will. One of them, apparently written under afflic- 
tion, concludes in this strain : — " And may those 
sacred truths, revealed by him who did condescend 
to assume a human form, and appear among men 
upon the earth, be so engrafted in my mind, that I 
may never lose sight of these thy divine mercies ; 
and thus, by my faith and practice, when it may 



296 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

please thee to send my body to the grave, may my 
imperishable soul be received into thy habitations of 
eternal glory." 

Dr. Jenner purchased the house which he inhabit- 
ed at Berkeley from a family of the name of Weston. 
It was called " the Chantry," from having, in former 
times, been in the possession of certain monks. It 
is contiguous to the churchyard of Berkeley ; and 
the tower of the church, which, as is sometimes the 
case, is disjoined from the rest of the building, over- 
hangs the southern boundary of the shrubbery. This 
tower is now nearly covered with a vigorous ivy 
plant, which on two sides has mantled to its summit. 
Jenner plucked the root from which it sprang from 
the tomb of Strongbow '* at Tintern Abbey. He 
carried it with him to Berkeley, and planted it, ob- 
serving, " who knows but this little scion will one 
day encircle our goodly tower ? " 

The tower, in its green and rich livery, is now a 
beautiful object, and harmonizes with the shrubs 
and trees which tastefully adorn his little domain. 
One tree (a willow) is conspicuous, as well for its 
light and beautiful foliage, as from its having been 
a great favourite with him. He particularly loved 
to endear to himself all objects with which he was 
familiar, by associating them with some incident 
calculated to mark past events in his personal his- 
tory. This very tree was so distinguished. His 
eldest son, to whom he was devotedly attached, was, 
in consequence of severe illness, obliged to lose blood, 

* Kichard Earl of Clare, who died in U70. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 297 

which Jenner deposited with his own hands at the 
root of this tree. 

Towards the southern extremity of the lawn, and 
shaded by the thick screen of evergreens, is a small 
rustic apartment. Here in the summer mornings 
Jenner used to receive his poor neighbours who came 
for the purpose of vaccination. In this humble fane 
more wonders were wrought than in all the splendid 
temples of iEsculapius. It was constructed by the Rev. 
Mr. Ferryman. The knotted and gnarled oak, with 
huge fragments of the roots or branches of other 
forest trees, arranged with much taste, enabled him 
to give to an extremely artificial structure the style 
and character of a natural production. The monarch 
of the woods, shorn of his glory, and dying inter- 
nally, but still holding his attachments to his parent 
earth, sometimes exhibits an arched cavity, furnish- 
ina: hints for such structures. If the reader has ever 
examined the Greendale oak, as described by the 
excellent Evelyn, he will easily comprehend the idea 
I wish to convey. It was not merely in copying the 
vegetable world, either in its soft and lovely charac- 
ter, or in its bold and picturesque effects, that Mr. 
Ferrpnan shewed the accuracy of his eye and the 
correctness of his taste. He could imitate with 
equal fidelity the abrupt and varied form of a rocky 
surface, and could so dispose of the massy fragments 
riven from an adjacent quarry, as if they had been 
fixed by some great convulsion on the surface of the 
earth, not by the puny efforts of human hands ; but 
Mr. Ferryman had a frame that well seconded the 
conceptions of his mind. There was nothing little in 



298 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

any of his conceptions. They all resembled the ope- 
rations of nature in her firmest and most decided 
displays ; and with his own hands he would labour in 
executing his designs with irresistible energy. 

In the style of ornamental improvement, which 
within the last half century has done so much to 
augment the natural beauties of England, Mr. Ferry- 
man was quite unrivalled. He followed one guide ; 
and so admirably did he adapt his alterations to the 
situation and character of the surrounding objects, 
that they seemed rather like parts of one original 
design than artificial adjuncts. I do not know that 
he ever read the elegant work of the late accom- 
plished Sir Uvedale Price, Bart, but there is a rela- 
tionship between their conceptions, and a truth in 
their practical elucidations, which stamps them as 
brothers in the same family of genius. 

I would hope that the great design of writings 
of this description has in some degree been at- 
tained ; that the form and likeness of the mind has, 
to a certain extent, been preserved. The incidents 
which have been recorded, will afford to every one 
the means of tracing the features of the character. 
I am fully conscious, nevertheless, that the portrait 
but feebly delineates the merits of the original. It 
is not my intention to attempt to increase the effect 
by artificial colouring, or exaggerated representa- 
tions ; but there are some characteristic traits that I 
have yet to mention. 

The discovery of vaccination, though pregnant 
with consequences, calculated from their magnitude 
to dazzle and bewilder the strongest intellect, was 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 299 

ushered into the world with singular modesty and 
humility. It soon, however, began to expand ; and 
when the opposition arose, its value became more 
apparent, and its power and its virtues were demon- 
strated by the very objections that were brought 
against it. In these respects it resembled truth of 
a different description, which becomes more resplend- 
ent and glorious, the more it is tried by controversy 
or persecution. 

But Dr. Jenner was not only humble in all that 
concerned this, the greatest incident of his life ; he 
continued so after success had crowned his labours, 
and after applause greater than most men can bear 
had been bestowed upon him. This most estimable 
quality was \dsible at all times ; but it was particu- 
larly conspicuous when he was living in familiar in- 
tercourse with the inhabitants of his native village. 
If the reader could in imagination accompany me 
with him to the dweUings of the poor, and see him 
kindly and heartily inquiring into their wants, and 
entering into all the little details of their domestic 
economy ; or if he could have witnessed him listen- 
ing with perfect patience and good humour to the 
history of their maladies, he would have seen an 
engaging instance of untiring benevolence. He 
never was unwilling to receive any one, however 
unseasonable the time may have been. Such were 
his habits, even to the latest period of his life. I 
scarcely know any part of his character that was more 
worthy of imitation and unqualified respect than that 
to which I have alluded. I have never seen any 
person in any station of life in whom it was equally 



300 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

manifest ; and when it is remembered that he was 
well " stricken in years ; " that he had been a most 
indefatigable and successful labourer in the cause 
of humanity ; and that he might have sought for 
a season of repose, and the uncontrolled disposal 
of his own time, the sacrifices which he made are 
the more to be valued. In the active and unos- 
tentatious exercise of kindness and charity he spent 
his days ; and he seemed ever to feel that he was 
one of those " qui se natos ad homines juvandos, 
tutandos, conservandos arbitrantur." 

His kindness and condescension to the poor was 
equalled by his most considerate respect and regard 
to the feelings and character of the humblest of his 
professional brethren. I have often been struck 
with the total absence of every thing that could bear 
the semblance of loftiness of demeanour. Few men 
were more entitled to deliver their sentiments in a 
confident or authoritative tone ; but his whole de- 
portment was opposed to every thing of that descrip- 
tion, and he did not hesitate to seek knowledge from 
persons in all respects his inferiors. All his younger 
brethren who have ever had the happiness to meet 
him in practice, must have been deeply impressed 
with this part of his character. 

He had both an inquisitive and an original mind ; 
and it was always open to instruction, from whatever 
quarter it came. He seldom failed, either when 
writing to his professional brethren, or when con- 
versing with them, to start some subject for their 
consideration. I have known him often dictate to 
his young friends problems in physiology, pathology. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 301 

or natural history, for their investigation ; at the 
same time giving them some important information 
which he had previously ascertained by his own in- 
quiries. Some of the pathological questions, which 
it has been my lot to discuss, originated in this way, 
and were prosecuted with his fostering help. 

I am satisfied, as I have already observed *, that 
the overwhelming duties connected with vaccination 
have in some measure obstructed and obscured the 
reputation which is his due as a scientific physician. 
Very many of the subjects which are now occupy- 
ing the attention of the profession, and which have 
led to valuable practical results, were fully developed 
in his mind ; and had he been permitted to have 
brought them before the public, he would have 
earned a well-deserved accession to his fame. 

He had a strong and just feeling of consideration 
for the many hardships endured by medical men, 
particularly in country districts. A dreary ride over 
a bleak and wintry road in the middle of the night, 
and a cold and comfortless reception in the abode of 
sickness and poverty, with nothing for the rider or 
his horse ; or, what is worse, an urgent and impatient 
summons to a more wealthy abode, where all consi- 
deration is centred in one point, and where no pro- 
lusion is made for the unhappy son of ^Esculapius ; 
these things he felt so strongly, that he used to illus- 
trate his sentiments in a jocular manner, by saying, 
that medical gentlemen should follow the example of 
tradesmen, and endeavour to bring their employers 
to a sense of justice by " a general strike.''' 

* Vol. i. p. 120. 



302 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

The infirmity of our nature leads us too often to 
draw inferences from circumstances that are very 
fallacious. We are too apt to attach ideas to persons 
and things that do not necessarily belong to them, 
and to imagine that whatever does not correspond 
with our preconceived opinions must be erroneous. 
Science is supposed to flourish only in certain re- 
gions ; and new or unexpected information is sure 
to meet with the reception which is due only to un- 
founded pretension. Perhaps no man of his day 
had more cause to lament this bias than Jenner. He 
used often to say, " I believe there are many indi- 
viduals in our profession who estimate a man's in- 
tellect by the size of the place in which he lives. 
Of course, I must be a very small person, seeing that 
our good town of Berkeley cuts such a sorry figure. 
I, to be sure, have been in authority ; and my office 
of mayor may have given me some consequence 
among the townsfolk ; but I have often found my 
opinions resisted by my professional brethren, when 
my influence, perhaps, ought to have been greater 
than in my civic capacity." In this manner he used 
often to laugh when he alluded to the reception 
that many of his opinions encountered. At other 
times his feelings were of a more serious character, 
especially when he lamented the great injury that 
was done to the cause of vaccination by an unwil- 
lingness on the part of many influential persons to 
examine what he had said, or to give credit to his 
statements. This reluctance may, and often does, 
impede the cause of truth ; and deprive deserving 
men of their just meed of credit and approbation. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 303 

During his residence at Berkeley he acted fre- 
quently as a magistrate. I found him one day sitting 
with a brother justice in a narrow, dark, tobacco- 
flavoured room, listening to parish business of various 
sorts. The door was surrounded by a scolding, 
brawling mob. A fat overseer of the poor was en- 
deavouring to moderate their noise ; but they neither 
heeded his authority nor that of their worships. There 
were women swearing illegitimate children, others 
swearing the peace against drunken husbands, and 
able-bodied men demanding parish relief to make up 
the deficiency in their wages. The scene altogether 
was really curious ; and when I considered who was 
one of the chief actors, and saw the effect which the 
mal-administration of a well-intended statute pro- 
duced, I experienced sensations which would have 
been altogether sorrowful had there not been some- 
thing irresistibly ludicrous in many of the minor 
details of the picture. He said to me, " is not 
this too bad ? I am the only acting magistrate in 
this place, and I am really harassed to death. I 
want the Lord Lieutenant to give me an assistant ; 
and I have applied for my nephew, but without 
success." 

On this visit he shewed me the hide of the cow 
that afforded the matter which infected Sarah 
Nelmes : and from which source he derived the 
virus that produced the disease in his first patient 
Phipps. The hide hung in the coach-house : he 
said, " What shall I do with it ?" I replied, " send 
it to the British Museum." The cow had been 



304 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

turned out to end her days peaceably at Bradstone, 
a farm near Berkeley. 

He talked of the first effects of his discovery on some 
of his sapient townsfolk. One lady, of no mean in- 
fluence among them, met him soon after the publica- 
tion of his Inquiry. She accosted him in this form, 
and in the true Gloucestershire dialect. " So, your 
book is out at last. Well ! I can tell you that there 
be'ant a copy sold in our town ; nor sha'n't neither, 
if I can help it." On another occasion, the same 
notable dame having heard some rumours of failures 
in vaccination, came up to the doctor with great 
eagerness, and said, " Shan't us have a general 
inoculation now ? " * 

Both these anecdotes he used to relate in perfect 
good humour. 

On another occasion, when travelling with him 
towards Rockhampton, the residence of his nephew 
Dr. Davies, he observed, " it was among these shady 
and tangled lanes that I first got my taste for na- 
tural history." A short time afterwards we passed 
Phipps, his first vaccinated patient. " Oh ! there is 
poor Phipps," he exclaimed, " I wish you could see 
him ; he has been very unwell lately, and I am afraid 
he has got tubercles in the lungs. He was recently 
inoculated for small-pox, I believe for the twentieth 
time, and all without effect." 

At a subsequent visit, (Oct. 1818,) I found lying 
on his table a plan of a cottage. " Oh," said he, 
" that is for poor Phipps ; you remember him : he 

* i. e. small-pox inoculation. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 305 

has a miserable place to live in ; I am about to give 
him another. He has been very ill, but is now ma- 
terially better." This cottage was built, and its little 
garden laid out and stocked with roses from his own 
shrubbery, under his personal superintendence. 

I may now mention some incidents of a different 
character. The celebrated Charles James Fox, during 
a residence at Cheltenham, had frequent intercourse 
with Jenner. His mind had been a good deal 
poisoned as to the character of cow-pox by his 
family physician, Mosele}'. In his usual playful and 
engaging manner, he said one day to Jenner, '• Pray, 
Dr. Jenner, tell me of this cow-pox that we have 
heard so much about : — What is it like ?" " Wliy, 
it is exactly like the section of a pearl on a rose- 
leaf." This comparison, which is not less remark- 
able for its accuracy than for its poetic beauty, 
struck Mr. Fox very forcibly. He laughed heartily, 
and praised the simile. 

It has been seen, that notwithstanding the per- 
sonal influence that Dr. Jenner had with foreign 
states, he had next to none at home. He never 
succeeded in procuring an appointment for any of 
his relatives or friends. He mentioned that all his 
attempts to get a living for his nephew George had 
failed, though addressed to quarters where they 
might, without presumption, have been expected to 
have met with attention and success. This neglect 
hurt him deeply. He once said to me, " This ought 
to be known. You must give them a hard one ; and I 
will find an eagle's quill and whet the nib for you." * 

* His favourite eagle lia«l just died. 
VOL. II. X 



306 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

- I never saw him more happy than in spending 
some days with Dr. BaiUie at Duntisbourne, near 
Cirencester, in the summer of 1820. He had much 
recovered from the impression left by the death of 
Mrs. Jenner ; and all the recollections of his youth, 
his intercourse with Mr. Hunter, together with 
many of the remarkable incidents which were con- 
nected with his own life, formed animating themes 
for conversation. The scenes around them, also, in 
the vicinity of the place (Cirencester) where he had 
first gone to school, and where he used to grope for 
fossils in the oolitic formation, supplied him with 
many associations of long-past years. I spent one 
of the days with them on this occasion. They passed 
their time in the free and unreserved interchange 
of their thoughts and their experience. 

It was cheering to see the great London physician 
mounted on his little white horse, riding up and 
down the precipitous banks in the vicinity of his 
house, or trotting through the green lanes, and 
opening the gates, just after the manner of any 
Cotswold squire. Nothing could exceed the relish 
of Baillie for the ease and liberty and leisure of a 
country life, when he first escaped from the toil and 
effort and excitement of his professional duties in 
London. Duntisbourne stands in rather a pic- 
turesque situation ; the house overhangs a deep wood- 
ed dell, and is fronted on the opposite bank by the 
church and hamlet of Edgworth. The ramifications 
of this dell are intricate and beautiful; but there 
was little else in the doctor's vicinity to gratify the 
eye. Every thing wore an aspect of cheerfulness to 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 307 

him ; and whether he was traversing the bleak 
summit of the Cotswolds or taking his pastime 
in the more cultivated domains of Pimbery or 
Oakeley,* he was equally happy and equally 
buoyant. 

Jenner's intimacy with his uncle, John Hunter, 
had estabhshed a sort of family connexion, which 
the subsequent events in the life of each ripened 
into the most cordial regard and attachment. Jen- 
ner, in the meadows of Gloucestershire, had achieved 
a discovery which at once raised him to the highest 
point of professional reputation. Baillie, in the me- 
tropolis, was running a career of honour and useful- 
ness derived from the soundest knowledge, and 
adorned with all the virtues that can render such 
knowledge most estimable. He was among the first 
to appreciate correctly the value of vaccination, and 
to stand forward to vindicate its character when it 
was traduced and \dlified ; and as long as he lived, 
he lent all the influence of his name and authority 
to the practice. His own plain, direct, and honest 
heart, taught him promptly to discover and appre- 
ciate kindred qualities in others. 

I had the happiness of seeing them both together 
again in my own house on the 30th of August, 1821, 
where they spent the night.f- Jenner in the interval 

* Belonging to Earl Batliurst. 

t During the same autumn Jenner also visited his friend 
John Philliniore Hicks, at Eastington, and his nephew, Ed- 
ward Davies, at Ebley. While at the latter place he sat for 
his picture to Mr. Hobday. An engraving has been made 
from it, of the same size as that of the celebrated print of John 

X 2 



308 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

had sustained a serious illness. He was in pretty- 
good spirits ; and his ardour for knowledge was un- 
abated. I remember he brought in his pocket some 
fossils, and one of the vertebrae of the back of a 
horse, to show the nature of the change which takes 
place in that disease called string halt. 

I fondly hoped from the vigour which they both 
then exhibited, that their lives might have been 
spared for many years ; but before two were over, 
it was my misfortune to see them both laid in their 
graves. 

I have on former occasions mentioned slight ill- 
nesses with which Jenner had been affected at dif- 
ferent periods. They all more or less pointed to 
that sudden and fatal seizure which ultimately ex- 
tinguished life. 

One attack of a very alarming nature oc- 
curred on the 6th of August, 1820. He was 
walking in the garden, and became suddenly faint 
and giddy ; he sunk to the ground, and his hat 
dropped off. How long he remained in this state 
could not be ascertained, as he contrived ultimately 
to get into the house, where he was found in a 
somewhat confused state ; and his clothes covered 
with earth. The hat was picked up afterwards near 
the place v\here he had fallen. He was put to bed, 
and immediately visited by his nephew and Mr. 
Henry Shr^^pnell. They promptly administered suit- 
Hunter. Sliarpe commenced the work, and was anxious to 
make it a worthy companion to his master-piece, which I have 
just named ; but he died before it was finished, and it was com- 
pleted by Skelton. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 309 

able remedies, and the alarming s}Tnptoms were 
removed. An express had been sent to me, but I 
could not reach Berkeley till two a. m. He was then 
asleep, and I did not, of course, disturb him. Next 
morning I had the satisfaction of finding, that, 
though the attack had been threatening, it had not 
left any permanent traces of its nature. There was 
no paralysis, no confusion, no indication of serious 
mischief having been done to the brain. He was, 
however, depressed and thoughtful, as became one 
who had been saved from great peril. Death 
and its consequences formed an interesting part of 
our conversation, and his mind on that subject was 
tranquil and firm. He recurred to the loss of his 
dear wife ; remembered her patience and resigna- 
tion; and though disquieted a little about some 
matters of a temporal nature, I could not help re- 
joicing to find him in a frame of mind so placid and 
satisfactory. 

I saw him again on the 8th, when I found with 
him his old and valued friend Dr. Worthington. He 
was still in bed. He received me with great emo- 
tion ; and shewed that he felt deeply the effects of 
his illness. I have seldom seen him more moved 
than he was on this occasion ; and I observed 
plainly, that though the golden bowl was not 
broken, there was a slight loosening of the silver 
chord. 

He gradually recovered ; but the disorder left 
some distressing results. He became remarkably 
sensitive to external impressions ; but most of all to 
sounds of a certain description. Those that were 



310 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

dull and obtuse he little regarded ; but the shai-p, 
harsh click, for instance^ of a knife upon a plate, pro- 
duced an effect as if he had had an electric shock 
sent through his frame. 

Of course, this painful state of being much marred 
his happiness. He could scarcely encounter any of 
the most common occurrences of life without being 
exposed to great suifering ; and the consequence 
was, that he could not at times refrain from express- 
ing a slight degree of impatience or irritability under 
such inflictions. 

His mental efforts were necessarily checked for a 
season by the illness above noticed. His brain had 
certainly been over-worked ; and repose and absence 
from exciting objects was indispensably necessary 
for him. This state never suited him well, and he 
could not long be made to submit to it. 

In a few months he was deeply engaged in all his 
former occupations ; and by the publications men- 
tioned in the preceding chapter, proved that the 
energy and activity of his intellect had suffered 
no diminution. His attention to the great cause 
of vaccination was unremitting; and the letters 
and documents which are elsewhere printed will 
shew that his sentiments were judiciously and con- 
sistently maintained. 

His parting statement on this subject must have been 
written a very few days before he expired. I found it 
on tne back of a letter, the post mark on which gives the 
date January 14th, 1823. He was taken ill on the 25th, 
and died on the 2(5 tli of that month. It is not known 
that he wrote again on this subject ; but be this as 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 311 

it may, nothing could be more solemn, whether we 
consider the time or the expression of this his final 
judgment. " My opinion of vaccination is 

PRECISELY AS IT WAS WHEN I FIRST PROMUL- 
GATED THE DISCOVERY. It IS NOT IN THE LEAST 
STRENGTHENED BY ANY EVENT THAT HAS HAP- 
PENED, FOR IT COULD GAIN NO STRENGTH ; IT IS 
NOT IN THE LEAST WEAKENED, FOR IF THE 
FAILURES YOU SPEAK OF HAD NOT HAPPENED, 
THE TRUTH OF MY ASSERTIONS RESPECTING THOSE 
COINCIDENCES WHICH OCCASIONED THEM WOULD 
NOT HAVE BEEN MADE OUT." 

It will aiford an instructive lesson to the younger 
members of his own profession, to witness the undi- 
minished energy with which this venerable man cul- 
tivated scientific and professional studies almost to 
the last hour of his existence. In his comparative 
retirement at Berkeley, his engagements were of 
a different nature from what they were at Chelten- 
ham. On looking over his note books, which he 
kept with considerable regularity, I am astonished 
that at his advanced age, and with so many momen- 
tous affairs pressing upon his mind, he should have 
been able to chronicle with such perseverance so 
many observations. One of them carries with it a 
peculiarly impressive character. It must have been 
written, at the farthest, on the night immediately 
preceding his own fatal seizure ; but I am inclined 
to think, from various circumstances, that it was the 
last conscious effort of his mind, and that the entry 
was made, perhaps, not many minutes before he 
himself was afflicted nearly by the same malady that 



312 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

destroyed his patient. I give it exactly as it appears 
in his diary. 

" Mr. Joyner Ellis/' (he was a schoolfellow and an 
old friend), " from long exposure to severe cold, the 
thermometer being many degrees below the freezing 
point, was so benumbed, that he was brought home, 
after a long journey chiefly in an open carriage, in 
a state of paralytic debility : the harmony of all the 
vital functions seemed disturbed ; and of some he 
seemed to be quite deprived. Being moved, he ap- 
peared to feel pain about the chest ; and as his 
breathing was short and laborious, Mr. H. abstracted 
about sixteen ounces of blood from the arm, but with- 
out relief. There was that pecuHar effort in breathing 
that is not really stertorous, but approaching to it; so 
that my prognostic was as unfavourable as it could be." 

The events above alluded to, occurred in the even- 
ing of Friday the 24th of January 1823. The gen- 
tleman to whom they refer died early on the follow- 
ing morning ; and Dr. Jenner was made acquainted 
with that fact when he left his bed-room. From the 
tenor of the concluding sentence of the preceding 
extract, I am inclined to believe that it was written 
after he came to the knowledge of the fatal event. 
If so, a very short time must have elapsed before 
he himself was nearly in the same condition in which 
he had described his patient. 

The day preceding this attack, he had not 
only, as I have just mentioned, been engaged with 
his usual ardour in professional avocations, but had 
likewise attended to those acts of mercy and benevo- 
lence that the wants of his neighbours and the seve- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 313 

rity of the season demanded. He had walked to 
the ^dllage of Ham, and ordered supplies of fuel to 
some of the poor people ; and in all respects seemed 
as well as he had been for a long time. His pre- 
vious illnesses certainly indicated a proneness to 
that disease which cut him off; but his great tem- 
perance and regularity, and his almost complete re- 
covery from their effects, gave reason to hope, that 
the disastrous event might have been averted. 
He had regained also his cheerfulness and his ani- 
mation to a very considerable extent ; and scarcely 
at any period of his existence did he appear to be 
more alive to every moral and intellectual enjoyment. 

After his walk to Ham, he visited his nephew Ste- 
phen in his painting-room. He had for some time 
taken great pleasure in attempting to cultivate the 
talent which this young man displayed as a drafts- 
man. Jenner, in order to rouse him to exertion and 
study, was in the habit of employing every incite- 
ment that could be devised. Among others, he used 
to place short apophthegms and extracts from the 
writings of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and other eminent 
artists, on the easel or on the walls of the apartment, 
so that they might meet the eye of his nephew when- 
ever he began to study. 

On the morning of his last visit to him, Stephen 
was amusing himself while at his work, by singing a 
popular Scotch air. Jenner heard the notes as he 
entered the room, and detected an inaccuracy in the 
tune : " Oh!" said he, " you are singing ; but not in a 
right way, let me tell you : this is the manner in 
which you ought to do it;" and he then sang a 



314 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

stanza or two. The weather was remarkably cold at 
the time, and he went down stairs and brought up 
some coals himself, and likewise a seat. While he 
was thus occupied, a gentleman came in ; and he 
observed, in his jocular and kind way, " You see 
Stephen has got a servant ; " and then carried on 
the conversation on ordinary topics. 

In the evening of this day he visited the gentle- 
man whose case I have recently extracted from his 
note-book. Next morning he arose as usual, and 
came down stairs to his library. As he did not ap- 
pear at breakfast, the servant was sent to ascertain 
the cause. On entering the room, he found that he 
had sunk from the couch on the floor ; and that he 
was lying in a state of insensibility. His nephew, 
Mr. Henry Jenner, and Mr. Henry Shrapnell, were 
with him in a few minutes, and administered the 
most judicious remedies. A messenger was sent for 
me ; and I reached Berkeley about two in the after- 
noon. I found him in bed, lying in a complete state 
of apoplexy. The right side was paralysed ; the 
pupils of the eyes contracted to a point, and unaf- 
fected by strong light ; the breathing stertorous, with 
a general insensibility to almost every external im- 
pression. Every effort was employed to arouse him 
from this condition ; but the fatal character of the 
malady became more and more apparent, and he ex- 
pired about three o'clock in the morning. 



And now, having brought this narrative to a con- 
clusion, I would for a moment meditate on the cha- 
racter which, with affectionate regard, but most 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 315 

heartfelt distrust of my own ability, I have endea- 
voured to dehneate. Jenner stood in a position never 
before occupied by mortal man ; having been the in- 
strument in the hands of a gracious Providence, of in- 
fluencing, in a most remarkable degree, the destinies 
of his species. He lived at a time when the whole 
of the civilised world was ravaged by a war of almost 
unequalled ferocity. Before he left the stage he had 
the supreme gratification of knowing, that his dis- 
covery had been the means of saving more millions 
of lives than had been sacrificed during the murder- 
ous conflict. 

If we look at the origin of this discovery from its first 
dawning in his youthful mind at Sodbury, and trace it 
through its subsequent stages — his meditations at 
Berkeley — his suggestions to his great master, John 
Hunter — his conferences with his professional bre- 
thren in the country — his hopes and fears, as his inqui- 
ries and experiments encouraged or depressed his anti- 
cipations — and, at length, the triumphant conclusion 
of more than thirty years' reflection and study, by the 
successful vaccination of his first patient, Phipps ; we 
shall find a train of preparation never exceeded in 
any scientific enterprise ; and in some degree com- 
mensurate with the great results by which it has 
been followed. 

In the space of a very few years, the fruit of this 
patient and persevering investigation was enjoyed 
in every quarter of the globe ; and the rapidity of its 
dissemination attests alike the universaUty of the 
pestilence, and the virtue of the agent by which it 
was in many places subdued, mitigated, extirpated. 



316 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

On the other side, let us remember his trials, his 
mortifications, the attempts to depreciate his dis- 
covery and to check its progress, together with the 
personal injuries which he endured from those who 
affected to do him honour, and we shall find many- 
things to counterbalance the homage and grati- 
tude which he derived from other sources. Under 
all these changes, he sustained the equanimity and 
consistency of his character ; humble when lauded 
and eulogised, patient and forbearing when suffering 
wrong; and, if it be an assured sign of a worthy 
and generous spirit to be amended by distinction and 
renown, no man ever gave stronger proofs of possess- 
ing such a spirit. 

Again, we have to view him in the character of a 
physician, exercising all the resources of a painful 
and anxious profession with extraordinary humanity, 
ability, and perseverance ; cultivating his beautiful 
taste for natural history and all the poetry of life, in 
connexion with labours so arduous and important. 
Wiiile interpreting nature, he enjoyed a pleasure 
surpassed by none of his predecessors ; but he did 
not rest there, and might have exclaimed with the 
great Linnseus, O quam contemta res est homo 

NISI SUPRA HUMANA SE EREXERIT ! 

As a husband, a father, a friend, a master, he may 
challenge comparison with any of his fellow-mortals. 
His domestic duties, as many traits in these vo- 
lumes show, were invariably exercised with a de- 
gree of kindness, consideration, and delicacy, never 
exceeded. His attachment to his friends knew no 
variation or interruption, and even when his mind 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 317 

was almost overpowered by the pressure of his pubhc 
engagements, he always found leisure to maintain and 
cherish his relations with them. He was not less 
mindful of his dependents and his neighbours in the 
humble walks of life : they were, indeed, his friends, 
and he treated them as such ; and it is a graceful 
illustration of this principle, to see him building a 
cottage as a place of refuge for his first vaccinated 
patient, a few years before he died. 

He was invariably courteous and generous to the 
stranger ; " compassionate to the afflictions of all, 
shewing that his heart was like the noble tree, which 
is wounded itself when it gives the balm." He 
readily pardoned and remitted offences, proving that 
his mind was raised above injury, and could not be 
reached by the shafts of malignity. Finally, he laid 
down his life while continuing his efforts to do 
good to his fellow-creatures ; grateful to God for the 
signal mercies which He had vouchsafed to man 
through him. 

As soon as the melancholy event of his death be- 
came known in London, some of his friends were 
particularly anxious that he should have a public 
funeral. Sir Gilbert Blane felt that Westminster Abbey 
was the only fit place to receive his remains ; and 
moved by the impulse of his own just and generous 
mind, he instantly wrote to the relatives of Dr. 
Jenner, to propose that they should concur in such 
an arrangement. Had those in power and authority 
viewed things in the same light, and ordered a 
pubUc funeral at the pubhc cost. Dr. Jenner's 
friends could not but have assented to the proposal. 



318 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

As, however, no such authority was given by 
government, and considerable expense must have 
been incurred, it was deemed inconsistent with the 
humility and modesty of Dr. Jenner's character to 
seek for an ostentatious display of the pomp of woe, 
however much he merited the sincere lamentations 
of every w^ell-constituted mind. It was therefore re- 
solved that the arrangements which had been com- 
menced before the proposal was received, should be 
completed ; and that his own Berkeley should hold 
his remains ; they were accordingly deposited in 
a vault in the chancel, by the side of his beloved 
partner, on Monday the 3rd of February, 1823. It 
was intended that the funeral should be strictly 
private ; but all his personal friends who were within 
a reasonable distance felt themselves constrained 
to attend. The following list, I believe, compre- 
hends a few of those who were present on that me- 
lancholy occasion. The Right Honourable Lord 
Segrave, Colonel Kingscote, Colonel N. Kingscote, 
T. Kingscote, esq. Dr. C. Parry, T. Creaser, esq. 
Rev. Dr. Worthington, Rev. Dr. Davies, Rev. Mr. 
Halifax, Rev. Mr. Ferryman, Rev. T. Pruen, Rev. G. 
Jenner, T. Hicks, esq. H. Hicks, esq. R. Davies, esq. 
John Hands, esq. H. Shrapnell, esq, Henry Jenner, 
esq. John Fosbroke, esq. his only surviving son, 
R. F. Jenner, esq. John Yeend Bedford, esq. and the 
author of this work, &c. &c. 

As death is supposed to shut the door of envy and 
to open that of fame, it was hoped that the de- 
parture of so eminent a person would have been 
commemorated by corresponding tokens of respect. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 319 

It was especially thought that all the leading mem- 
bers of his own profession would have eagerly seized 
such an opportunity of burying in oblivion every 
hostile feeling, and that they would have cordially 
and unanimously co-operated in rendering honour 
to his name, who had conferred such unexampled 
honour on their profession. The medical men in his 
own district were guided by this laudable and be- 
coming spirit ; but before they moved they were 
desirous of seeing some steps taken by the leading 
physicians and surgeons in the metropolis. As 
I had a considerable share in these transactions, 
it is due to myself to mention what actually 
occurred. I laid the matter before the late Dr. 
Baillie and other gentlemen, with a view of inducing 
them to attempt to call forth the exertions of pro- 
fessional men in London, in order that a conspicuous 
monument might be erected by them to the memory 
of Jenner. He having died in Gloucestershire, it 
was deemed ad\isable that the desigii should origi- 
nate in that county. A meeting of medical men was 
accordingly held at Gloucester, on Saturday, the 22d 
of February, for the purpose of entering into a sub- 
scription, and making other arrangements for the 
erection of a Provincial monument in honour of the 
Author of Vaccination. The design was, that this 
object should be altogether accomplished by the 
contributions of professional gentlemen in different 
parts of the kingdom; and, under the expectation 
of a large number of contributors, a small sum 
was fixed upon as the amount to be subscribed. 
Our calculations proved erroneous. We did not 



320 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

find that extensive co-operation either among the 
learned bodies of the profession, or among indivi- 
duals, which we anticipated. The only two public 
bodies who contributed any thing, were the Colleges 
of Physicians and Surgeons of Edinburgh ; the former 
having given £50, and the latter £10. After con- 
siderable difficulty, a sum of money was raised suf- 
ficient to enable us to give orders for a statue by 
Sievier, which has been placed at the west end of 
the nave of the cathedral of Gloucester. 

On the 19th of March (1823j, when the House of 
Commons was in a Committee of Supply, and the 
annual grant for the National Vaccine Estabhsh- 
ment was voted, an attempt was made to obtain at 
the same time a sum of money for erecting a monu- 
ment to the memory of Dr. Jenner. Our excellent 
county member, the late Sir B. William Guise, hart, 
brought the subject forward, and it was met with 
very considerable cordiality. He proposed that a 
specific sum should be granted for the purpose. 
This proposal was received with cries of " Move ;" 
but the Chairman of the Committee seems to have 
quashed the business by stating, that a vote of 
money could not be increased in the Committee. 
Mr. Bright, the Member for Bristol, was anxious to 
draw the attention of the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer to the merits of Dr. Jenner, and he hoped the 
Honourable Baronet (Sir W. Guise) would move in 
a more formal manner, and in a fuller house, for the 
sum which he had mentioned. 

I have reason to know that this design would have 



LIFE OF DK. JENNER. 321 

been supported strenuously by many Members of 
Parliament : but it was never brought forward again. 
It ought, however, to have been mentioned, that the 
subject had been previously laid before the Govern- 
ment by Sir William Guise, on the 1 7th of February. 
" Seeing the Right Honourable the Secretary in his 
place, he requested to know whetlier there was any 
intention on the part of Administration to pro- 
pose that a monument should be erected to the 
memory of the late Dr. Jenner. Sir William stated 
that he was induced to put this question, as having 
the honour to represent the county of which that 
eminent man was a native ; and also because he 
thought this country was bound to shew that respect 
to Dr. Jenner's memory, which his valuable ser- 
vices, not only to this country, but to the whole 
world, by the discovery of vaccination, had so amply 
merited. 

" The Chancellor of the Exchequer agreed entirely 
with the Honourable Baronet as to the merits of 
that eminent character, and the great blessings 
which he had conferred, not merely on his country, 
but on mankind ; he confessed, however, that this 
subject had not previously occurred to him, and he 
was not prepared to say how far it might be expe- 
dient to propose such a vote as the Honourable 
Baronet had suggested. 

" Mr. Secretary Peel said, that there was every 
disposition on the part of the Government to honour 
the memory of the distinguished individual in ques- 
tion ; and it was only out of respect to the wishes 

VOL. II. Y 



322 LIFE OF DR. JENNEE. 

and feelings of his relatives^ that he had not been 
pubhcly interred in Westminster Abbey," 

The conckiding remarks of the Right Honourable 
Secretary would lead one to infer that the cost of 
the funeral was to have been paid by the public ; 
and that Government had assented to so becoming 
an appropriation of a part of the wealth of the state. 
I have, however, already mentioned, that this was 
not the understanding of Dr. Jenner's family ; 
and mainly on that account they declined the pro- 
posal. As, therefore, the public w^ere not put to any 
charges on account of his funeral, there is still an 
additional reason for voting that a monument should 
be erected to his memory. 



LETTERS 



FROM DR. JENNER TO VARIOUS INDIVIDUALS, &C. &C. 

Such is the detail which I humbly offer respecting 
this eminent man. But I feel it impossible to do 
justice to his character, without permitting him to 
speak for himself, through the medium of a few of 
his letters out of many in my possession. The reader 
will therefore find a short series, bearing out, I trust, 
the accuracy of the preceding narrative. The first 
illustrate some important points in the early history 
of vaccination. Others, chiefly apply to the diffusion 
of the practice over the globe, and the management 
of the National Vaccine Establishment. Lastly, will 
be found several of his familiar epistles, which more 
peculiarly throw light upon his domestic habits and 
occupations. 

I intend to add two or three of his metrical 
compositions which have fallen into my hands 
since the publication of the former volume. These, 

Y 2 



324 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

with some of liis speculations on miscellaneous sub- 
jects, will heighten the colouring of the picture : 
more might have been added, but for the present, I 
am induced to withhold them, lest this work should 
expand to an inconvenient extent. As it is^ I would 
hope, that " actions, both great and small, public 
and private, have been so blended together, as to 
secure that genuine, native, and lively representation 
which forms the peculiar excellence and use of Bio- 
graphy." 

To THE Rev. John Clinch, Trinity Harbour, 
Newfoundland. 

Cheltenham, July 15 th, 1800. 
My dear Friend, 

My pursuit, thank God ! is constantly making those ad- 
vances which increase my fame, and will certainly add to_ 
the stock of human happiness, by eradicating one of the 
greatest of its miseries. Lest the threads sent you by George 
should not take effect, I have inclosed a bit more, newly im- 
pregnated with the coAV-pock virus ; use it like a small-pox 
thread ; but small as it is, divide it into portions, that you 
may multiply your chance of infecting. Wet it before in- 
sertion, or rather moisten it. 

My acquaintance with your Governor commenced from 
my having inoculated his infant daughter. I hope you have 
got my books on the subject. I am now just got to Chel- 
tenham, having spent near six months in London. This 
business occupies, as you may suppose, much of my time and 
attention. A man of the name of Brown, a surgeon in Lon- 
don, has made a variety of efforts to write it down; but find- 
ing himself deserted by every medical man of respecta1)ility, 
he shot himself a few days ago. In every case of this sort, I 
have charity enough to suppose it is the maniac and not the 
man who draws the fatal trigger. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 325 

God preserve us, my dear friend, to see each other once 
more ! 

My best remembrances to Mrs. CUnch. — Adieu, 

Yours most affectionately, 
E, Jenner. 

To H. Hicks, Esq. Eastington. 

1801. 
My dear Friend, 
I think you are perfectly right in putting a stop to the 
further insertion of the advertisement. I know not what 
the people here will do, as they are quite beyond my control ; 
but most likely they will do nothing. However, on that 
score make yourself easy, for so many awkward accounts 
have by design and accident crept into the papers, respect- 
ing the intention of the subscribers, that I do assure you it 
may have no bad effect (if well managed) should something 
appear from some of the London people. 

One thing I can answer for ; the public speak highly of 

the measure Lord B has brought forward, and it will 

certainly aid, not injure, the main object. I am now fully 
prepared to meet the House of Commons, and defy all the 
scepticism that can be produced, to stand a moment before 
my mass of facts. 

A famous paper has been transmitted to me from Amiens. 
The medical department of the Somme has sent a long let- 
ter to Lord Cornwallis, the purport of which is a compliment 
to the British Nation, on its having given birth to the happy 
discoverer of vaccine inoculation. This letter some of my 
friends here entreat me to send to the newspapers, and it is 
probable I may comply ; but not as coming from me. Tay- 
lor has completely stopped Lord Holland's mouth by his 
last despatch. I was at Holland House in a little time after 
it was received. 

A change in administration is certainly to take place, but 



32G LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

I don't think a very important one. All I Mow is^ that 

H se and T y are certainly to join the ministerial 

jjhalanx as officers in some shape or other. Every petition 
like mine goes, or seems to go, to the King, and comes from 
his Majesty to the House. This, I believe, gives birth to the 
form you see now and then in the papers. Darke, when at 
Cheltenham, mentioned some strong cases to me of the pre- 
ventive power of cow-pox. He can also favour me with cases 
of those who have resisted variolous inoculation, because 
they had undergone the cow-pox at some distant period of 
their lives. Evidence of this kind I cannot obtain too abun- 
dantly, as it is at this point the public mind makes a pause, 
from the early impression that was made of its proving a 
temporary preventive only. This must be the form : first 
State the evidence of the preventive powers of cow-pox, and 
then add any comment you please upon the utility of the 
discovery. You may compare the anxiety you felt on the 
variolous inoculation in your family, with your feelings re- 
specting the vaccine. Say nothing of Paul. It is time 
enough to determine how the subscription money shall be 
disposed of. A gold cup I should make choice of, in prefer- 
ence to any thing else, if I may be allowed to name what it 
shall be. Have you thought of an appropriate device, &c. ? 
What think you of the cow jumping over the moon ? Is it 
not enough to make the animal jump for joy ? 

My best regards. Yours truly, 

Edw. Jenner. 

To H. Hicks, Esq. 

Wednesday nighty April IQth, 1802. 
My dear Friend, 
You have doubtless seen Gardner before this time, and 
heard many anecdotes of the Committee Room. Notwith- 
standing it is frequently dinned in my ears that the oppo- 
nents to my claims will be strong, and that an adverse party is 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 327 

actually mustering to take the field against me, yet I am not 
at all dismayed. The Admiral tells me I have nothing to 
fear. The Report will probably be made this week ; after 
this, the evidence will be printed and lie on the table a day 
or two before the final discussion. I sometimes wish this 
business had never been brought forward. It makes me feel 
indig nant to ^ reflect that one, who has throu gh a most pain fuL 
and laborious investiprationj b^'^^sbt to li ght a subject th at 
will add to the happiness of every hmnaii_being;_in Jthe 
world, should appear among his countrymen.as a supplicant 
for the means of obtaining a few comforts for himself and fa- 
mily. Upon my word I can hardly stand it, nor should I have 
stood it so long had it not been for Hobhouse. I told him 
one day in the Committee Room, (feeling chagrined at the 
treatment I there experienced) that I should be glad to put 
an end to the matter, and withdraw my Petition. His reply 
was, that such a proceeding was impracticable ; it must go 
on. There is a fundamental error, in my opinion, in the 
conduct of the Committee. Having been put in possession of 
the laws of vaccination by so great a number of the first me- 
dical men in the world, namely, that when properly conducted 
it never fails, and when improperly, that it will fail ; they 
should not have listened to every blockhead who chose 
to send up a supposed case of its imperfection : but this is 
the plan pursued, and if they do not give it up, they may sit 
till the end of their lives ; for the inoculator of the cow-pox, 
like the small-pox inoculator, will go on for ever commit- 
ting blunders. Within this fortnight an apothecary here, 
who attended a family where I was inoculating, attempted to 
take virus after the pustule was nearly converted into a 
scab. How unjust it is to make me answerable for all the 
ignorance and carelessness of others. You may depend upon 
my vigilance and activity. To-day I inoculated a son of 
Lord Holland : this Avill give me frequent opportunities, I 
hope, of seeing some of those great characters who will do 
more than support my cause in the House of Commons with 



328 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

a simple "Yes." Mr. Grey has promised his support, and 
Mr. Fox, I doubt not, will be amongst my special pleaders. 
Do you never intend visiting the metropolis ? I cannot 
blame you for keeping out of it. Most heartily do we all 
pant for the country air. We are all looking sadly. I have 
taken a box for Mrs. J. and the children at Bayswater. My 
knocker has been tied up for several days, on account of poor 
Catherine. Thank God, to-morrow it will be unmuffled, as I 
think her out of danger. She has had a most violent fever, 
but not typhus. She had symptoms that seemed to indicate 
water in the head. Luckily this was not the case, i was_ 
thrown into extreme alarm, from which I thankfully acknow- 
ledge myself completely liberated. To-morrow night we are 
to be all in a blaze here. The preparations going forward in 
every street are unexampled. I have just seen one in which 
Billy P. cuts a conspicuous figure, with a few lines descriptive 
of the scene from the pen of P. P, The papers will no doubt 
give it to you. My kindest respects and Mrs. Jenner's to 
Mrs. Hicks. 

Yours most truly, 

E. Jennek. 

To Henry Hicks, Esq. Eastington. 

10th Mcaj, 1802. 
Dear Harry, 
I have spoken to Dr. Heberden, and was much sur- 
prised to hear him say the Gloucestershire estates were 
not his but his brother^s. This brother I will find out 
without delay, and sound him relative to the business. 

You will forthwith receive a drawing of the emblematics 
for the cup : I have not seen them myself. The idea of the 
cow trampling, as if by accident, and then crushing to death 
the monster small-pox, I don't much like. This, I know, was 
the first design ; perhaps you will find it altered, and the cow 
made to assume less of a pacific character. Your inscription 
is, I think, extremely appropriate, and strikes me as finishing 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 329 

well without the optional sentence ; and yet if something 
to this effect could be well brought in, it might render 
the history more complete : however, after all, it may be 
best for the reader to have a trifle left on which to exercise 
his own imagination, and the word " small-pox " won't asso- 
ciate well with good drink. 

With what sort of stuff Parliament will allow me to fill 
it, is not yet determined. It ought to overflow with 
nectar when presented to your lip. The Report was made 
to the House on Friday, and will be presented in two or 
three days for the inspection of the Members. Admiral 
Berkeley has quitted the chair for this fortnight through a 
gout-fit. It has been filled by Mr, Bankes. 

I understand an opposition is to be made in the House 
on this ground — that it has been stated to the Committee^L 
that I might have filled my pockets by the practice q£ 
vaccine inoculation, had I not made every body acquainted, 
with it. How absurd! While I thus had been employed in^ 
filling my own purse, should I not have indirectly been 
filling the churchyard with those slain by the small-pox? 
This is really to be the plea for non-remuneration, as shewing 
there existed no necessity for my petition to Parliament. 
We want not the strength of a Fox or a Grey to combat 
this argument. 

As usual I must apologise for omissions. 

Yours truly, 

E. Jenner. 

Pray see the European Magazine for the present montli, 
where you will find that the Indians have adopted vaccine 
inoculation : this should be conveyed to the Glo'ster paper. 

The drawing of the cup is just sent by the Stroud coach 
by Lady B. You will hear from her by to-morrow's post. 



330 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

To Richard Dunning, Esq. Plymouth Dock. 
London, Monday Evening, May 17, 1802. 
I must confess, my dear friend, that you have too often 
liad occasion to rebuke me ; but to have answered the letter 
you allude to fully and completely was a task so arduous, 
that truly (although often in contemplation) I put it off with 
the hope of finding that leisure for its accomplishment which 
has never yet arrived. 

" Ye gentlemen of Plymouth," 

I was going to parody a popular song, but the attempt 

is too daring — verbum sat. I once thought myself the most 
perfect animal mimosa existing ; but you seem to possess a 
superior claim. You will believe me sincere in my assertion ; 
but don't be affronted wdien I tell you that Trotter (whom 
I had frequently the pleasure of seeing during his residence 
in town) and myself even laughed at your timidity. 

If 1 have excited a fi'own, let me smooth your countenance 
by saying, that while I indulged this passion, I admired 
your sensibility. Your excellent letters deserve a better 
answer than this ; but the worries of the House of Com- 
mons, and the labours I have to go through out of the 
House, put it out of my power to shew my friends even 
common civility. 

I shall not conclude without telling you how affairs stand. 
The Committee have made their Rej)ort to the House, which 
is ordered to be printed. After it has lain upon the table a 
few days, it will then be taken into consideration, and I shall 
receive reimbursement, remuneration, or nothing at all; just 
as the honourable gentlemen may determine. 

If the latter, I have to thank my stars that I have a little 
farm or two in Gloucestershire, where I shall at once repair, 
quit doctoring^ and turn ploughman. 

How happy shall I always be to give you a rasher of 
bacon from ix flitch of my own fatting, and a potatoe that has 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 331 

vegetated under my own eye. I sing a little sometimes, 
and am practising Shakspeare^s old song in readiness. 

" Blow, blow, thou winter's wind." 

I shall, if possible, send you one of the jorinted Reports. 
A line from you to Sir W. Elford would procure it at once. 
You will be amused with the intelligence from the West — 

the Drews, the Bragges, &c. &c. The conduct of P 

was bad beyond all description. 

The evidence in the Report is so compressed, you will not 
be able to form by any means an idea of it. The letters 
from the West are printed at large. 

I am much gratified at the good sense manifested by the 
Cherokee Indians. Who would have thought that vaccination 
would already have found its way into the wilds of America ? 
Pray look at the European Magazine for the present month. 
Be assured that I am yours most sincerely, 

E. Jenner. 

P. S. I shall expect the gratification of a letter from you very 
soon, especially as in your last you explained nothing rela- 
tive to the cases which weakened your confidence in vaccine 
inoculation. 

I laid before the Committee a large bundle of letters on 
the subject of cow-pox, corroborating the fact I have 
alleged, and expressed a wish that some of them might be 
printed in the Rej)ort. 

I even limited my number (finding them shy of printing) 
to three, and among these named yours ; but, alas ! they in- 
dulge me with one only, and that comes from a Mr. Kelson. 

By the evidence of a Gloucestershire gentleman, Mr. 
Gardner, you will see that I spoke freely of my scheme for 
eradicating the small-pox previously even to the capricious 
inoculations made by the gentlemen in the West. 



332 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

To R. Dunning, Esq. 

My dear Sir, 1802. 

Our last letters crossed each other on the road, according 
to custom. Your letter of April the 22d reached me at a 
time when my head was brimful of the bvistles of the Com- 
mittee, and was not, I think, sufficiently, at least properly, 
noticed in any subsequent letter of mine. What I allude to 
is your account of the inoculation of Mr. Courtney, Mr. 
Yonge, and the staggering cases of yourself and Mr. Lisle. 
Add to this, the case of the marine at Portsmouth. Now, 
my good friend, my mind having long since obtained what 
security it is capable of possessing, I request of you to tell 
me what time and enquiry have developed respecting these 
Plymouth cases. That of the marine at Portsmouth was 
clearly made out to have been imperfect. The people at 
this sea-port set up a kind of malignant shout (see the Let- 
ters of Hope in the Report of the Committee) at finding this 
case of supposed failure. They disliked vaccination, be- 
cause Plymouth adopted it ; '^ tanta est discordia fratrum." 
You mention the name of my valued old friend Col. Tench ; 
pray can you find out where a letter would reach that gen- 
tleman ? Now to present occurrences. Imprimis, accept 
my t hanks for you r_beneyolejit jn tentio ns in seconding the 
views of the society established, or rather about to be, for_ 
forming a something (I scarcely yet know what) to perpcj^ 
tuate my name, and to attach to it that, without which 
scarcely any existing name has weight or respectability. I 
immediately despatched your note to Dr. Lettsom, who is 
one of the great promoters of the design. I need not, I 
presume, telljyo u that nojdeajofjhis sort^e ver came into my 
own head. Let me entreat you not to suff'er that warmth of 
heart which you possess, and that affection (your deeds 
allow me to use the expression) which you shew for me, lead 
you too far on this occasion. The portrait by Northcote, 
I conceive to be finished by this time ; but as it is deemed 



LIFE OF DU. JENNER. 333 

not only one of his best paintings, but what on the present 
occasion is more to the purpose, a good Hkeness, a print will 
be required before it reaches its destined home. Pearson, 
you say, has exhibited himself with sufficient correctness. 
Indeed, I think so too. Had he not given the picture those 
brilliant touches which you have dou1)tless seen since the 
publication of the Medical Journal for the month of July, I 
trust that most people would have thought his pencil had 
gone far enough ; but what, my dear sir, will they say, now 
they have seen his last performance ? I long to hear your 
sentiments upon it, and to know what sensation it creates 
among my friends in your part of Devon. The paper by 
Dr. Crawford of Bath was, I think, pretty much ad rem, 
and will serve as a groundwork for any one who may 
choose to reply to the pamphlet. As for myself, I do not 
intend to notice it. To what purpose is it to contend with a 
man whose arrogance and impudence will ever keep at an 
immeasurable distance plain truth, and who will not listen 
even to the dictates of reason? There is among the mass of 
misrepresentations one which is capable of doing vast mis- 
chief, and that is, allowing the vaccine virus to be used in 
the far advanced stage of the pustule. Woodville's backing 
this opinion is quite astonishing. If I should be induced to 
reply to anythhig, it would be this point only. To what reve- 
rend gentleman I am indebted for congratulations, and who 
speaks so highly of Dr. Booker's excellent sermon, I know 
not ; this you keep a secret. The fact is, neither myself nor 
any one about me can decypher the characters you have 
employed to point out his name. However, present, I pray 
you, my thanks to my unknown friend for his kindness, and 
I hope ere now he has well vaccinated the ears of his con- 
gregation. The example of Dr. Booker has been followed 
by many respectable clergymen, both in town and country, 
and with good effect. Be assured I wish much to print the 
evidence you allude to. It certainly ought to come forth, 
and for the reason you assign. 



334 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Mr. Bankes, who drew up the Report, was no friend either 
to me or ray cause, or he would have Ustened to my sohci- 
tations, and inserted not only the certificates you mention,, 
but your letter also. Let any one read the Report of Dr. 
Smith, and compare it with mine ; then let them judge who 
had indulgences and who had none. The indisposition of 
my chairman. Admiral Berkeley, was a most unfortunate 
event. The whole merit Mr. Bankes allowed me on the score 
of discovery in vaccination (considering it abstractedly) was 
that of inoculating from one human being to another. On 
this subject I remonstrated, but it was all in vain. Cannot 
you contrive to get your papers into the Journal ? Surely 
you might command my assistance whenever you please ; 
they would gain admittance with the most perfect propriety 
in reply to Pearson's audacious assertion, and produce good 
effects in a variety of ways. 

My health and prosperity are not more frequently drank 
under your roof than that of you and yours is wished for 
under mine. 

Adieu, my dear Sir, 

Yours ever very faithfully, 
Cheltenham, Sept. 24, 1802. Edward Jenneb. 

I shall remain here about six weeks longer, then go to 
Berkeley, and stay about two months before I return to my 
drudgery in town. Do come and see me at Berkeley, if 
you can, at Vaccina Cottage. 

To R. Dunning, Esq. 

My dear Sir, Berkeley, April 2, 1804. 

The sight of your folio sheet was extremely agreeable to 
me. I really began to be seriously alarmed about you ; but 
all is well now. You have passed upon yourself too heavy 
a censure. It is my misfortune to be a great procrastinator 
as well as yours; and surely it would be uncharitable in 
me not to pardon that in another with which unfortunately 
I find myself so heavily laden. Your letter throughout 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 335 

glows with that ardent philanthropic flame which has ever 
shone so conspicuously in all your conduct towards me from 
the commencement of our acquaintance. 

I believe we have had no correspondence since your Spa- 
nish paper appeared in the Medical and Philosophical Jour- 
nal. To be plain with you, and use the familiarity of a 
friend, I did not like it. The paper is not now before me ; 
but if I recollect right, it M'ent only to prove that goats are 
subject to spontaneous pustules upon their nipples ; that 
the matter of these pustules was inserted into the arms of 
human subjects ; and that it produced local effects. Is 
there any quadruped that is not subject to diseased nipples ? 
Even the human animal, we know from sad experience, is 
not exempted. The cow, like other animals, is subject to a 
spontaneous pock upon its teats, the fluid of which, when 
brought in contact with the denuded living fibre, is capable 
of exciting disease ; but I positively assert, this is not one 
grand preventive. When you hear again from Madrid, do 
not fail to teU me what the Spaniards say about it. I have 
already anticipated. I am happy to find that Mr. Williams 
has pleased you so much in copying Northcote's portrait of 
me. Some of my partial friends say, that the painter gave 
the countenance a dash of acid which does not belong to it, 
but really the print by Saye appears to be a good likeness. 

Dr. Hope, with all his prettiness about him, will continue 
with me an object of distrust until he studies vaccination, and 
having seen the light, tells the world he was in darkness 
when he sent that horrid murderous letter to the Committee 
of the House of Commons, first, indeed, to the Board of 
Admiralty. I call it murderous, because by retarding the 
progress of vaccination, it has sent many poor victims to 
the grave who now might have been actively employed in 
the defence of their country ; and more will certainly follow 
unless he publicly makes known his errors. Surely the fin- 
ger of Providence has pointed out to him the spot he now 



336 LIFE OF DR. JENxVER. 

resides in, a spot which the votaries of Vaccina must ever 
contemplate with dehght. He certainly made a most vio- 
lent effort to ruin me and the cause in which I was engaged ; 
but weak and pernicious as his conduct has been, I will for- 
give the whole transaction if he will behave like a man, and 
act as he ought to do. A man, in my judgment, never ap- 
pears more wise or more amiable than when renouncing 
false opinions. I think you had better once more write to 
my Lord King, as it is probable his work will go through an- 
other edition, when he may have an opportunity of correct- 
ing his errors. I should be sorry if any bookseller had 
advertised any thing new from me, or any new edition of my 
work, though I long to republish it. In a former letter I be- 
lieve I mentioned to you the effect that herpes often produces 
ujjon the arm ; it is of so much moment that I have thoughts 
of giving a short paper on the subject in the Medical Jour- 
nal. The useful terms " vaccination and to vaccinate " are 
undoubtedly yours, and as such I pronounced them at a 
meeting of the Royal Jennerian Society, when an M. D. pre- 
sent mentioned them as imported from the Continent. 

In arranging a bundle of papers which had been huddled 
up together a long time ago in London, I met with my an- 
swer to a letter from the Medical Society of Plymouth. 
Whether it is a copy of a note already sent, or whether 
through hurry I might never have sent it at all, I cannot 
now recollect. 

I must therefore beg your assistance. The idea of slighting, 
in the smallest degree, a body of gentlemen, who, on all 
occasions, have stood forth so strenuously in my support, 
would vex me very much. Will you then have the kind- 
ness to make inquiry of your secretary, Mr. Woolcombe, and 
to present the inclosed note (if it appears that I had not 
written upon the same subject before) with an explanation 
and many apologies. 

I will not suppose my friend Little can have any other 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 33/ 

impression made upon his mind by the occurrence of such 
events as you mention, than such as an enlightened physio- 
logist would receive. 

Pray thank Mrs. Dunning and your family for the kind 
compliment they daily pay me, and be assured of the friend- 
ship and esteem of 

Edward Jenner. 

Do not forget to tell your brother vaccinists to look sharp 
to tinea capitis, sore eye-lids, ears, &c. I have commonly 
remarked, that the impediment to the correct progress of 
vaccination arises more frequently when the disease is recent 
than when it has continued long. 

If any of the birth-dmj odes and verses were committed 
to the press, you would indulge me in sending copies. 

Do not fail to write soon. 1 want to know your further 
sentiments of the goat-pox. 

April 5. 

Finding my letters over weight for a frank, I make a pac- 
ket, and send it by tlie coach. The little pamphlet of War- 
ren has scarcely ever failed to make converts whenever I 
have sent it into a poor prejudiced family. 

I have just received the Portsmouth paper of the 2nd 
of April, sent to me, I suppose, by the printer. It contains, 
in large letters, the following sensible paragraph : " Reports 
of some cases of small-pox after vaccine inoculation were 
read at a very full meeting of the Medical Society of Ports- 
mouth on Thursday last the 29th instant, which w^e are in- 
formed will be sent to the press, and published in a few 
days.^' Is Dr. Hope returned to his old post ? What a set 
of blockheads ! How will our continental neighbours laugh 
at us ! 

A letter from Milan lately informed me, that Dr. Sacco 
has, with his own hands, vaccinated upw'ards of 40,000 with- 
out a single instance of the small-pox occurring afterwards 3 
and why ? He understood Avhat he was about, 

VOL. II. z 



338 LIFE OP DR. JENNER. 

R. Dunning, Esq. 

Berkeleij,July 22, 1804. 
My dear Sir, 

Your letter found me in the midst of the worries attend- 
ant on packing up. You are a stranger, I presunle, to the 
removal of a large family from place to place ; if you are not, 
you must know how to commiserate those who are. Ac- 
cept this as an apology for delay in writing. Even gentle 
hints of mine, I perceive, act as mandates upon you. It 
affords me pleasure to see with what alacrity my troops fly 
to arms, and rally around me at the approach of an enemy. 

" Horse and foot 

All fly to it:'— Old Ballad. 

Seamen and landmen are all ready. The Portsea corsair, 
already pretty well peppered by the Kinff, the Edinburgh, 
and the rest of the squadron, must strike at the first broad- 
side of the Dunning man-of-war. But to quit figurative 
language and descend to humbler tones, allow me to say, 
I look forward with great satisfaction to the result of your 
present undertaking. Plymouth must be able to furnish 
volumes of evidence, were they wanted, to refute the absurd 
arguments of Mr. Goldson. All his reasoning is erroneous. 
It must be so ; for how could he reason upon a subject of 
which it is plain, from his own words, he has scarcely any 
knowledge ? A man who takes up the pen in such a cause, 
should be intimately acquainted with the laws and agencies, 
not only of the vaccine virus in the constitution, but with 
those of variolous also. Now 'tis clear he knows neither. 
What a book is his ! What an advertisement did he send to 
the public papers ! An advertisement that will outstrip its 
keenest pursuers, and strike terror as it goes into the 
bosoms of thousands. Our newspapers are spread over thre 
face of the whole earth. The trials I have lately instituted here, 
assisted by my nephews, I can assure you, have been severe 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 339 

ones ; but, thank heaven ! they have been decisive, and with- 
out any other aid must completely overthrow the arguments 
of Mr. Goldson. All the subjects that I could collect, who 
were vaccinated at the commencement of my practice here, 
men, women, and children, have been lately exjiosed to the 
small-pox, in a state as highly contagious as possible ; they 
were taken into a room, and went to the bedside of a woman, 
covered from head to foot with pustules. AH have escaped 
unhurt except at the sight of the ghastly object. A great 
number of these had been inoculated six years ago. Phipps, 
too, the boy on whom I made my first trial more than eight 
years ago, has again been put to the trial with impunity. 
Had Mr. Goldson sought an interview with me, or even 
written to me on the subject, I am confident his book would 
never have seen the light. Perhaps it may be all for the 
best. Had vaccination wanted firmer support than it has 
already, it would have obtained it from the very efforts 
made use of for its destruction. I will just remark that the 
fairest of all tests is exposure to variolous contagion; this is 
the natural test, inoculation is not. Who does not know 
(all medical men ought to know) that the insertion of the 
variolous poison into the skin of an irritable person will 
sometimes produce great inflammation^ disturbance of the 
system, and even eruptions ? 

Adieu, my dear Sir. I write, as you must observe, in 
haste. 

Yours truly, 

E. Jenner. 

Just setting off with my family to Cheltenham. 

P. S. I am sorry to say I cannot send you advertisements 
to the cover of the Medical Journal. The review of G.'s 
book will tell you I have no interest there. 



z 2 



340 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

R. Dunning, Esq. Plymouth. 

Cheltenham, Juhj 25, 1804. 
My dear Sir, 
About the middle of the last year, Dr. Yeates, a physician 
of eminence at Bedford, published a pamphlet explaining 
the cause of some vaccine blunders that had been committed 
in his neighbourhood. It concludes with a few observations 
of mine ujion the subject. Conceiving you may never have 
seen this little tract, I have sent it to you ; for, like the tracts 
of some folks in days that are past, it was never well adver- 
tised, and consequently but little knoAvn. 

I am quite angry with myself for not noticing in my last 
the Plymouth Bard. You call him a Printer's Devil. If 
spirits of this description can send forth such things, what 
am I not to expect from Plymouth Gods. 

Yours truly, 

E. Jenner. 

Richard Dunning, Esq. Dock, Plymouth. 

Cheltenham, October 25, 1804. 
My dear Sir, 
Before I say anything of your second letter, allow me to 
notice your first. When I tell you that I am at this time 
at least tAvo hundred letters in arrears to my correspondents, 
which, as you may suppose, multiply in e\ery part of the 
earth to a great extent, you will at once forgive my not 
writing sooner to a friend with whom I could take a liberty. 
There is not a country in the globe where I do not owe a 
letter, and yet all my leisure time is occupied with pen, ink, 
and paper. But you must be informed that my leisure 
hours are very few ; for the company resorting to this 
fashionable watering place increase every year in a most 
rapid manner, and, consequent] j^, my medical engagements ; 
insomuch, that I have it in contemplation to quit it. Should 
I be compelled to do this, what a hardship must I endure ! 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 341 

Shall I not be the first man in our profession who quitted 
his post through excess of business ? Vaccination calls im- 
periously for my attention, and to that I am determined all 
my other worldly concerns shall yield. But while I am 
fighting the enemy of mankind, it will be vexatious to see 
my aides-de-camp turn shy. Among the foremost in the 
field, I have always ranked Richard Dunning. No one has 
been more obedient to the commands of his general, or 
wielded the sword against the foe with greater force and 
dexterity. But shall I live to see my friend dismayed at the 
mere shadow of fortune on the side of the enemy ; — will he 
who has led such hosts into the field and found them invul- 
nerable, start if, in the continuation of the combat, he shoidd 
see a man fall ? Enough of metaphor. The moral of all 
this is, that I see you are growing timid ; the timidity so 
conspicuous towards the close of your pamphlet, and that 
which is so manifest in your letter of this evening, it would 
be wrong in me not to say I was sorry to observe. More 
convincing or stronger facts the public could never wish 
for than your pamphlet exhibits. Had I been at your elbow, 
I should have certainly pulled back your pen when you 
began reasoning upon them. The result of your experiments 
authorised you to speak in tones the most exulting and 
triumphant ; but most unfortunately, you almost give up the 
field to the anti-vaccinists by speaking of new and better 
arrangements, if variolous inoculation should supersede the 
vaccine ! Now, my good and valued friend, don't for a 
moment think that I am out of temper with you, or mean to 
speak harshly. On the contrary, I attributed this oversight 
(such I must call it) to the dreadful calamity that befel your 
family. Your mind, I know, must have been oppressed, and 
you were bringing your work to a conclusion under pres- 
sures scarcely bearable. To those who made remarks upon 
what appeared so extraordinary, I communicated the cir- 
cumstance which seemed to me to account for it. The 1 15th 



342 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

page of your work, is that which has occasioned the general 
surprise. The further I go on with vaccination, the more I am 
con^anced that the great and grand impediment to the correct 
action of the virus on the constitution, is the co-existence 
of herpes. I expected that my paper on this subject in the 
Medical Journal for Au2;ust would have attracted more • 
attention. Since my writing it, I have detected a case of 
small-pox after small-pox inoculation, where the cause of 
failure was evidently an herpetic affection of the scalp. Are 
such cases as these — are such as Mr. Embling, so circum- 
stantially described in your pamphlet— are Mr. Trye's, lately 
communicated in the Star — are Mr. Kite's of Gravesend, 
and a thousand others, to go unnoticed by the public, while 
failures in vaccination (a science far more difficult to under- 
stand than variolation) are to make impressions so deep as 
even to stagger the faith of those who are well informed 
upon the subject ? Is common sense to be attached to one 
side of the question only, and to have nothing to do with 
the other? " This case, connected with those in London at 
Fullwoods Rents, I grieve to say, appear extremely ugly." — 
Dunniny. 

Is it possible their ugliness can affright you? What 
phantoms must they appear^ if you will but look back and 
consider the period when those children were inoculated. 
Woodville at that time, and his coadjutor Waschell, knew 
nothing of the cow-pox ; this is clearly evinced by Wood- 
ville's first pamphlet, where he gives three hundred cases of 
small-pox, and calls them cow-pox. Surely his early inocu- 
lations are not to be regarded ; and does he not at this hour, 
in conjunction with a person whose dirty name shall not 
daub my paper, sanction the taking of virus from the pustule 
at any of its stages ? What are we to expect while such 
things as these are going forward? Inclosed is the letter 
you requested me to return ; it is impossible for me to go 
into particulars on such cases. I can onlv go into general 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 343 

reasoning. My experience justifies me in saying that which 
I have said fifty times before, " If the vaccine pustule goes 
through its stages correctly, the patient is secure from the 
small-pox ; if not, security cannot be answered for." There 
certainly is sometimes a nicety in discrimination, and it was 
this which in my early instructions occasioned me to 
say, " When a deviation arises in the character of the vac- 
cine pustule, of whatever kind it may be, common prudence 
points out the necessity of re-inoculation." Cases may 
possibly occur, "svhere even you or I may (from the inter- 
position of those events which medical men are always 
subject to) not have it in our power to cal^h opportunities of 
passing our judgment upon a pustule during those stages, 
whether it is or is not correctly defined. With respect to 
the doctrine of Mr. Moyle, I must candidly say, my experi- 
ments do not justify me in subscribing to them. Be of 
good cheer, my friend. Those who are so presumptuous as 
to expect perfection in man will be grievously disappointed. 
His works are and ever will be defective. Let people, if 
they choose it, spurn the great gift that heaven has bestowed, 
and turn again to variolation. What will they get by it? 
Let them consult pages 67 and 68 of your decisive work 
on this subject, and they will know. Let them peruse 
the following extract from a letter which I have within 
these few days received from a medical gentleman of great 
respectability in this county. " A poor family belonging to 
Sudeley parish, consisting of a man, his wife, and five chil- 
dren, were vaccinated four or five years ago, except the eldest 
daughter, who had been before inoculated for the small-pox 
by an eminent practitioner, and pronounced secure. This sum- 
mer she caught the small-pox when working among the rags 
at the paper mills, and had a very numerous and confluent 
eruption. The rest of the family had no fears, and have 
all escaped, though fully exposed to the infection.'' Now 
had this case been reversed, what a precious morsel it would 



344 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

have been for an anti-vaccinist. Adieu, my dear friend, and 
be assured of the unalterable regard of 

Yours, 

Edw. Jenner, 

P. S. I must not forget to tell you that I have sent your 
pamphlet to the National Institute of France. They had 
received Goldson's book, which I perceive was disseminated 
with uncommon industry. I was not a little hurt at Mr. 
Embling^s taking no notice of a letter I deemed of some 
importance, and which I wrote to him immediately on seeing 
his observations. One word more on herpes. Seeing how 
frequently the vaocine disease becomes entangled with it, 
my thoughts have latelv been pretty much bent upon it, and 
I now see that the herpetic fluid is one of those morbid 
poisons, wdiich the human body is capable of generating, and 
when generated, that it may be perpetuated by contact. 
Children who feed on trash at this season of the year are apt 
to get distended bellies, and on them it often appears about 
the lips. This is the most familiar example I know. A 
single vesicle is capable of deranging the action of the vac- 
cine pustule. Subdue it, and all goes on correctly. 

To R. Dunning, Esq. 

Cheltenham, Nov. 2nd, 1804. 
My dear Sir, 
Inclosed is Mr. Moyle's letter. Conceiving it might be a 
gratification to you to see how systematically they manage 
vaccine affairs in India, I have sent you a copy of a paper 
just transmitted to me from the India House. Would to 
Heaven we could boast of such arrangements here ! 

Yours truly. 



Don't forget Mr. Embling. 
With a view of extending the practice of vaccine inocula- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 345 

tion throughout the East India Company's territories in 
India, the Governor General in Council of Bengal has ap- 
pointed a superintendant general of vaccine inoculation at 
the presidency, and established subordinate superintendents 
at several of the interior stations of the country ; viz. at 
Dacca, Moorshedabad, Patna, Benares, Allahal)ad, Cawn- 
pore, and Farruckabad. These superintendents are the 
surgeons of the stations, and are to act under the orders 
of the superintendent general at the presidency in what- 
ever regards vaccine inoculation. The civil surgeons also 
at the several judicial and revenue stations are to co-ope- 
rate with these superintendents for the purpose of forwarding 
the general object. Vaccine inoculation has also been intro- 
duced with success into Prince of Wales Island, and it is 
intended to extend the practice to Malacca, and other places 
to the eastward, and a confident expectation is entertained 
that the benefits of this valuable discovery will be diffused 
throughout Asia. It is even in contemplation to extend it 
to China ; but as the suspicious disposition of the Chinese 
might possibly ascribe any attempt to introduce this novel 
practice to sinister motives, it has been postponed until the 
opinion of the Company's servants there can be obtained. 

Fort William, ISth Jan. 1804. 

Nov. 12 th. 

I shall expect very soon to hear from you. Pray give me 
your sentiments Avith as much freedom as I gave you mine 
in my last letter respecting vaccination, &c. &c. 

No frank to be had to-day; but I do not think you will 
regard the tax it imposes on you for the inclosed extracts 
from our provincial newspaper. They would not cut bad 
figures in that of Devon. The letter in the Times, in reply 
to Moseley, (copied into the Medical Journal under the sig- 
nature of a Looker-on) should be generally read, as it pre- 
pares the mind for the consequences of incorrect vaccination. 
Addington's letter in the Morning Chronicle of the 5th of 



34G LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

November is firm, manly, and decisive. Did it catch your 
eye ? From the partial evil of now and then an imperfect 
case, what an immense mass of good springs up. 

To Richard Dunning, Esq. Plymouth. 

Cheltenham, \5th Nov. 1804. 
My dear Sir, 

The old occurrence of our letters crossing on the road has, 
I see, again taken place. If my writing frequently to you will 
afford you the least gratification, I shall not be slack in my 
correspondence. 

There is no one more entitled to my attention, and among 
all the vaccinists who have enlisted under my banner, there 
is no one who has a greater claim to my regard. There was 
no expression in my letter, I hope, which would bear the 
construction you seem to put upon it. You were rallied a 
little on your timidity respecting the uffbj cases in town and 
country — on your glancing at a better regulation for the 
management of the small-pox, if we are obliged to turn to 
it again — on your fear of reviews — and of a little shrinking, 
even, from the man whom you are opposing; but all was done 
in perfectly good humour, and now you will allow me tri- 
umphantly to exclaim, " Richard 's himself again ?' 

Dr. Borlase is an old acquaintance of mine. I have too 
good an opinion of him to suppose for a moment he could 
invent such an idle tale as that which has been told you by 
Mr. Moyle. The whole is an abominable fabrication. In- 
deed such an assertion from me would have flown in the face 
of those facts which my experience on this subject has ren- 
dered decisive. 

Is it possible Goldson can appear again in print on the 
vaccine subject? Your communication is the first that has 
been made to me respecting it. He had better be silent 
unless he addresses the public in the humble, yet honoura- 
ble, strains of recantation ; for with all the supposed im- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 34/ 

perfections on the head of Vaccina, there are ten times as 
many on Variola. 

Pray indulge me with a line or two very speedily, to put 
an end to a little perplexity. You tell me that you know 
small-pox will sometimes follow cow-pox, and nevertheless 
assert that a case of this sort, which has happened under your 
immediate observation, places vaccination on higher ground 
than it has yet stood on. 

Do pray explain, as soon as you can, your meaning. 

Yours, dear Sir, 

very truly, 

E. Jenner. 

In the Morning Chronicle of Monday, the 12th instant, 
is another letter of Addington's. 

I am pleased at seeing the friends of the vaccine cause 
shewing themselves in the newspapers. These meet every 
eye, while the Journal meets that of medical men only, and 
has proved the tomb of many an impressive paper. 

To R. Dunning, Esq. 

Berkeley, Feb. lOlh, 1805. 
My dear Friend, 
Your little pamphlet contains many great and useful ob- 
servations. 1 will now refer you to a few notes I made in 
perusing it. The book itself should have been printed in 
the more general shajDC and form of pamphlets. Page 16^ 
concluding sentence of the first paragraph, pithy, and con- 
taining a complete reply to the anti-vaccinists, who may urge 
objections from a few solitary cases of small-pox after cow- 
pox, or who might bring them forward if they were ten times 
as numerous. 100,000 cases of vaccination, by far too 
few to calculate upon. Half that number I can reckon from 
extra professional inoculations, 20,000 of which are from my 
fair disciples ; and, to their credit be it spoken, I have not 
heard of one sinister event among this class of inoculations. 



348 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

And why? They imphcitly obey vaccine laws. Page 12, 
good reasomng on the subject of population. I have often 
urged the following argument when too numerous a popula- 
tion has been thrown in my teeth, as one of the ill effects 
likely to attend vaccination. Who M^ould have thought, a 
century ago, that Providence had in store for us that nutri- 
tious and excellent vegetable the potatoe — that ready- 
made loaf, as it were, and which is prepared in higher per- 
fection in the garden of the cottager than in the highly 
manured soil of the man of opulence ? It is but reasonable 
to suppose that the same Omniscient Being that showered 
down this blessing on our heads, has similar stores in 
reserve, of which we of course can form no kind of conjec- 
ture. One thing we do know, that the science of agriculture 
is as yet only in its bud. 

Your manner of speaking of Goldson increases his arro- 
gance. He obstinately holds the veil before his eyes, and 
will not behold the vaccine light. I am al^out to make a 
stronger pull at this veil than has been done yet. I have 
sent him an invitation to visit me at Berkeley, or to appoint 
a deputation from the Medical Society at Portsmouth ; I 
have gone further (perhaps too far), I have almost pledged 
my word that his conversion will be the consequence of the 
interviev/. The fact is, he is totally ignorant of that wise 
discriminating power, without which no man can be a perfect 
vaccinist : and it is my wish to impart it to him. One 
might as well contend with a blind man on the nature of the 
prism, as with a person in this situation, and entertain a 
hope of being successful; but to proceed. — In another edi- 
tion, pray take in Kite's cases of small-pox after small-pox 
inoculation. They are the more forcible as they were published 
antecedent to the vaccine practice. Page 38. Are you sure 
the pustule was variolated? Page 41. I do not see the ne- 
cessity for your parenthesis. Perhaps my feehngs are too 
acute, but I do not like to see my darling child whipped even 
with a feather. In your postscript, why not ask for cases of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 349 

small-pox after small-pox inoculation, as well as cases of 
small-pox after vaccination ? 

Have you seen Moseley's infamous pamphlet ? You ask 
for fatal cases of the vaccine. This gentleman, in one single 
paragraph, furnishes you with some of the most terrible 
deaths that ever were heard of from this cause. One would 
suppose he was speaking of the small-pox, as he tells us the 
children did not lose their torments even in the article of 
death ! Luckily, he takes aAvay every thing like truth that 
can attach to this history by omitting every kind of reference. 
What punishment does a man of this description merit ? 
Accept my best thanks for your letters. I am happy in seeing 
the unanimity that prevailed at the festive board. I have 
read King's observations in the Journal, but in the most 
cursory way only : the book was then taken away from me, 
and I cannot now refer to it, — are you certain you clearly 
understand him ? In the cicatrix of those children on whose 
arms, through the intervention of herpes, the pustule has 
proceeded irregularly, I find in general a singular deviation, 
which it will be difficult to describe by words, and I draw 
most wretchedly. Instead of the flat, correct indentation, 
the cicatrix exhibits a perceptible elevation of a conical 
shape, though very slightly so. I have a fine specimen, in a 
child lately inoculated, with recent tinea capitis, and shall 
endeavour to take a cast in wax or Paris plaster. Indeed a 
series of pustules might be done in this way, and afterwards 
coloured. Is it possible any one can be so absurd as to 
argue on the impossibility of small-pox after the vaccine ? I 
trust my friend King is not one of them. I hope to spend 
a month in town this spring, which time I shall devote en- 
tirely to the service of Vaccina. May, I believe, will be my 
month. I shall order a score of your pamphlets from Mur- 
ray's. — You make me smile at the mention of " Berkeley 
booksellers." I hope one day or another, you will come and 
see our village. It has the name of a town, but in size it is 
a mere village. I shall send your duodecimo to my friend 



350 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Trye, who, I am sure, will peruse it with pleasure. Trye 
is not only an eminent surgeon, but a very excellent man. 
, Yours, dear Sir, 

With great regard, 
Edw. Jenxer. 

P. S. I hope you will soon get a pamphlet sent from 
Bengal, and republished here — *' Report on the progress of 
Vaccine Inoculation in Bengal, by John Shoolbred." Have 
you seen by the papers what an ally the anti-vaccinists have 
won over to their interest? Dr. Brodum has at length 
joined the forces of the enemy. 



To THE Rev. John Clinch, Trinity, Newfoundland. 

Berkeley, August IGth, 1S05. 
My dear Friend, 

G. T. has just informed me that he has lately received a 
letter from you, and that had it not been for a "fierce ca- 
tarrh" that harassed you for two months in spring, every 
thing would have gone on well with you. If this malady 
should dare to molest you next year, retreat, seek the milder 
shores of Old England, and leave the land of snows and ice 
to the bears, for whom nature made it. Full four months 
ago, I began a letter to you ; but intending to make it a long 
one, after writing two pages I mislaid it, and never have been 
again able to recover it. 

I went to London in May, and stayed till August the 3rd. 
I am now packing up, (oh ! how I wish I had you at my elbow, 
you are such an excellent hand at the arrangement of a box,) 
and setting off with my family tomorrow for Cheltenham, to 
stay three or four months, then again to London. Never 
aim, my friend, at being a pu1)lic character, if you love 
domestic peace. But I will not repine. — Nay I do not re- 
pine, but cheerfully submit, as I look upon myself as the in- 
strument in the hands of that power which never errs, of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 351 

doing incalculable good to my fellow creatures. You would 
do me an essential kindness in acquainting me with the state 
of vaccination in your island, as I shall appear ^gain before 
the House of Commons next session, and I am collecting all 
the information I can from foreign parts. Write to me not 
as if your letter was to be shewn to the House of Commons, 
and detail the real state of facts relative to the benefits 
derived from the new practice. Remember me kindly to 
Mrs. Clinch, and my old friend Edward, who I ardently hope 
is becoming useful to you ; and believe me, dear Clinch, ever 
truly, and sincerely yours, 

Edw. Jenner. 

P. S. George will write to you more fully. 

Many thanks for your kind attention in sending me such 
beauteous stores of fish and berries. 

Do you recollect any cases of persons catching the small- 
pox after the small-pox, either after casual contagion, or in- 
oculation ? I have collected a great number of such cases, Imt 
want more. 

R. Dunning, Esq. 

My dear Sir, 
It is a long time since you have written to me. Why did 
you drop your correspondence ? You positively must write, 
if it is but a scrap as short as this, just to answer my ques- 
tion ; for really I have not the most distant guess to give at 
your long silence. If I calculate right, it is now near six 
months since I received a letter from you. 

Believe me, yours very faithfully, 

E. Jenner. 
Cheltenham, February 21s/, 1806. 

P. S. I hope you and Mrs. Dunning and your family have 
escaped the long prevaiUng epidemic. It has fallen heavily 
on this house, and particularly on myself. Here the in- 



352 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

fluenza assumes a character that I may call typho-catarrhal. 
It has confined me for near three weeks. What havoc the 
anti-vaccinigts have made in town by the re-introduction of 
variolous inoculation ! It is computed that, since April last, 
not less than 6,000 persons in the metropolis, and the vil- 
lages immediately in contact, have fallen victims to the small- 
pox. One would scarcely conceive it possible ; but these 
murders are, for the most part, to be attributed to the ab- 
surd productions of Moseley, Rowley, and that pert little 
Squirrel, to say nothing of Goldson. It is about London 
that the venom of these deadly serpents chiefly flows. So 
little have the people around me (though only 100 miles 
from it) felt it, that, since August last, I have vaccinated 
within a few of 1,500 ; and I certainly must deem it a piece 
of extreme good fortune that, out of the many thousands I 
have vaccinated, no failure or accident of any sort has arisen 
to my knowledge. Did you see a paper in the last journal 
from a Dr. Wood ? I think it capable of doing great mischief, 
as it will tend to make practitioners careless about a point 
of great consequence, namely, an herpetic state of the skin 
coincident with vaccination, which you, as well as myself, 
have not only observed, but publicly and very properly 
noticed. My communications from various parts of the 
world are very cheering — 800,000 cases from India. Adieu ! 
I beg to present my best regards to my medical friends of 
the Vaccine Society, among whom I have now the pleasure 
of claiming several acquaintances. 

To R. Dunning, Esq. 

My dear Sir, 
W^hat a j^ropensity there is in all human beings to follow 
examples. You now behold in me a sad illustration of the 
fact ; for I feel myself possessed of the same spirit of procras- 
tination, with respect to answering letters, which has lately 
seized on you. 



LIFE OF DR. JEN'NEU. 353 

But I am tlie more reprehensible, as the inclosed paper 
ought not to have been so long detained. I can only say, 
by way of apology, now, that I meditated some other mode 
of conveyance, and that it goes from me Avith my hearty 
good wishes. 

The above was written befoi'e your letter of the l/th ar- 
rived, which has at length found me at my cottage at old 
Berkeley. 

A pretty sharp philippic, my good friend ! but in such 
veneration do I hold the man of feeling, that if it had been 
ten times as sharp, I should have read it ; though not with- 
out emotion, yet certainly without a murmur. Allow me 
just to make one observation. Should anything like the 
present occurrence ever happen again, let me entreat you 
not to indulge for a moment a fanciful speculation against 
y owe friend. As such I hope ever to be, and so to be con- 
sidered by you. 

I was happy to find you had been corresponding with Mr. 
J. Moore. He is an excellent man, and has produced an 
excellent book. I presume you know that J. Moore is 
brother to the general. 

The impertinent interference of herpes with our vaccine 
pustule, I thought of so much consequence to be generally 
known, as to induce me to reprint my paper on that subject 
for distribution. With this you will receive two copies ; 
one of which, I must beg your acceptance of; and the other 
you will have the kindness to present to the Dock Jennerian 
Society, with my grateful respects to the members. You 
will do much public good by enforcing attention to the pro- 
gress of the vaccine pustule. If it be torn to pieces, either 
by the nails or the lancet, before the business for which it 
was placed upon the arm be accomplished, it is unreasonable 
to suppose that perfect security can follow. But to what 
purpose shall you or I address the public on these subjects, 
while such unprincipled characters as Moseley, and those 
who enlist under his banner, still continue to instil, or rather 

VOL. II. 2 A 



354 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

to push by violence, into the minds of the British nation 
their horrid doctrines ? Have you seen Moseley's last 
pamphlet, the one just published ? It is far more violent 
than any of the preceding. In this he has brought forward 
a string of cases, to point out my failures in vacci- 
nation — cases of small -pox after the cow-pox. But mark 
his audacity. They are of children I never saw in my 
life, and whose names I never heard of till they were 
placed before me in this murderous publication. Mr. H. 
Jenner. whose name he brings forward with a list of failures 
annexed, assures me that the whole is a most impudent 
forgery. What can be done with such a man as this ? A 
general manifesto, with the signatures of men of eminence 
in the profession (and I really think we should now embrace 
nearly, if not quite, the whole), in favour of vaccination, 
would, if anything could, crush the hissing heads of such 
serpents at once ; and I fear nothing short of it, unless par- 
liament had a mind again to take the matter up. 

I hope to be in London the first week in May, and shall 
attempt something ; but, in the mean time, pray write to 
me, or I shall suppose my little packet has not reached you, 
or that your tremulous nerves do not yet vibrate in harmony 
with mine. 

Long may you live to enjoy the sight, and your patients 
the benefit of your imperative R ! 

With every kind wish to Mrs. Duiming and your family, 
I remain, yours truly, Edward Jenner. 

Berkeley, 22nd April, 1806. 

To R. Dunning, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 
For my credit sake, I hope you are not perfectly accurate 
in your calculation respecting the number of letters you have 
sent me without receiving answers. Forgive me if you are 
right ; but really I believed myself sticking at the old num- 
ber — one. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 355 

Tlie perplexities I had to encounter, during my residence 
in London, last spring and summer, were of such a nature 
as cannot be described to you. My chief embarrassments 
arose from the vile machinations of that fellow, T. W. 

Be assured I feel myself honoured by the request you 
and Mrs. Dunning make to me. Were I at joerfect liberty, I 
would not ask for a proxy, but appear myself at your bap- 
tismal font, to take on myself the responsibility for young 
Edward's becoming a good Christian. Give him a kiss for 
me ; and, at the same time, whisper in his ear that he has his 
godfather's best wishes for a prosperous journey through 
life. 

By an intimation that has reached me from town, I find it 
is the wish of the College to be in possession of the reports 
of the faculty on the subject of vaccination as soon as possi- 
ble. I mention this, that you and my friends about you may 
bestir themselves. I anticipate something energetic. Don't 
forget to attend to the last part of the inquiry of the College, 
namely, the cause which impedes the progress of vaccination 
in these realms. 

For my own part, I do not scruple to attribute it chiefly 
to the industrious dissemination of the pamphlets of Moseley, 
Rowley, and the rest of the anti-vaccinists, which are cal- 
culated to excite horror and disgust at the very name of our 
admirable preservative. 

As I am now addressing the secretary to the Dock 
Jennerian Society, perhaps he won't be offended at my 
asking for a copy of the Report about to go to the College. 
I have reason to suppose, from what has been already sent 
in, there is but one opinion there ; and that that opinion is 
exactly what I could wish. I am sorry to put you to the 
expense of double postage, by sending you the inclosed 
Gazette, but I cannot procure a frank ; and to withhold it 
from you would be almost criminal. 

What a delightful narrative is here ! what lover of vacci- 
nation can feel himself at war with his Catholic Majesty 

2 A 2 



356 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

after its perusal ! I must tell you that, from several coun- 
tries where Balmis and his philanthropic companions touched, 
I have had most satisfactory accounts of the result. From 
Manilla and the Philippine Islands they send me an account 
of 230,000 successful cases. From Canton I have a most 
curious production ; a pamphlet on vaccination in the Chinese 
language. Little did I think, my friend, when our cor- 
respondence first began, that Heaven had in store for me 
such abundant happiness. May I be grateful ! 

Present my best compliments to Mrs. Dunning and the 
family, and believe me, with best wishes. 

Yours truly, 

E. Jenner. 

Cheltenham, December lOth, 1806. 

To R. Dunning, Esq. 

15, Bedford Place, Russell Square, 

March 14, 1807. 
My dear Sir, 

I have not yet heard whether your institution at Dock 
has made a report to the College of Physicians ; I therefore 
begin to be impatient to hear from you, as the Committee 
will sit but a very little time longer. 

Nothing transpires that is going forward within the 
College; however, the report to parliament must be lumi- 
nous, and give fresh triumphs to my cause, and new laurels 
to those who like you have so ardently and so successfully 
engaged in it. I shall be necessitated to stay here for 
several months. When the days grow longer, and travelling 
pleasanter, perhaps you may take a flight to town. I will 
not despair of seeing you. You will be pleased to hear that 
the dingy Hindoo ladies are convincing me of their grateful 
remembrance, not merely by words, but by a tangible ofier- 
ing, while my fair Christian countrywomen pass me un- 
heeded by. 

If you should hear it reported that Sir George Dallas's 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 357 

children, who were years ago vaccinated, have had the small- 
pox after variolation by Mr. Goss, put no faith in it. I have 
seen Mr. Goss's letter to Sir George, which sets the whole 
matter at rest. It has made no small buzz here. They are 
cases which lead to corroborate the millions that precede 
them of the efficacy of vaccination in securing the constitu- 
tion from the contagious effluvia of small-pox. But no pro- 
cess can always secure it from the effects of variolous poison 
when inserted into the skin. 

Believe me, yours truly, 

E. Jenner. 

Richard Dunning, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 

I have a thousand things to say to you on the vaccine 
subject, and all very pleasant ; but if I stay now to run into 
detail, the post will set off without my letter. However, it 
shall not go without a scrap or tM^o respecting the Report of 
the College. This, I have every reason to suppose, contains 
everything that I or even my warm-hearted friends at Ply- 
mouth could wish for. Indeed, from what I have collected 
from some of my learned brethren, it far exceeds my strong- 
est expectations ; for who could have conceived that, in so 
large a body, an opinion would have been unanimously 
given on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine practice ? 
But so I find it is. Among the immense mass of letters re- 
ceived by the College, several cases of small-pox after cow- 
pox, of course, were given. But, on casting up the num- 
bers, lo ! it appears that the cases of failure were not so 
numerous as the deaths (according to computation) would 
have been, had the patients been vaccinated and placed in 
good hands. I should tell you that several of the Fellows 
began the investigation with no favourable impressions on 
the subject; but, as I have before mentioned, unanimity 
prevailed at the winding up of the business. 

I have just received a note from the president, Sir Lucas 



358 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Pepys, requesting me to vaccinate his little grandson. Two 

years ago the worthy president would as soon have had the 

boy's skin touched with the fang of a viper as the vaccine 

lancet. But this inter nos. 

I have some charming communications to make to you 

respecting tangible compliments I receive from Hindostan. 

This must be reserved until my next letter. Have the 

goodness kindly to remember me to my friends at Plymouth. 

They certainly honour me too much, but I shall ever hold 

them in grateful remembrance, and no man on earth more 

than yourself. 

Believe me ever truly and sincerely yours, 

E. Jexner. 

London, I6th May, 1807, Saturday evening. 

R. Dunning, Esq. 

Berkeley, May 7, 1808. 

There is not, my dear friend, within the circle of your 
acquaintance an individual who felt more poignantly for you 
and Mrs. Dunning, on account of your domestic affliction, 
than he whose name your little innocent bore. 

Knowing as I do that the mind suffering under that kind 
of distress which you have so severely experienced can derive 
no comfort from condolence offered by any human being but 
by meditation, and that kind of intercourse with the Almighty, 
which is granted to all when sorrows overwhelm us, I had 
not the power to write to you. Do not, therefore, I pray 
you, attribute my silence to a want of feeling, but to its 
true cause, an excess of it. You had, and you still have, my 
sincere commiseration. 

I was in town some few weeks ago, and had a conference 
with one of the ministers on the subject of vaccination, when 
I was assured that it was the intention of government to 
take it under its immediate consideration as soon as the 
more weighty concerns of the nation had gone through the 
House of Commons. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 359 

On this account I shall go again to town very shortly to 
assist in the arrangements, but of what kind they will be, I 
cannot at present inform you, but trust they will be of such 
a nature as to facilitate the progress of the practice. In my 
opinion a proclamation from the King, founded on the Report 
of the College of Physicians, universally dispensed, and 
recommended to the attention of the magistrates, the clergy, 
&c. would produce a striking effect. This would be greatly 
aided by allowing some pecuniary acknowledgment to those 
who vaccinated the poor. I have just received the annual 
report from Dr. M<^Kenzie, superintendent-general of vac- 
cination at Madras. Wonderful to relate, the numbers 
vaccinated at that presidency only in the course of the last 
year, amount to 243,175. From Bombay I learn the small- 
pox is there completely subdued, not a single case having 
occurred for the last two years. All my foreign reports cor- 
respond with these ; but still Moseley, Birch, Pearson, and 
a few others, are using every mean and despicable artifice to 
keep up the prejudices of the people at home. 

With every good wish, beheve me, my dear friend, most 
sincerely yours, 

E. Jenner. 



To Thomas Paythebus, Esq. 

Berkeley, May 12, 1808. 
Dear Paytherus, 

I hope the people won't grumble at my conduct ; but if 
they have anything to say against it, that they will speak 
out, then I shall know how to defend myself. I was called 
up in a mighty hurry in the winter, and when I came, no 
one seemed to know why or wherefore they had put me to 
this extreme inconveniency. 

It was then agreed upon that there should be as full an 
assembly on the l7th as could be collected. I canvassed 
my friends, and indeed went so far as to prevail on some to 



3G0 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

accept tlie office of steward, but, lo ! the three days appointed 
after my departure for the meeting of a board, when this 
matter was to be adjusted, were attended only by the secre- 
tary and his inkstands. Once or twice I believe there was 
the solitary exception of my friend John Ring. This was no 
wound to my feelings, considering myself abstractedly ; but 
yet I think the measure injudicious, as it will give the ene- 
mies of vaccination a temporary triumpli. I now hold my- 
self at the beck of Mr. Rose. This he knows, by a letter 1 
have lately written to him. From the business which, I 
perceive, by the paper of this evening, parliament have imme- 
diately before them, I don't think the vaccine business can 
yet be brought forward. With regard to my agency in the 
matter, I don't think it is worth a rush. Vaccination will go 
on just as well when I am dead as it does during my exist- 
ence, probably better, for one obstacle will die with me — Envy. 

You tell me I am accused of inactivity and indiflerence now, 
when I have received the parliamentary grant. Such lan- 
guage is unwarrantable, because it is unjust. I despise such 
scoffing ; it is condemnation without a trial, and I shall hold 
all who thus reproach me in the most perfect contempt. If 
I could o])tain a little peace and quietness, my pockets should 
readily restore every shilling they have gained by the cow- 
pox discovery. That such a thing has been discovered, I, 
in common with the rest of mankind, have reason to rejoice ; 
but this I also declare, that I wish it had been the lot of 
some other person to have been the discoverer; and in this 
wish I am sure my family have reason to join me very 
heartily ; for they, as well as myself, are strangers, through it, 
to those domestic comforts which we should otherwise enjoy. 
So far from being inactive and indifferent, as accusers in- 
sinuate, that portion of my time which is not occupied by 
my ordinary professional pursuits, is entirely devoted to it. 

To say nothing of other matters connected Avith vaccina- 
tion, think for a moment what incessant labours my corres- 
pondence imposes upon me, labours which admit of no alle- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 361 

viation, as it must be done by my own hand only. Believe 
me, yours truly, 

E. Jenner. 
P. S. During my last visit to town, I called twice on Dr. 
Saunders; be was not at home ; and once I wrote to the 
doctor on an interesting subject, but received not a line in 
reply. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 

I cannot possibly get the paper ready by to-morrow's post. 
Saturday is no post-day here ; Sunday it shall be sent, if 
circumstances will in the meanwhile admit of my bestowing 
that time upon it which is absolutely necessary. I recom- 
mend extreme deliberation and circumspection in complet- 
ing this important document. As for yourself, my dear 
friend, it cannot be expected that you can at present coolly 
exercise your correct judgment on any thing of the kind*. 

The instructions sent out by the Royal Jennerian Society 
were framed by Addington, Ring, and myself, after some 
weeks' labour. Their basis was my original paper. It will 
be no disparagement to the Government Institution to avail 
itself of any thing useful that can be found in the wreck of 
the Jennerian Society ; and I am inclined to think our paper 
a clearer and better thing than the manuscript you have sent 
me. I shall return it, with some alterations. 

Though not as a matter of duty at present, yet be as- 
sured I shall be always ready, as an act of courtesy, to do 
any thing in my power to promote the ends for which the 
Government Institution was established. 

Believe me, most truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

Berkeley, Feb. 9th, 1809. 

* This was written soon after the fall of Mr. Moore's bro- 
ther, the gallant and ever to be lamented general, in the battle 
of Corunna. 



362 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Dear Moore, 
Depend upon it there are many such cases as those which 
have occurred in Mr. Wingfield's family in reserve for us. 
Vaccination at its commencement fell into the hands of many 
who knew little more about it than its mere outline. One 
grand error, which was almost universal at that time, was 
making one puncture only, and consequently one vesicle ; 
and from this (the only source of security to the constitution) 
as much fluid was taken day after day as it would aftbrd : 
nevertheless, it was unreasonably expected that no mischief 
could ensue. I have taken a world of pains to correct this 
abuse ; but still, to my knowledge, it is going on, and par- 
ticularly among the faculty in town. Mr. Knight's cases 
were first made known to me by Lady Charlotte Wrottesley. 
This lady was one of my early pupils, and is an adept at 
vaccination, as thousands of her poor neighbours in Staf- 
fordshire can testify. She saw at once the true state of the 
children in question. I do not presume to say, that these 
children are examples of any improper practice ; they might 
have been affected with herpetic eruptions at the time of vac- 
cination, which are so apt, without due attention, to occa- 
sion a deviation from the perfect character of the vaccine 
vesicle. I think it must be the paper on this subject you 
allude to as wishing to see. I have, therefore, sent it to you; 
and a copy of that paper you saw in manuscript, on secon- 
dary variolous contagion. If you should want any more of 
the latter, you may draw upon Gosnell the printer for them. 
By the way, it might be right to send one to the National 
Vaccine Establishment ; determine this point yourself. Wil- 
lan, in his Treatise on Vaccination, has spoken much to the 
purpose respecting small-pox after cox-pox; you cannot 
quote a better author. His word will go further than 
mine, as he must be supposed to be less interested. I do 
not think enough has yet been said of the small-pox after 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER 363 

supposed security from small-pox inoculation. Blair told 
me, when I left town, he was collecting these cases with a 
view to publication. Thousands might be collected ; for 
every parish in the kingdom can give its case. I fear your 
materials for the year are more scanty than could be wished 
for your Report ; but they are in good hands to make the 
most of. Addington will not be an improper addition to 
your establishment. He has talents ; and will be always 
ready to assist you with his pen and ink when you are 
hurried. 

I am sorry to tell you our affliction still continues here. 
Poor dear Edward still exists, but I shall soon be doomed 
to hear his last sad adieu ! 

Farewell, my dear friend. 

Yours most faithfully, 
Edward Jenner. 

In Willan's book you will find a letter of mine, part of 
which may be interesting. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Dear Moore, 
You are a good hand at a banter. The last five letters 
I have sent you, I do not think you have read ; I have a 
right to suppose so, because you have not answered one of 
them. Perhaps I may have received an equal number since, 
but scarcely any thing I have said is noticed. All my great 
and grand arguments are thrown away upon you ; but you 
tell of things that I have not said, " come to town if you 
advise it." You cannot find this in any letter I have writ- 
ten, since necessity compelled me to put oflf my autumnal 
journey. Let me tell you this said coming town is a very 
serious matter. I have a large family to look after ; and an 
invalid wife, that is not a moveable commodity, and requires 
my attention. I have a vast variety of weighty concerns to 
look to at home. What home is, and what those concerns 
are, you can have no conception of. You consider me as a 



364 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

poor soldier on a furlough, and who must join his regiment 
at the beck of his officer. What does vaccination require of 
me now ? If a new continent was vomited up in the midst 
of the great Pacific, and if it were peopled but with mer- 
maids, I would then lend a hand for an arrangement to save 
them from the small-pox. If I am wanted, tell me what I 
am wanted for, and when. 

I explained in conversation, as I said before, all that 
passed respecting my first paper on the cox-pox intended for 
the Royal Society. It was not with Sir Joseph, but with 
Home ; he took the paper. It was shewn to the Council, 
and returned to me. This, I think, was in the year 1797? 
after the vaccination of one patient only ; but even this was 
strong evidence, as it followed that of the numbers I had put 
to the test of the small-pox after casual vaccination. I 
should have sent you a copy of the petition to parliament 
before now, if I could have found it. If it was ever printed, 
it has escaped my recollection. I took care not to print it 
myself, as I was ashamed of it. 

The newspapers announce a circular address on vaccina- 
tion from the Secretary of State. If it goes to the magi- 
strates, I shall have one of course ; if not, pray send me one. 
Another is also spoken of as coming from the President. 
Did you see what the French minister says on the subject in 
his annual expose ? 

To James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Friend, Berkeley, Feb. 26th, 1810. 

I do not yet feel myself in that state of composure which 
will allow me to sit down, begin, and finish a letter to you ; 
so I have thought it best to take a long sheet of paper, and 
fill it by little and little. By this stratagem you will hear 
from me in a reasonable space of time, and I shall not have 
to reproach myself for neglect. 

I am much gratified at the thought of your having had an 
interview with my friend Hicks. He happened to be with me 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 365 

when your letter arrived ; and I can assure you, that you 
are not more pleased with him than he is with you. Where 
there is a congeniality, there is often a friendship formed at 
first sight ; and men unhosom themselves as freely as if 
their intimacy had been of long standing. 

I have made a great blunder, it seems, in my reply to your 
inquiry respecting my opinion of what you call papulary* 
eruptions after cow-pox. I really thought you alluded to 
that appearance which I mentioned ; but finding myself set 
right, I have no hesitation in saying, that what Willan has 
said on this subject is correctf. My friend Dr. Parry, of 
Bath, has made some interesting observations on these mo- 
difications or varieties of variola ; and I am sure he would 
readily furnish you with them on an application for that pur- 
pose. Creaser, of Bath, could also give you some good facts, 
with observations on the same subject. By the way, 

have you his pamphlet respecting P 's bad conduct? 

You should have it. I have myself seen but one solitary 
case of this secondary small-pox, and that was in a child of 
Mr. Gosling's, vaccinated by a Mr. Armstrong, This went 
through its course in the usual rapid Way. 

You spoke of a print for your intended work. There are 
several about the town. The best, I think, is from a paint- 
ing of Northcote's, done some years since for the Medical 
Society at Plymouth. I believe this is rather scarce; but 
you are acquainted with Northcote, and I dare say he has 
one in his possession. When I was last in town, my friends 
urged me to sit to Lawrence Xy and I complied. If you 
approved of it, and he had no objection, that might suit you. 

* Or was it secondary that you called them ? I cannot at 
this moment refer to your letter. 

t The College, in their Report, have expressed themselves 
very well on this subject. 

t From this portrait the print which adoros this work has 
been taken. 



366 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

He talked of getting a print from the painting for himself. 
It will never do for me to go to the pencil now ; for if my 
countenance represents my mind, it must be beyond any 
thing dismal. 

I cannot refer to your pamphlet, as it is among my books 
at Cheltenham. If you have one to spare, pray send it to 
Harwood's, the bookseller, in Russel Street, who will soon 
send me some books from town. 

Do you not intend mentioning cases of small-pox after 
supposed security from small-pox inoculation ? Such cases 
are innumerable. I think there are thirteen on record amonar 
the families of the nobility. Blair, I believe, has collected 
the greatest number of them. You know my old opinion 
on the matter ; that they occur, for the most part, through 
the interference of herpetic affections at the time of inocula- 
tion. One decisive proof you will find in Willan's vaccine 
book, given by me. From facts I go to hypothesis ; and 
conceive that the appearance of the small-pox twice on the 
same individual arises from the same cause. On this sub- 
ject I could write a long chapter ; but as it would necessa- 
rily be theoretical, you would not thank me for it. I must just 
touch upon it. We see that variolous matter may be gene- 
rated by inoculation on the arms of one person in that degree 
of perfection, as to communicate the small-pox by transferring 
it to those of another ; yet the person, whose constitution 
shall in the first instance have been exposed to it, shall re- 
main unprotected from future infection, although the system 
has been deranged during its presence on the skin. Where, 
then, is the difference, whether the morbid poison was con- 
fined, or limited to a point or two, or spread universally in 
the form of pustules ? If the change required to give secu- 
rity could not take place in this one instance, why should it 
in another, under the same existing circumstances ? The 
peculiarity of the action [I do not like to call it morbid, be- 
cause it is generally salutary], is often too strong to be over- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 367 

come, yet I am ready to conclude that this is not a frequent 
occurrence. 

The more I reason upon it, the more I am convinced that 
the idea I broached in my first pubHcation on the cow-pox, 
namely, that poisonous animal fluids are not absorbed and 
carried into the blood vessels, is correct. 

I shall not send you any more Reports, till you tell me 
whether those already sent are of any use to you. Have 
you seen that lately published at Nottingham ? It is the 
more valuable, because the Vaccine Institution there ac- 
knowledged a single failure, and this a positive one, among 
their vast number of cases. The Report from Ceylon I 
have before spoken of, but do not know whether you have 
seen it. You may get a copy at the Transport Office *. Per- 
haps, too, of your neighbour, Sir Walter, as it comes from 
his friend Christie. It should be made public. Mons. Cor- 
visart, the favourite Physician of the French Emperor, has 
been good enough to present a petition from me in favour 
of two British captives, to which the monarch lent a gra- 
cious ear. In return, M. Corvisart requests me to use my 
endeavours to obtain the release of a young sea officer of the 
name of Rigodit (ensigne de vaisseau). He mentions him 
as residing at Wincanton in Somersetshire ; but on inquir- 
ing of the Commissary there, I find there is no such person 
among the French prisoners at that place. Can you assist 
me in this business ? It would be in vain to make an appli- 
cation to government without first finding him out; and 
when this is effected, I am somewhat at a loss to know 
where to make my application. I could have easy access to 
one of the roval dukes, if this would do. 

John Gale Jones, I see, has at length succeeded in obtain- 
ing the situation for which he has long been a candidate. 
This fellow had once the impudence to desire a man to call 

* T obtained it from thence under a promise of returning it. 



368 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

on me in Bedford Place to say, that he, Jones, would ad- 
vise me immediately to quit London, for there was no know- 
ing what an enraged populace might do. He was the writer 
of Squirrel's book, the long anti-vaccine columns in the In- 
dependent Whig, and many of the most violent papers in 
the Medical Observer. I was held up in his Forum for seve- 
ral nights as an object of derision ; but I silenced him by 
the same weapon as I have many others — contempt. 

I send out a great deal of vaccine lymph on ivory points ; 
but mv stock is exhausted, and I am now reduced to bits of 
quills. Can you procure a supp'y for me ; and a few papers 
of your instructions ? Remember all parcels must come by 
the Gloucester mail coach. The combmakers who pre- 
pare the ivory points are apt to make them too small and 
narrow towards the extremities, unless instructed otherwise. 

That Proteus Adams seems a2;ain to have become a vac- 
cinist. The last number of the Medical and Physical Jour- 
nal speaks aloud in its praises. The Report from Madeira 
is excellent, and I would wish you to refer to it. 

I think you must now be tired of my long dull letter, so 
God bless you ! I feel as if I never should be in spirits again. 
I cannot help but look back, and say to myself, if I had 
done so and so, I should not now have been enveloped in 
this dismal black cloud ; but all this is very wrong ; how- 
ever, it is right that you should know every thing about me. 
Know, then, that I have been through life, almost from the 
earliest period of my recollection, haunted by melancholy ; 
but yet, at times, my spirits have mounted to the highest pitch 
of vivacity. Whether they will ever rise again I know not. 
Adieu, my dear friend. 

Our best wishes attend you all, 

Berkeley, Feb. 2Stk, 1810. Edward Jenner. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 369 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Berkeley, 2\st April, 1810. 
My dear Friend, 

I must get to my old plan of the long sheet and filling it 
up leisurely, or I know not when you may hear from me. 

I must now thank you for your kindness in endeavouring 
to search out Monsieur Rigodit. There is something myste- 
rious in this affair, as his friends in France still suppose him 
to be in England. 

You must not rally me too hard about my theories unless 
you find them as wild and absurd as those of the persons 
you name. What I mentioned to you surely rested on 
something. They did not stand on a baseless foundation, but 
I placed them on analogy. If there were no theorists in the 
world, how slow would be the advance of science. Syden- 
ham and Boerhaave were so impressed with their theories 
that they gave them to the world as facts. Not so your 
friend at Berkeley. I don't think you will ever catch me 
promulgating any theoretic notion which can positively be 
set aside by a fact. Such is the nature of the animal 
economy, that there are a thousand processes going forward 
which never can be stared full in the face ; but there is no 
harm in a plausible guess. 

What is your Establishment about? I fear little or 
nothing ; but you will soon hear that a spirit of activity has 
shown itself in this county, which will do more to serve the 
cause of vaccination than any thing which has yet started up. 
Its advantages will be so self-evident, that it will soon run 
the kingdom over. You shall know the full particulars as 
soon as they come out. The great feature of the scheme is 
this, to place every man in a questionable point of view 
who presumes to inoculate for the small-pox, with such a 
mass of evidence as wiU be held up to him in favour of 
vaccination. A general association will be formed of all the 
medical men in the county favourable to the plan ; and I 
really think, to avoid the ignominy of resistance, nearly the 

VOL. II. 2 B 



370 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

whole will come in. Some of the variolo-vacclnists have 
already abjured their old bad habits, and joined the standard 
before it was half hoisted. 

I see my friend Hicks often ; we don't forget you in our 
conversation. I don't wonder at your coming to a stand 
still in your opus magnum.* I hope it will be an opus honum ; 
but I think you have undertaken a tight job. The world is 
wide, and you have got to traverse over it. Bon voyage. 

You don^t like my style when I write for the public eye, 
nor do I ; but I cannot mend it, for I write then under the 
impression of fear ; and it must be remembered, that when I 
write in London my brain seems full of the smoke. My 
great aim is to be perspicuous, and T got credit for succeed- 
ing in the papers first sent out ; but some of the others might 
be more obscure through my taking greater pains with them : 
an error I shall be happy to avoid in future ; for you know I 
am not fond of much work. 

Truly yours, with best wishes to Mrs. Moore, and your 
family, 

Edw^ard Jenner. 

P. S. How is your laughter-loving girl ; and that fine boy 
with the philosophic head ? 
24th April. 

I can bring clouds of evidence to support what I have 
advanced respecting the effect of cuticular diseases on the 
vaccine vesicle. This is certainly a subject of some moment ; 
and before you go into any thing decisive upon it, I M^ould 
have you enquire largely into it. There is a letter of mine 
upon it in Willan's book, written subsequently to the paper 
which I have circulated. Captain Gooch, in Brunswick- 
square, Foundling Hospital, bore testimony to occurrences 
at Cheltenham on a very large scale. 

* This, and some of the following letters, allude to Mr. 
Moore's histories of Small Pox and of Vaccination, then in 
progress. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 371 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Berkeley, 20th May, 1810. 
Dear Moore, 
The Persian ambassador, I find, is about to take his depar- 
ture from this country. It has often struck me, though I forgot 
to mention it in any of my former letters to you, that he 
should carry home with him some kno\vledge of the bene- 
ficial effects of vaccination, especially as Persia has hitherto 
turned its back upon it. So it appears from a paper pub- 
lished in one of the East India pamphlets.* Your seeing Sir 
Gore Ousley would settle the whole business. 

I write to you on the back of our resolutions, that you may 
know what we are about in this county ; and remember, this 
makes two letters for one — rather an unusual occurrence with 

Yours truly, 

E. Jenner. 
I hope soon to muster up resolution, and go to town for a 
few days. What have you done with Sir L ? 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Berkeley, Nov. 23, 1810. 
Mv dear Friend, 
It strikes me that the most effectual way of lessening, if 
not subduing, the opposition to vaccination, would be to 
obtain a mass of evidence on the subject from a district of 
some extent in the county of Gloucester. Berkeley might 
with propriety be made the centre, as most of the faculty in 
the surrounding parishes received their instructions from 
me, and as the practice is of longer standing in these districts 
than in most parts of Britain. 

* Communicated in a letter from Dr. Milne to Dr. Ander- 
son at Madras, dated Bushire, March 13, 1805. If you have 
a friend at the India House, you may get the vaccine pamphlet 
there, published in India. 

2 B 2 



372 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

The result of such an inquiry \vould be most favourable. 
I will venture to say, from reports already made to me, it 
would appear that the decrease in the deaths by smaU-pox 
has been in proportion to the general or universal adoption 
of the vaccine practice. But how shall this be brought 
about? I could certainly accomplish it myself; but yet I 
think it would have a more fair and candid look, and form a 
stronger feature in the next Report of the National Vaccine 
Establishment, if it were done by the Board. Having ob- 
tained a list of the medical men, such questions might be 
addressed to them as would bring out the evidence required ; 
such, for example, as the following : — 

1st. When did you begin to practise vaccine inocula- 
tion ? 

2nd. What number of persons have you vaccinated ? 

3rd. What is your opinion, from the result of your own 
practice, of the preservative effects of vaccination against the 
infection of the small-pox ? 

4th. Have you found the vaccine disease to be injurious 
to the constitution ? 

.5th. What is the longest interval between the vaccination 
of any of your patients and their exposure to the contagion 
of the small- pox without feeling its effect ? 

6th. Has your residence been long enough in 

to enable you to form an estimate of the mortality occasioned 
by small-pox before you began to vaccinate, and since that 
period commenced? 

In addition to your answers to these questions, the 
Board of the National Vaccine Establishment would be 
happy in being favoured with any general observations you 
may have to offer on this subject. 

I wish you would, Math my best compliments and wishes, 
lay these hints before the Board ; and if they think the plan 
eligible, I should be happy in affording them every assist- 
ance in my power to render it effective. Here, then, is the 
logic of the thing : — If vaccination is found capable of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 3/3 

making a deep impression on the accustomed ravages of the 
small-pox in one widely extended district^ why should it not 
equally so in all? 

I shall return again to Cheltenham on Tuesday next, where 
I shall be happy to hear from you, particularly on the sub- 
ject of my former letter. 

Believe me, 

Yours truly, 

Edw. Jenner. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 

Another scrap. — The postscript of your last letter, wTitten 
on the cover, escaped my notice till this morning, when I 
happened to take it up. The complaint against your points 
is partly just and partly unjust. Knowing that four times 
out of five, those I send out will pass into the hands of a 
bungler, I give them a double dipping ; that is, when one 
coating is dry I dip again ; and when they are to go beyond 
the seas, I put on a third coating. By this means I very 
seldom hear of failure from the points. However, I am 
persuaded this would rarely happen even from a single dip, 
if the operation was conducted properly. (You should open 
a vaccine school.) 1 once had some vaccine points returned 
to me that one of my countrymen had been poking an arm 
with, and found inefficient. After all this, with the self-same 
tools I did my work completely, finer vaccine pustules were 
never fashioned. I wish you would send me four points 
prepared in the usual way. I will use them and tell you the 
result. In general, the doctors don't make a puncture suffi- 
cient to admit a due length of the point ; they bring its ex- 
tremity only in contact with the wounded cutis. 

Now to another point. I wish you could see Paytherus, 
and confer with him about Woodville. He will recollect 
some awkward things, for which, in rougher hands than 
mine, he would have been worried a little. But I must tell 



374 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

you what it was that kept my resentment in check. My 
first acquaintance with Woodville commenced at this place 
about twelve years ago. It happened that he was here 
during an excursion I made from hence to Berkeley, and in 
the interval, Woodville attended one of my children who 
had been seized with a violent fit of illness. On my return 
I found the child recovering, and felt so pleased with the 
manner in which Woodville had treated him, that although 
his conduct towards me in town called aloud for chastise- 
ment, yet I was restrained from obeying it, through the re-- 
collection of this event. When I found him about to pub- 
lish his pamphlet relative to the eruptive cases at the Small- 
pox Hospital, I intreated him in the strongest terms, both 
by letter and in conversation, not to do a thing that would 
so much disturb the progress of vaccination, and finally 
prove so injurious to himself. Cases were shewn both to 
myself and nephew, the Rev. G. Jenner, (who was brought 
up to the medical profession) at the Small-pox Hospital, of 
patients covered from head to foot with pustules as correct 
as if they had actually arisen from contagion, or been 
produced by inoculation. Still no argument would bend 
him, and we found his assistant, Wachsell, equally inflexible. 
However, not many months after his book appeared, he 
came to me in Bond-street, where I then lived, and told me 
he had seen his error, and should publish his recantation, 
and dedicate his pamphlet to me. We parted, as I thought, 
friends ; I thanked him for his liberality and kindness, in 
offering me the dedication ; but how greatly was I disap- 
pointed when he sent it. Instead of finding generous and 
manly sentiments, it was in reality a satire. Do pray see 
Paytherus ; he will give you a thousand odd anecdotes, and 
don't forget to ask him for his book on vaccination. He 
must not omit telling you what once happened at a dinner at 
Coleman's. 

I am happy at hearing your letter has stirred up a 
proper spirit among the Fins. The bustle there must be 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 375 

great. What you allude to in my publication respecting 
London air, was an observation made in consequence of what 
Woodville and Pearson had represented to me in the country, 
not from my own ocular demonstration. Hearing them de- 
scribe the progress of the vesicle on the arm, and the sub- 
sequent state of the skin as being so very different from my 
o^vn vaccination in Gloucestershire, and knowing from actual 
experience, that erisypelatous affections in town assume an 
aspect very different from that they put on in the country, I 
thought it possible this might account for it ; not dreaming 
of the blunder that haa been committed. You must not 
forget to refer to a paper (I think in the Med. and Phys. 
Journal) of Pearson's, in which he sagaciously accounts for 
the appearance of pustules on chemical principles. 

The inclosed paper you will find of no small value. Pre- 
sent it, if you please, to the Board, to be deposited in 
their vaccine archives. It was sent to me long since from 
Paris. 

I have much more to say to you ; indeed, your first letter 
I do not consider as yet answered ; but now I must go to 
bed, or drop upon my paper. Excuse this sleepy letter. 

Truly yours, 

Edw. Jenner. 
Cheltenham, twelve o'clock, 
Wednesday night, I9th December, 1810. 

I shall give you some trouble soon in assisting me to 
liberate a French officer, the brother of Husson (see the list 
of names in the inclosed paper) who has nearly lost the use 
of his arm. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 
I send this scrap by a person going to town, to say that I 
will write to yon fully in a few days. 

As accuracy is the life and soul of history, I did not like 



3/0 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

to answer an important question "in your last letter save one, 
until I had applied to my nephew, the Rev. G. Jenner, who 
edited the pamphlet containing " the evidence at large.^' I 
am expecting to hear from him early next week, and his 
answer shall be sent to you. As far as my recollection now 
serves me, this evidence was obtained from one of the Clerks 
of the House of Commons, who ahvays sat at the right hand 
of the Chairman, and took down the words of those who 
were called in by the Committee for examination. Finally, 
a fair copy was presented to me, and I certainly did not have 
it published without authority. Your queries shall all be 
answered in due order. 

You must be tender on the subject of the R business. 

Truly yours, 

Edw. Jenner. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Berkeley, February 1 5th, 1812. 
My dear Sir, 

You have received Sacco's book, I hope, which was sent 
by yesterday's coach, directed for you at the National Vac- 
cine Establishment, Leicester Square. Pray present my 
respects to the President and the Board, and tell them that 
this or any other publication in my possession on the vaccine 
subject is much at their service. I am well convinced they 
are alive to the interests of the important cause they are 
engaged in ; and it should not be forgotten that Mr. G. Rose 
assured me, (at the time, by the way, when 1 had no concep- 
tion of not being a Member of the Institution,) that if more 
money was necessary for the completion of its objects it 
should be granted. 

I rejoice at seeing so distinguished a person as Sir Francis 
Millman at the head of vaccine affairs. We wanted firmness 
and decision, and I now see that we shall have it. I l)eg 
you to present my best compliments to him, and to say, that 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 377 

wlien I go to town I shall have the honour of waiting upon 
him, and hope he will indulge me with a full conversation on 
the subject, particularly that part of it which relates to the 
conduct of the first Board, the cause of my seceding, &c. &c. 

I could wish Sir Francis to see the manner in which our 
clever neighbours the French have organised their Vaccine 
Institutions. You will find it inserted in one of Bradley's 
Medical and Physical Journals. 

My friend Ring would furnish you with it, if you do not 
know where to put your hand upon it. Ring translated the 
paper. It is very gratifying to me to see so great a decrease 
in the mortality occasioned by small-pox. But why should 
any one perish by this disease here, when there are so many 
examples before us of its being rooted out in every town, city, 
and district where vaccination is practised universally. Even 
in many of the populous districts around me, where large 
manufactories are carried on, and where the people with one 
accord have taken up the practice for the last ten or twelve 
years, the small-pox has been scarcely known during that 
period. I have often expressed a wish to the medical men 
of this country to report these facts to the Board. They all 
promise, but I believe few, if any, perform. A few lines, 
addressed by the Board, would have a strong effect, and the 
intelligence they would obtain would be very impressive in a 
future annual Report; and I submit it to their consideration 
whether it would not be more so than coming immediately 
from me. I assure you it was with some reluctance I sent 
cojjies of the Spanish papers. I must endeavour to do away 
the charge of egotism, by requesting you to consider that it 
is on vaccination they so lavishly pour forth their praises, 
and not on me. I have not received any late report, either 
from De Carro, or Professor Odier, at Geneva. Dr. Marcet, 
I believe, corresponds with the latter ; and if any report has 
been inserted lately in the foreign journals, he will be very 
likely to furnish you with it. Professor Avelin, of Berlin, 
is, I believe, a character well known. From this respectable 



378 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 



man I lately saw a report in its way to America. I shall 
subjoin a copy of its leading features. It was addressed to 
Dr. Smith, at New York. 

" The anniversary of the invention of the cow-pox inocula- 
tion, or the Jennerian Feast, was celebrated very solemnly 
at Berlin, on the 14th of May last. By pubhc accounts it 
appears, that there were inoculated in all the Prussian 
States, 

In 1801 .... 9,772 

1802 .... 17,052 

1803 . . . . 50,054 

1804 . . . . 102,350 

1805 . . . . 43,585 

" At these times the population was about 9,7^3,000. 
From 1806 to 1810 (since the horrible war and the diminution 
of the population to 4,338,000), the inoculated were 160,329. 
Dr. Bremer only, at Berlin, in the Royal Institution for cow- 
pox inoculation, had inoculated 14,605. The total, as offi- 
cially and voluntarily sent to Government, amounted to 
402,720 vaccinated, but certainly one-half was not officially 
mentioned. It may certainly be at least 600,000, or even 
800,000." 

I shall have much to say to you in my next letter respect- 
ing my present state of retirement ; in the meantime, believe 
me, with best compliments to Mrs. Moore, 

Very sincerely yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

P.S. Should not John Ring's station, which is so popular, 
be incorporated with those of the establishment ? 



To James Moore, Esq. 

Berkeley, June '20th, 1812. 
My dear Moore, 
It is a long time since I heard from you, and longer still 
I fear since you heard from me. What is become of the 



LPFE OF DR. JENNER. 3/9 

Annual Vaccine Report ? Have the hurley-burleys of the 
state annihilated it ? If it exists, pray let me see it. If the 
South American and the Havannah Reports, with which I 
furnished the Board, are not noticed, those who sent them 
to me would think themselves not attended to with due re- 
spect. Poor Sacco and the seeds ! This is a bad story, and 
I am in a scrape. Sir Francis, perhaps, did not apply to 
Sir Joseph ; or, if he did, a request of mine was thought but 
little of. 

I am still leading a sort of pastoral life here, and time flies 
on without lea\'ing any thing behind it for my biographer. 
But I really do intend going to town, and then you shall 
see what you can squeeze out of me. 

I have always thought that the subject of vaccination 
should be kept before the eyes of the public by means of the 
newspapers. This was never well done, and now it is 
scarcely done at all. Can you stimulate the Board to think 
of this ? It would be very easy to give extracts from re- 
ports. 

I have very lately received from Italy a Poem, *' II Trionfo 
della Vaccinia, by Gioachino Ponta," who, I hope, is a bard 
of celebrity, for he has spun it out to between 4000 and 
5000 lines. It is beautifully printed, at the famous press of 
Bodoni at Parma. 

Knowing nothing of the language in which it is written, it 
lies before me in a tantalising shape. I shall bring it to 
town. If it is a good thing, cannot we transform it into 
English ? 

Adieu, my dear friend, -vnth best compliments. 



To James Moore, Esq. 

Berkeley, August 9th, 1812. 

Dear Moore, 
This scrap, I fear, will be dear at the money it will cost 
you, though the sum will be but two-pence. I could not let 



380 LIFE OF DR. JENNEil. 

slip the opportunity of thanking you for your last letter^ giving 
me a month's respite from transportation from this place to 
town. Certain it is, I have no society here but clods ; but 
out of those clods I contrive to make something. The pro- 
duce of their fields has been a plentiful source of enjoyment 
to me. This year there has been more of liver disease 
among sheep, cows, oxen, hogs, and some other animals, 
than I ever remember. I long since discovered that the 
ordinary source of scirrhus is the hydatid, when passed on 
to its secondary stage ; but there was another sort of scirrhus 
which puzzled me till now, and I make this out to originate 
in diseased bile-ducts. Some of these I find dilated to the 
size of a child's finger, and passing in this state almost to 
the extreme edges of the liver ; their internal coats highly 
inflamed, like a croupy trachea, and throwing out mucus and 
coagulable lymph. Others, which have weathered the in- 
flammatory stage, thickly incrusted over with stony matter.* 
Here, then, is a little apology for seclusion in this seques- 
tered corner of our island. It is a singular thing, that the 
liver itself (that part of it which remains unabsorbed), 
should suffer the intrusion of any of these foreign bodies 
(I may call the scirrhus hydatid foreign), and not be in the 
least diseased, even the parts in immediate contact. Por- 
tions of the organ are taken away merely to make room for 
these odd visitors. Enough of this for the present. 

I shall say something on the Report in my next. That 
part of it which points out the happy results of vaccination 
among our troops must make the country feel, if they have 
any feeling in them. I am hurt to think the small-pox again 
rages. That must be the case, till inoculation is conducted 
in a different way, if conducted at all. It does not appear 
in vaccinating districts ; for example, in this. As no particu- 
lar notice has been taken of the foreign communications, I 
am thinking of sending them to one of the periodical jour- 

* I do not call this scirrhosity, but it produces scirrhus. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 381 

nals. The Edinburgh Quarterly Journal is the most re- 
spectable. 

You do not seem to have understood me clearly respecting 
tieivspapers. It would certainly be infra dig. to go into con- 
troversy ; but not so to lay cheering and persuasive reports 
before the pubUc through this widely flowing channel. This 
is what I meant, and I hope you will agree with me in the 
propriety of the measure. 

Make my affectionate regards to Mrs. Moore, and be- 
lieve me, 

Truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 



To James Moore, Esq. 

Berkeley, Octoberllj 1812, 

My dear Friend, 

When you wrote last, about a month since, your accom- 
panying the life guards to Spain was a point not abso- 
lutely fixed. How stands the matter now, my friend ? I 
hope they will not be so cruel as to send you there. The 
event I have long been expecting has at length taken place. 
I have lost my only sister, and the last of my family of that 
class : so that I am now insulated in that way — the only one 
left of ten. I could not come to town while she lay on her 
death-bed ; but now I shall come, and try to cheer myself, by 
mixing with my friends for a week or two ; that is, if you 
think it would be a good time, which I doubt, for some tell 
me the town has no company in it. Write soon, and your 
letter shall be my warrant. 

The inclosed I received a short time since from Professor 
Waterhouse at Boston. There is something so striking in it 
with regard to the politics of America, and so unlike what 
we are taught to believe at home, that I have inclosed it for 
you, thinking it might be of some value in the hands of some 
of your poUtical friends. I know you are well acquainted 



382 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

with my Lord Lauderdale, and many others. It may be 
sent to a newspaper if you think it may be useful ; in that 
case, no names must be mentioned. Dr. Waterhouse is a 
man of correct habits. For the seven first years of vacci- 
nation I corresponded with him regularly. He upbraids me 
justly for late irregularities. 

I have not heard lately whether the fury of the small-pox 
is abated in town. I trust it is. Had I power to exercise 
vaccination as I liked, in one fortnight this dismal work of 
death should entirely cease. What a sad wicked fellow is 
that Birch. Moseley I hear nothing of now, but Birch is 
still employing his agents to spread the pestilence. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Chantry Cottage, Berkeley, 
November 18, 1812. 

My dear Friend, 

Yours of the 21st of October, I perceive still remains 
unanswered. Tlie truth, and nothing but the truth, of the 
matter is, that I intended to have been in town before this 
time ; but, as in former days, was prevented. It is of no use, 
I know, for me to make excuses to you, for you will unchari- 
tably think me a wilful procrastinator. 

There is a vast deal of wisdom in the two little words 
selected by the sages of antiquity as a guide to medical men 
and others. " Festina lente.'^ What a jewel of an axiom ! 
But then, my friend, observe, I make no encroachments 
upon its meaning when I take it as a rule of practice. 

Since I wrote last, I have received from St. Petersburgh a 
report of the progress of vaccination throughout the whole 
Russian empire. It is very copious, and very interesting. 
Such documents should go before the public ; therefore, I 
do not see the propriety of sending it to the tomb in Leices- 
ter Square, where lie interred, without a record, numerous 
branches of the same family, most of whom were born and 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 383 

bred beyond the seas ; some in South America, others in the 
West India Islands, and elsewhere. 

I should much like to see your paper containing the His- 
tory of Vaccination, and the exploits of the man who brought 
it up. In looking over my papers, I have found a great 
many which will throw a strong light on the conduct of Dr. 
P. Is there any chasm in this part of your history? It is a 
very important part, and justice demands the exercise of 
severity. It must begin with the Petworth business. This 
is given by Lord Egremont. Next his uniting with Wood- 
ville, and forming (without mentioning the matter to me) his 
institution. His cajoling the Duke of York to be patron. 
The Duke's disgracing him. His spreading the small-pox 
through the land and calling it the cow-pox, explaining che- 
mically the reason why it had changed its character. His 
treatment of me before the Committee of the House of Com- 
mons, attempting to prove that there were papers found in an 
old chest at Windsor, which anticipated my discovery. The 
portrait of the farmer from the Isle of Purbeck, with the 
farmer's claim to reward, as the discoverer at the foot of it, 
wath a thousand minor tricks ; and finally, finding all trick- 
ing useless, his insinuations that vaccination is good for 
nothing. The Anti-Vacks are assailing me, I see, with all the 
force they can muster in the newspapers. The Morning 
Chronicle now admits long letters. Birch has certainly 
much the worst of it there. Can you tell me who my friend 
and defender is in the Sun, who signs himself Conscience ? 

Do you ever see anything of your neighbour John Ring ? 
He writes but seldom to me now, and when he does write, it 
is not in his old pleasant strain. Nothing is going wrong with 
him, I hope. I wish you would find out ; for, with all his 
pecuUarities, he is an honest fellow, and I have a great 
regard for him. He has been paying money for me to some 
of the institutions, and the inclosed draught, if you would 
have the goodness to take it to him, would be an excuse for 



384 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

your calling on him. I have made it payable after ten days, 
as this will approach you in a round about way. 

I hope you will tell me in your next letter, which you must 
write soon, that the bills of mortality no longer hold up such 
a long list of slaughtered victims as I saw some time ago. 

Rigby, of Norwich, a medical man well known in the 
world, contrived to stop the havoc in that city most expe- 
ditiously by an ingenious contrivance. He is the acquaint- 
ance of Charles Murray, and sends him his papers. The one 
he sent to me on the subject I now allude to, was written in 
the early part of the present month, and comes out as an 
Appendix to his other papers on medical police. Sir Fran- 
cis should see it. My letter is getting too long ; I must stop, 
and only add my best wishes to you and yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

I hope Sir H. Davy will not lose his eye from his late 
accident. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Chantry Cottage, December 17, 1812. 

My dear Friend, 

I must animadvert presently on some parts of your last 
letter ; but first let me thank you for your very kind atten- 
tion to my nephew E. Davies, from Avhom I have heard by 
this evening's post. You have quite fascinated him. He 
speaks of you in such terms that I must not repeat, as you 
are so given to blushing. I may venture on one extract. 

" Mr. Moore read to me a very considerable part of his 
intended publication. The style, in my opinion, is admirable ; 
nervous, concise, gentlemanly, and severe without descending 
to scurrility. It is also so amusing as to render it interesting 
to every class of readers." 

I desired him to tell you that a few days since I received 
a Report from the Deputy Inspector of Hospitals at the Cape 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 385 

of Good Hope, Dr. Hussey, of the annihilation of tlie small- 
pox, which appeared there in one of its most horrible forms, 
by means of vaccination. There may be no necessity for my 
sending it, as I find the National Vaccine Establishment is 
in possession of a similar document, or at least the purport 
of the communication made to me. However, as mine may 
go more into detail, 1 beg you will present it to the Board, 
together with the Russian Report. But I must again entreat 
you to request Dr. Hervey to see that they may be restored 
to me on demand, for I hold these things as sacred deposits, 
and they will pass from me as heir-looms. How different 
are these, my dear friend, from those trinkety baubles which 
mankind in general are so proud of transmitting to posterity. 

Lest the Rev. Mr. Reed should not have laid before the 
Board a copy of his last edition of a very impressive paper, 
I shall put up one. 1 wish Sir F. Millman would recollect 
that upwards of seven hundred reports in favour of vaccina- 
tion lie buried among the archives of the College of Physi- 
cians. Have you the Report from the Mauritius ? I hear 
it is of the same nature as that from the Cape. It has 
not yet reached me. 

The intended proclamation will put us all in battle array. 
We shall have sharp work for a little time, and we must be 
prepared with troops in the House of Commons ; but our 
great guns will make such reports, that our enemies there 
will be stunned and astounded ; even Sir Francis himself, 
who has been heard to say, that " cursed was the day on 
which vaccination was discovered.'^ 

In the midst of these reporting times, pray do not let Dr. 
Christie's be forgotten. Among all the good ones, there is 
nothing surpasses this. Lest he should not have sent it to 
the Board, I will write to him for that purpose. If you want 
Home Reports, send to Manchester, Birmingham, Chester, 
and other populous manufacturing towns, but above all to 
Norwich, from whence I have very lately received one ex- 
actly of a description with that of the Cape. It is printed, 

VOL. II. - c 



386 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

and was drawn up by Rigby of Norwich. Charles Murray 
could easily get this, and, believe me, it is worth your having. 

Having written so much, I must defer my Philippics for 
the present. 

Let me hear often while these important movements of 
the Board are going forward. 

Adieu, my dear friend, very truly yours, 

E. Jenner. 

One line I must beg on the arrival of the packet, that I 
may know of its safety. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Dear Moore, 
After so long a pause in our correspondence, your letter 
was a high treat to me. How this happened, I will not take 
upon myself to determine. Doubtless, you thought me in 
fault, and I thought you ; but perhaps the truth is, we were 
both so, and under that impression I quit the subject. I 
was ill almost the whole spring, and now, though better, am 
far from well. My nerves are in such an odd state, so ex- 
quisitely tuned, that unless they are touched by the most 
delicate finger, one who knows the instrument perfectly, in 
an instant all is discord. You only want a little more prac- 
tice, and then no one would play better on it than yourself. 
Did you see my letter to Charles Murray ? I hope you did, 
as I there expressed my opinion of your last report in high 
terms of praise. If this does not silence the malevolent 
tongue of opposition, what can ? Yet, how wonderful, while 
this convincing document was lying on his table, that a great 
Law Lord should have so exposed himself among his bre- 
thren. '' Vaccination did not merit the high encomium 
passed upon it ; it was very well for those who, like himself, 
brought up their families in a large city, and was a security 
for eight or nine years." This language, I assure you, has 
made a serious impression in many parts of the country ; 
for the people, who do not reason, conceive this exalted 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 38/ 

character knows every thing. There is another Bill, I see, 
brought into the House by my Lord Boringdon. Can you 
contrive to send me a copy when it is printed? I hope it 
does not come from the same bad source as the former. 

Believe me, I am Milling, and shall be always ready when 
able, to assist you in your literary toils. It Avould be very 
ungrateful in me if I were not, as you may say, De te historia 
narratiir. If you w'ill once more place before my eyes any 
materials you stand in need of, they shall be forthcoming 
should it be in my poAver to produce them. An old asso- 
ciate of mine has long been threatening to send some memoir 
into the world, but I have been constantly intreating him to 
desist, conceiving, that independently of the vaccine dis- 
covery, there was nothing of sufficient interest to engage the 
attention of the public. Believing that I have succeeded, 
I think he would have no reluctance in furnishing you with 
his scraps if you thought it worth while to apply to him. 
You need not mention this intelligence as comino- from me. 
His name is Edward Gardner, and his residence is Framp- 
ton, near Stroud, Gloucestershire. 

You speak of searching the British Museum for facts and 
opinions about the small- pox. Would you not find more by 
searching the publications of Woodville and Haygarth ? I 
believe they have both given its life and adventures, and I 
trust it is left for you to record its death. 

I like your little essay on poverty and riches. Give me 
(as a good man in the Scriptures said) neither one nor the 
other, but wherewithal to bie content. I know you fancy 
that the cow has fattened me, and that it is of no use for me 
to attempt altering your opinion. My state of domestica- 
tion is the same now as it was before I cultivated her 
acquaintance so closely, except, that then I had horses to 
my carriage, and that now I have none, and precisely for the 
same reason as should govern the conduct of all prudent 
men. To know any thing about me you should come down 

2 c 2 



388 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

and inquire of my neighbours what I am, and what I was. 
Then, perhaps, your quotation (quantum mutatus ab illo, 
&c.) may still well apply, but not exactly in the way you in- 
tended it. 

In one of your letters you seemed not perfectly satisfied 
that the fact respecting the origin of the vaccine was clearly 
made out. For my part, I should think, that Loy's experi- 
ments, independently of my own observations, were sufficient 
to estabhsh it, to say nothing of Sacco's and others on the 
continent. However, I have now fresh evidence, partly 
foreign and partly domestic. The latter comes from a Mr. 
Melon, a surgeon of repute at Lichfield. He has sent me 
some of his equine virus, which I have been using from arm 
to arm for these two months past, without observing the 
smallest deviation in the progress and appearance of the 
pustules from those produced by the vaccine. I have at 
length found the French document I formerly alluded to, 
which with Melon's, shall be sent to you in the course of the 
ensuing week. 

Allow me to congratulate you on the promotion of your 
meritorious brother, and to assure you that I take an interest 
in every thing in which your happiness is concerned ; so be 
assured of my regard, and believe me, 

Most truly yours, 

E. Jenner. 
Chant nj Cottage, July 23, 1813. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

Dear Moore, 
My friend and neighbour, Mr. Hicks, will deliver to you 
the promised papers respecting equine virus. I have been 
constantly equinating for some months, and perceive not the 
smallest difference between the pustules thus produced and 
the vaccine. Both are alike, because they come from the 
same source. If he does not give you a good scolding for 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 389 

your horrible letter in the spring, he will not be faithful to 
his commission. 

I hope Murray has shown you my letter respecting Dr. 
Baron's intended publication. 

Truly yours, 

Edw. Jenner. 
Berkeley, \st August , 1813. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 

I have had so much intercourse with you lately by means 
of London visitors, that my being a letter in your debt 
almost escaped my recollection. You have doubtless seen 
Charles Murray since his return from Cheltenham. I had 
two days of his company, and we pretty well talked over 
London matters. It was not then known that your late 
excellent president was tottering on his vaccine throne, from 
which I find he has since fallen. This is very tantalizing, as 
he was in possession of that stock of knowledge which ren- 
dered him fit for his government. I am a little acquainted 
with your new chieftain, but want to know your sentiments 
of him. T have always considered him as a very worthy 
man, of manners extremely gentle. In the hour of necessity, 
however, I hope he will be firm ; and if the first Lord in 
Parliament should offer to degrade vaccination by uttering 
an untruth, {as one of these dignified personages lately did,) 
I trust he will not suffer a remonstrance of so tame and in- 
sipid a nature to come forth as appeared in a late circular. 
This is the only flaw observed in the administration of Sir 
Francis. You must approve these animadversions, as they 
come from an " ingenious gentleman." 

I have heard no more of John Walker or Joseph Leaper, 
since I sent my positive refusal to become an associate in 
their plans, which, from such men, I think could have no 
good in them. 

You made me happy in saying you had seen those excel- 



390 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

lent young women, the Paytherus's, and learnt from tliem 
what an active life I lead when at Berkeley. How different 
and wrongly formed were your conceptions of me. I do not 
yet despair of seeing you there when I again retire. How 
you would enjoy seeing me in the exercise of my magisterial 
powers, dealing out my lessons of morality to the poor un- 
fortimate daughters of vaccina, when exhibiting their un- 
timely prominences. I bring them all to the altar with their 
swains if I can ; but, perhaps, I do not better their condition 
much by this ; for matrimony among the poor orders of the 
peasantry is in general a wretched state. 

I long to see the progress you have made in your book. 
Is it impossible to bring it here ? You may be in Piccadilly 
at seven in the evening, and your arrival at Cheltenham be 
announced by the horn of the mail-coach at ten the next 
morning. I am sorry you have not succeeded in infecting a 
cow. I have told you before that the matter which flows 
from the fissures in the heel will do nothing. It is contained 
in vesicles on the edges and the surrounding skin. Did I 
ever inform you of the curious result of vaccinating carters ? 
These people from their youth up have the care of the horses 
used for ploughing our corn lands. Great numbers of 
them in the course of my practice here have come to me 
from the hills to be vaccinated ; but the average number 
which resisted has been one half. On inquiry, many of 
them have recollected having sores on their hands and 
fingers from dressing horses affected with sore heels, and 
being so ill as to be disabled from following their work ; 
and on several of their hands, I have found the cicatrix as 
perfect and as characteristically marked as if it had arisen from 
my own vaccination. Birch and Brown, of Musselburgh, 1 
hear, still pursue me in the newspapers, but I do not seek 
after their essays ; for really I think them now greater ob- 
jects of commiseration than resentment. Mosele)^, I be- 
lieve, is silent. Your last report should be perpetually going 
forth from Leicester-square. It will never be old, and a 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 391 

few spare pounds would procure a reprint. How goes on 
small-pox among you? I am almost afraid to ask; and 
afraid, too, to inquire about Lord Boringdon's intended Bill. 
There has certainly been ample time for its preparation. I 
think it a little strange that he should never have made any 
communication to me on the subject ; the more so, as I am 
acquainted with his lordship, having vaccinated his eldest 
child. 

I have some reason to think that all etiquetical impedi- 
ments to my becoming a member of your Board will soon be 
removed. I dare not say more on this point now ; but the 
mystery shall be unravelled in my next letter. Sad com- 
plaints about your ivory points ; and so there must be till 
they are better fashioned. The chance of infection will be 
in proportion to the coated surface introduced into the 
puncture. Your points are now become almost as fine as 
needles. This is downright tailoring ; and I hope for my 
own sake, who am so pestered with letters, that some re- 
formation will take place in this department of the esta- 
blishment. 

You begin to yawn over my long letter, and so do I, for 
it is almost twelve o'clock ; so adieu, my dear friend, and be- 
lieve me ever truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

Cheltenham, October 27, 1813. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 
I am always happy to hear from you. You paint the 
passing hours in glowing tints, and I, who believe in pro- 
phecies, am a firm believer in you when you predict that the 
amelioration of the world is at hand. Till now, our views 
of what the twenty years' commotion in Europe was to 
bring forth, were dim and obscure ; but the " still small 
voice" has ordered the mists and clouds to be dispersed, 
and through a clear and serene atmosphere we see a beauti- 



392 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ful order of things gradually rising, as it were, out of chaos. 
Let us be grateful. 

You see I was not quite in so great a hurry as my friend 
Christie to shew myself at Carlton House. I shall be there 
in good time, you may depend upon it, and then hear your 
history of the rise, progress, and downfal of a monster still 
more horrible than Bonaparte. You delight me with what 
you say of the new Board ; and I must now mention a cir- 
cumstance which will put their activity and zeal a little to 
the test. You probably may not have seen a pamphlet lately 
published by Dr. Watt of Glasgow, as there is nothing in 
its title that developes its purport or evil tendency. "An 
Inquiry into the relative Mortality of the principal Diseases 
of Children," &c. The measles, it seems, have been ex- 
tremely fatal in the city of Glasgow for the last four or five 
years among children, and during this period vaccination 
was practised almost universally. Previously to this, the 
measles was considered as a mild disease. Hence Dr. Watt 
infers that the small-pox is a kind of preparative for the 
measles, rendering the disease more mild. In short, he says, 
or seems to say, that we have gained nothing by the intro- 
duction of the cow-pox ; for that the measles and small-pox 
have now changed places with regard to their fatal tendency. 
Is not this very shocking ? Here is a new and unexpected 
twig shot forth for the sinking anti-vaccinist to cling to. 
But mark me — should this absurdity of Mr. Watt take pos- 
session of the minds of the people, I am already prepared 
with the means of destroying its effects, having instituted an 
inquiry through this populous town and the circumjacent 
villages, where, on the smallest computation, 20,000 child- 
ren must have been vaccinated in the course of the last 
twelve years by myself and others. Now it appears that, 
during this period, there has been no such occurrence as a 
fatal epidemic measles. You woidd oblige me in making 
this communication to the Board, with my respectful com- 
j)liments. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 393 

The preceding pages were written some days ago. I have 
since had a call into a distant part of the country, and 
nickily into the land of vaccination. The medical man I 
met has been near five-and-twenty years a practitioner in 
one of the clothing districts, consequently a part of the 
county where population swarms. He is ready to testify 
that Mr. Watt's doctrine will not find the least support in 
any part of the wide range he takes, and where vast numbers 
of children have gone through the measles just in the same 
way as if they had previously had the small-pox. I shall 
balance this unpleasant piece of information with something 
of an opposite kind. The University of Oxford, on Friday 
last, conferred on me the degree of Doctor in Medicine, by 
diploma, without a single non placet. This is the more ho- 
norable, as I understand they consider this gift so precious 
that it is not bestowed twice in a century. Some early day 
next week (Tuesday, most likely) I intend going to Oxford 
to accept this boon, and staying one clear day. 

Now, my friend, what say you ? Do you feel bold enough 
to face me there ? It would be a high gratification, most 
certainly ; and I would envelope you in a frank, for you have 
no business to jaunt about and spend your money. 

You see what paternal care I take of you. By the way, 
would not some of the sages there aid your research in con- 
ducting you over the Bodleian library ? There are several 
Oxford coaches go from town every morning. I have a 
thousand things to say to you. Pray inquire of Dr. Hervey 
whether I may not knock boldly at the door of the College 
of Physicians and gain admittance ; and desire him to ex- 
plain the nature of the ceremony that would take place. 

If you can come to Oxford, write soon, that I may fix the 
day for certain. Bring, if you can, the last bill of mortality. 
I dread the sight of it. 

Most truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

CheUenhcun, December (ilk, 181.3. 



394 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

• P. S. John Ring has been in dudgeon, and broken off his 
correspondence with me near a twelvemonth. I have no 
conception why ; 1 wish you could find it out. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Friend, 

You must excuse everything I do amiss now. Your two 
letters have remained long unanswered, and 1 wish these 
were all, as it would relieve me from some of my anxieties ; 
but what is to take from me my heavy load of sorrow ? That 
you cannot tell. You have care enough of your own, and I 
will not entangle you into a participation of mine. 

Can I afford you any assistance in your laborious work, 
the History of Vaccination ? I am at present unacquainted 
with your plan. I suppose you will trace it step by step 
over the globe, and shew the little opposition it met with 
from professors abroad, compared with what it found from 
those at home. Certainly here, the opposition was marked 
with unexampled atrocity. Among the many, you will find 
a difficulty in fixing on the man who has a claim to the 
severest stigma. The sale of a part of the Small-pox Hos- 
pital delights me. It will be a charming feature for you. 

I think your conjecture a fair one respecting the spread- 
ing of the small-pox in London. We know nothing of it in 
this district, nor have we for near sixteen years. The same 
may be said of Cheltenham and its vicinity, except now and 
then a straggler passing through the town ; but then it was 
always insulated, or nearly so ; and this, by the way, is the 
only stimulus* the common people feel for bringing their 
children to be vaccinated. This apathy should be roused. 
I like the idea of the goblet, and wish more of these things 
were distributed. What if £500 per annum were allowed by 
government, would the national purse find any diminution 
in its weight ? Your countrymen fairly won the prize. A 

* The accidental appearances of the smail-pox. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 395 

similar present, I think, should be sent to some one in this 
country, or it will look like partiality. The reverend Mr. 
Reed, I think, has a claim : you have got his circular. 

There is a lady whom I could name that has vaccinated 
10,000. But above all, in this country, I think John Ring, 
with all his peculiarities on his head, stands foremost. Think, 
my friend, on his vast losses in devoting so much time and 
expenditure to our cause, and pray mention it to the Board. 
I should not regard paying for it myself, if it could be done 
without his knowing it. 

I admire the ingenuity of your metaphor, but I must cut 
it down to ordinary prose. You talk of rekindling the lymph 
when its fire has gone out. Its quality may be so modified 
by passing through herpetic skins, that it becomes unfit for 
the intended purpose. It will produce pustules of a dimi- 
nutive size, with a faint, or even without any, areola, and 
finishes its course prematurely. Is this what you mean to 
tell me ? I hope it is, for it is very important. When in 
the deteriorated state, it gets into bad hands, and much mis- 
chief may arise. 

Now for the sable emperor. You speak of something 
inclosed in your packet from a negro gentleman who is going 
to Hayti. Nothing came, at least from him ; but there was 
a letter from Mr. Wilberforce, speaking of the Avishes of this 
gentleman with respect to vaccination at Hayti. Pray contrive 
to present my compliments, and to assure him, the black gen- 
tleman, how much pleasure it would give me to do anything in 
my power to further his wishes. With this I shall send two 
or three detached papers of mine, which may be useful, and 
some others. They should be accompanied by my original 
paper, but it is out of print. Can't you get him to write to 
me ? I should like a letter from him very much. Indeed 
there is another reason for my wishing it. I have had 
the misfortune to lose or mislay Mr. Wilberforce's letter, so 
that I am ignorant even of the address of this enlightened 
African. I must now give you a little history in which you 



396 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

will hear something of Petion, the semi-sable Emperor of 
Hayti, who I understand divides the kingdom with Chris- 
tophe. In my list of patients, last autumn, at Cheltenham, 
were several gentlemen of respectability settled as merchants 
at St. Domingo. One of them, a Mr. Windsor, informed 
me how much it was the wish of Petion to establish a re- 
gular vaccine institution there. I promised to furnish him 
with vaccine materials, but was prevented from what befel 
me at that period. Mr. Windsor took instructions for calling 
on the National Establishment, but as you say nothing of 
the matter, I don't imagine you saw anything of him. All 
the gentlemen whom I have seen from the island speak of 
Petion in the most exalted terms, as one possessed of great 
intellectual powers, and who employs them for the best of 
purposes. Now what shall we do in this matter? I must 
leave it to your discretion. Mr. Windsor's address was at 
Messrs. Peel, Turner, and Scott, 109, Cheapside : but I fear 
he is gone. 

You ask me to come to town. The quiet of this place 
suits my mind much better at present. But I call into action 
all the reason I can muster, and have always company in 
my house. These privations are very dreadful, and make a 
man wish he never had existed ; but wishes of this sort should 
be banished, and give way to patience and resignation. My 
daughter is with me, and begs her best remembrances to you 
and Mrs. Moore. Robert is at Oxford, and would be glad 
to see you if chance should take you there, at Exeter Col- 
lege. When you see Miss Dunbar, give her our best wishes. 

Pray don't serve me as I serve you, but give me another 
letter soon. 

Yours, my dear Friend, most truly, 

Edward Jenner. 
Berkeley, Decembei' 3rd, 1815. 

Perhaps I have mistaken the whole business in sending 
any papers. Set me right if I am wrong. The paper on 
"the Varieties and Modifications" should have universal cir- 
culation. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 39/ 



To James Moore, Esq. 

Berkeley, March 5 th, 1816'. 

My dear Friend, 
Our correspondence has again grown slack; no blame 
lies at your door, but all at mine. 1 should have told you 
before this time, that I feel cheered by what you said of the 
vaccine medal, and the poem which was found enveloped 
in so much splendour in the library of the ex-Emperor. 

Mrs. Moore saw my copy of the poem, and I do not 
think liked it much. Perhaps she might think the thread 
spun a little too fine. The poet's fancy has certainly flown 
in all manner of directions, and if you would like to judge 
for yourself, my daughter bids me tell you she will with 
pleasure copy for you a faithful analysis presented to me by 
a lady here, a complete mistress of the Italian language. I 
do not mean the whole poem, but its outline. The fact, as 
you have an excellent knack at managing these things, would 
perhaps find admittance with some advantage in the work 
you are now engaged in, as a rub to the British Bards, 
not one of Avhom, whose voice has obtained celebrity, has 
sung one single note in honour of Vaccina. Anstey, perhaps, 
may be considered as an exception, who piped up a Latin 
Ode about a dozen years ago, which the indefatigable John 
Ring translated neatly into Enghsh verse. 

You are no stranger, I dare say, to a murmur that is 
spreading through various parts of the Empire, excited by 
what has been supposed a deteriorated state of the vaccine 
matter. Much has been written upon it in the public 
journals, and much has been said to me in private corres- 
pondence. Medical men are more expert than any others in 
discovering causes without the fatigue of much thinking, and 
in the present instance they have all hit upon the wrong 



398 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

one — no great wonder. They attribute the lessened activity 
of the matter which may happen to fall into their hands, and 
its disposition to produce imperfect vesicles, to the great 
length of time which has elapsed since it was taken from the 
cow, and consequently to the immense number of human 
subjects through whom it has passed. This is a conjecture, 
and I can destroy it by facts. The matter may undergo a 
change that may render it unfit for further use,by passing even 
from one individual to another, and this was as likely to 
happen in the first year of vaccination as in the twentieth ; 
for in spite of long experience, and instructions sent out 
from societies and individuals throughout the country, there 
are still medical men who will take any thing they can catch 
under the mere name of vaccine matter, or from a pustule 
incorrect in all its genuine characters. To guard against 
this important error, 1 have again and again pointed it out in 
every way I could think of, and at the same time made re- 
marks upon its ordinary source. It is, then, from the 
spread of matter of this description through many districts 
that the dissatisfaction I speak of has arisen, and I fear 
there will be some difficulty in setting aside the delusion ; 
for alas ! how much more easy it is to see what is right 
and good, than to effect it. The matter sent out by 
the National Vaccine Establishment is much complained 
of. I was applied to a few weeks since, by the surgeons 
of the hospital at Gloucester, for some vaccine matter, 
and their request was accompanied by the following 
observation : " that after using thirty points sent from 
town, not a single pustule was produced." The fault could 
not be in the mode of using them, for those sent by me were 
effective. 1 vaccinate the poor here weekly, and the pustules 
(vesicles, if you please) are in every resjiect as perfect and 
correct in size, shape, colour, state of the lymph, the period 
of the appearance and disappearance of the areola, its tint, 
and finally the compact texture of the scab, as they were in 
the first year of vaccination ; and to the best of ray know- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 399 

ledge, the matter from which they are derived was that taken 
from a cow about sixteen years ago. If there were a real ne- 
cessity for a renovation, I know not what we should do, for 
the precautions of the farmers with respect to their horses^ 
have driven the cow-pox from their herds. If you find any 
thing here worth communicating to the Board, I beg you 
will present it with my best compliments. 

What shall you have to report this session to Parliament ? 
Your small-pox list is much longer than one could have 
wished, but it is pleasant to hear that the next year's account 
of the mortality promises at present to be far more satisfac- 
tory. I have not observed from any quarter, where com- 
ments have been made, and where this list has been called 
tremendous, that it has brought forth a comparison between 
the fatality of the small-pox now, and previously to the in- 
troduction of the vaccine. Justice to the cause demands 
this, and I hope it will not escape your recollection when you 
form your Report, We may surely calculate on the reduc- 
tion of at least half the number ; for, if I recollect right, the 
average amounted to two thousand annually. In the pro- 
vinces, the reduction is very far beyond that of the metro- 
polis. 

All this was written before your second letter arrived, 
conveying the sad intelligence of your being an invalid. 

I am no stranger myself to the sciatica, having had many 
sharp attacks. The last time was in London, four or five years 
ago, while I was living in Cocksi)ur-street. One day in an agony 
of pain, I resolved on trying the popular remedy, walking; 
and effected a most painful piece of pedestrianism up to 
Temple-Bar and back. On my return I flung myself on my 
sofa in a state of exhaustion with torture and fatigue ', but 
it really proved a cure, and I have never had a relapse. 

Your friend. Lord Sidmouth, was once a friend of mine, 
and perhaps remains so still. His good humour was an 
over-match for his firmness when Premier. Such characters 



400 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

are estimable, but not fit to take a lead in state affairs, no 
more than my acquaintance Dr. Lamb is in the affairs of 
the Board of Directors. I never think of this part of the 
system of your establishment without irritation. As soon 
as a set of men have learned how to conduct the business, 
they vanish, and others are put in, who are totally igno- 
rant of vaccination. 

The account you give of your boys, is very pleasing to 
me J for be assured I take a sincere interest in every thing 
that adds to your comfort. 

My coming to town this spring or summer is very uncer- 
tain. I cannot make a good report to you of my health. 
Among other maladies brought on by my sad domestic 
affliction, was palpitation of the heart. This at intervals 
still pursues me, and a very unpleasant sensation it is, es- 
pecially as it prevents sleep ; but I am tolerably easy about 
it, as at my time of life I must expect to see and feel the pre- 
paration going forward for the extinction of vitality : but so 
long as it remains unaccomplished, I shall remain, my 
dear Friend, 

Most truly yours, 

Edw. Jenner. 
Berkeley, 215/ March, 1816. 

My best wishes attend Mrs. Moore. 

To James Moore, Esq. 

My dear Moore, 

Before you make a comparative calculation of failures 
between the vaccine and variolous inoculations, you must 
consider the immense disparity between the numbers inocu- 
lated with the one and the other. If you calculate on a 
period of forty years, I should conceive that in the course 
of the last twenty years there have been at least five times 
as many vaccinated as have been variolated. 



LIFE OF DR. JKNNER. 4()l 

Then you must take into the account failures attributable 
to ignorance, neglect, &c. &c. &c. Why is not the list of 
failures from small-pox brought forth ? My friend, John 
Ring, had this in progress some years ago ; but nothing ap- 
pears in a compact form from any quarter. No less than 
seventeen of such cases have been found in the families of 
the nobility. The late Mr. Bromfield, whom you must re- 
collect was surgeon to the Queen, abandoned the practice of 
inoculation in consequence of his failures, one of which was 
at the palace, from an inoculation with a portion of the 
same thread as was used on the arms of the Duke of 
Clarence and Prince Ernest, the Queen's brother. Is not 
tliis a precious anecdote for your new work ? 

The above was written long before the expiration of the 
last year. I have just copied it, as the paper was injured, 
and you must take it as a proof that I do not intentionally 
neglect you. It gives me pleasure to think that your second 
volume is so nearly completed ; but I pray you not to let it 
go before the public eye till it has passed the ordeal of mine. 
Many new lights have been let in on the vaccine practice most 
certainly since my own observations first appeared. With 
regard to the late-formed matter and the scab, there is still 
a field open for further experiments. I will communicate 
one to you that I made not long since. Several punctures 
were made in the arms of a healthy child with vaccine mat- 
ter, taken from the edges of the vesicle when three-fourths of 
the centre were incrusted. Not one of them took effect. 
Some weeks afterwards, with a solution of the same scab, I 
vaccinated effectually. This, I think, may be accounted for — 
the scab is made up of the early as well as the late-formed 
matter. On this point, I was certainly cautious in the in- 
structions I first gave out ; for an error on my part in this 
particular could not possibly be injurious to the public. 
Those who attacked me on this subject made themselves 
ridiculous, as they made me say what I never said.* I am 
* Especially with respect to the areola. 

VOL. II. 2 D 



402 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

grieved to observe that we do not think more alike upon a 
practical position that I have long laid down. What it can 
arise from, I am quite at a loss to discover. I allude to 
diseases of the skin coincident with the progress of the 
vaccine vesicle. You name to me a case of tinea capitis 
under which a child was vaccinated, and every thing went 
right. Why, my friend, that is the very exception* I made 
in my paper on the subject. It is the minor affections of 
the skin — what you are sometimes obliged to search for 
with some diligence, — which more frequently occasion the 
impediment. If I am deceived in this, every pupil I have 
ever had in this country is deceived also ; for they all re- 
mark it. 

You tell me you have got a good report for the present 
year — that is a good thing. The inclosed paper wall amuse 
you, but probably be of no further use. The drawing of 
the temple which accompanied the paper is mislaid : how- 
ever, you will find it, I think, in your Pantheon, as it was in 
that of Hygeia at Rome. What gratitude ! and in a region 
so distant ! In what part of Britain, should you and I take 
a ramble, could we discover any thing like this ? 

I suppose it will be my fate to summer among my oaks 
and elms (if I summer at all) at Berkeley : but the book — 
this is a most interesting thing. Of course you have your 
proof sheets, or sheets of some description. Could not you 
send me these in succession, and I will really look them over 
and send them back with all the care and expedition in my 
power. Try me once more. I feel as if I should be faith- 
ful — this is odd language — but my meaning is, that I shall 
execute the task with fidelity and despatch, unless physically 
prevented. 

I have a great respect for your elegant cousin, and am 
liappy to hear she is about to form an union in every respect 

* Not an absolute exception. The contrary appears in the 
case of Church, published by Willan. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 403 

so promising. Give her my best congratulations, and unite 
with them those of my daughter, to whom you were all so 
kind when she was in town ; and I must not forget to thank 
you for it. Pray send me a list in your next of the Board^ 
of which you speak so handsomely. I know Latham and 
Norris. 

To refer once more to your last letter. You must not 
risk it as an axiom that the lymph of a regular vesicle, when- 
ever taken, will excite only a regular vesicle. It might, in- 
deed it would, in A, with a sound skin ; but it is ten to one 
if it would in B, with a skin on which any of the irritative 
eruptions aj^peared. The disturbance of the specific action 
going forward in the vesicles by the rude thrust of a lancet, 
is what I have often named as more likely to weaken or even 
destroy its power than robbing it of its contents by means 
of a delicate touch or touches. The following is a curious 
fact ; its proof occurred in a village in this country not long 
since. A female had been vaccinated by means of a single 
puncture — a good vesicle appeared — from this several of her 
neighbours were vaccinated at different times during its 
progress. The woman caught the small-pox, and had it 
severely. This excited alarm among those who had received 
the infection from her ; they were all subjected to variolous 
inoculation, and all resisted it. 

I have told you ere now that I dislike the appearance of a 
large, irregular cicatrix after vaccination as much as I do 
one that is but just perceptible. A young lady whom I 
lately chanced to see, and who had been vaccinated when 
a child, had a mark of this description on her arm, and one 
only. I mentioned my suspicions, and she readily allowed 
me to insert some vaccine lymph. The consequence was, 
the appearance of five vesicles, which passed through their 
stages correctly, and from which I vaccinated with perfect 
effect. I have inclosed a proof impression, the seven- 
teenth in succession, and hope you will greatly admire my 
ingenuity, as well as the amazing length of my letter ; but 

2 D 2 



404 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

lest you should have too much of a good thing, I will con- 
clude. 

Believe me, dear Moore, 
With best affections, most truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 
I am half disposed to think the first part of my letter was 
sent to you before ; but, right or wrong, it must go now. 
You see how muddy my head is. 

Did you ever see my communications to Willan, pub- 
lished in his work on the Vaccine ? You can easily get it. 
Berkeley, lOth March, 181 7. 

P.S. On second thoughts I shall send your letter, intended 
for the post diy^ect, to the care of Dr. Hervey, as I beheve it 
will reach you on the committee day. You will be able, I 
hope, to give a good account of your Essex expedition. Pray 
call to your recollection the inquiry that formerly took place 
at Ringwood. The patients of one medical man there, were 
almost all susceptible of small-pox after supposed security 
from vaccination, while those of another escaped the con- 
tagion. The true mode of conducting this process is, for 
the most part, very imperfectly understood every where. 

The inconsiderate have a shield. If they fail, no blame, 
they would have their neighbours believe, attaches to them ; 
it is the thing itself that is imperfect. They know no more 
than the mere outhne of the practice, that is, taking the 
lymph from one arm and inserting it into another. Some- 
times, indeed, they err with their eyes open. A medical 
man, not far from hence, a short time since was called upon 
to vaccinate a number of paupers for a certain sum. The 
only source of infection was two very imperfect vesicles, or 
rather jmstules^ on the arms of a scabby child, which I had 
condemned as deceptions. Notwithstanding this sentence 
(being in the situation of Shakspeare's apothecary), the job 
was done, and he brought home beef and mutton in his 
pocket. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 405 

I shall send up in a few days some neivly created vaccine 
lymph. 

Ever truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

The following letters being of a miscellaneous 
nature, and not connected with vaccination, have 
been placed in their present order, that they might 
not interfere with that subject. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Worthixgton, Southend. 

Berkeley, 25th Sept. 1809. 
My dear Sir, 

Before I say any thing of your second letter, allow me to 
thank you most sincerely for your first. You endeavour to 
cheer me, and that is very friendly and kind of you. Mrs. 
Jenner as well as myself is sensible of your goodness, and 
begs her best thanks. There is no material alteration in 
the state of poor Edward since I last wrote to you — no 
return of heemorrhage. 

The epidemic you speak of has not been observed here ; 
at least it has not come under my observation in any degree 
beyond the common run of these maladies. Your mind, I 
know, never sleeps over human calamities. You speak of 
prevailing ophthalmia. Excuse my suggesting the great be- 
nefit you may bestow on your neighbours by the free use of 
the unguent, hydrar. nitrati. Theory says, " use it only 
when the eye-lids are aff*ected ; " but practice says, " spare it 
not when the eye itself is as red as a cherry." In short, I have 
been in the habit of using it in ophthalmia, under all its 
varieties, with the most decided success. In cases of the 
most violent kind, and which quickly threaten to destroy the 
eye, I introduce a seton in the temple, about an inch from 
the outward angle of the eye. The latter practice has, I 
really believe, given sight to thousands since I first made it 



406 LIFE OF BR. JENNER. 

public, about the year 1783. I now make you my debtor, 
by giving two receipts for one. I shall put about your plan 
for making good butter, but Prejudice is a giant : however, I 
shall fling my pebbles at him as hard as I can. Your ex- 
periments seem to have decided the superior excellence of 
the horse-hoe, and I hope you will give a paper on the sub- 
ject to the Agricultural Society, of which I have the honour 
to be a member, and should be proud to transmit it. 

I should have been happy in seeing your nephew as he 
passed along. Newport is only a mile from my residence. 

You must be disappointed at finding a certain vacuum in 
my letter — no vaccine matter. The fact is, I have none at 
present but what I fear is unlit for your use. Such numbers 
have been vaccinated around me, that I have worked myself 
out of employ, and can now only catch a subject occasionally 
as it drops into the world. I shall have one soon, when you 
shall be immediately supplied. But if you are in a hurry 
pray write to the National Vaccine Establishment in Lon- 
don. They like to have applications from professional gen- 
tlemen in the country. Direct as follows, — Dr. Hervey, 
National Vaccine Establishment, Leicester Square, under 
cover directed to the Secretary of State for the Home De- 
partment. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, most truly yours, 

Edw. Jenner. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Wortiiixgton. 

Berkeley, V6tk Dec. 1809. 
My dear Sir, 
I certainly have delayed answering your letter of the 
tenth of November beyond any reasonable, and I almost 
fear, pardonable period ; but if you can forgive me, pray 
do. Nothing would plead my excuse so forcibly as 
your seeing the confusion in which I am doomed to live, 
and nothing but your seeing it would give an adequate idea 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 407 

of it, for it defies the power of description. I am 
by accident^ you know, become a public character; and 
having the worst head for arrangement that ever was placed 
on a man's shoulders, I really think myself the most unfit 
for it. You may form some judgment of my accumulated 
vexations, when I tell you, that I am at this moment more 
than a hundred letters behindhand with my correspondents. 
I have lately been deprived of the aid of my secretary. 
He was cut off by the same dreadful disease, which, I fear, 
will shortly take from me my son. He, poor fellow, still 
exists, though I cannot but consider his case as hopeless. 
His cough has somewhat subsided, but his pulse is seldom 
under one hundred and twenty, and he is extremely ema- 
ciated. One thing is remarkable, from the commencement 
of the disease to the present period, I do not think the se- 
cretions discharged from the lungs (pus, mucus, or what- 
ever they may be) would amount to half a pound in weight. 
Allow me, my dear Sir, to thank you for the very kind and 
soothing manner in which you speak of him. Mrs. Jenner 
feels this as well as myself, and desires to join her thanks 
with mine. What dreadful strides pulmonary consumption 
seems to be making over every part of our island. I trust 
some advantage may, one day or another, be derived from 
my having demonstrably made out that what is tubercle in 
the lungs has been hydatid. But I must not tell you a long 
story on this subject now, as you must be impatient for my 
going into another. I M^as quite delighted with the detail of 
your successful experiments in the profitable science of agri- 
culture, and am happy to find you have finished your Re- 
port ; but if my letter is not destroyed, and you can refer to 
it, I believe you will find that I told you I was a member of 
the Board of Agriculture, meaning that in London. If I 
said the Agricultural Society, you have certainly been led 
into an error. Thinking your observations worthy of the fiist 
society in Europe, I did not look to the second. Utrum 
harum ? It may not be material. Your design, I know, is 



408 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

to impart knowledge ; and if your paper is drawn up for the 
express purpose of going to the Bath Society, I can convey 
it there with great ease, being intimately acquainted with the 
presidents of both. To convince you how attentive I have 
been to your letter, you must know that I made an effort to 
have a drop of good cider in my house as well as yourself, 
and imprisoned, as firmly as I was able, a hogshead of apple- 
juice fresh from the mill ; but about the tenth day it seemed 
so determined to break loose, that to prevent the bursting of 
the cask, I was obhged to give it liberty : perhaps I was not 
sufficiently expeditious, for it must be confessed that one 
half of it had been exposed to the air the day before the 
whole was bunged up. I anticipate great crops of pota- 
toes, &c. &c. if I live to see another summer. Pray do not 
suffer what I have said respecting my pile of letters to deter 
you from writing to me, if you can put vip with such a bad 
correspondent as I have proved myself to be. Indeed, if 
you do not write to me soon, I shall think you are offended, 
and believe me that would make a heavy addition to my bur- 
den of cares. 

With great regard, my dear Sir, truly yours, 

Edward Jexner. 

To THE Rev. Dk. Wortiiixgtox. 

My dear Sir, 
I know you Avill require no apology from me for suffering 
your last letter to remain so long unanswered. You know 
the sad movements of the mind in a case like mine, and how 
it sits brooding over melancholy, unless absolutely dragged out 
of it. I have placed your letter in my view for some time 
past ; and it has at length urged me to take )iiy pen and an- 
swer it. First, let me thank you for your little essay on con- 
solation ; you are perfectly right ; a person under affliction 
had better be left to his undisturbed meditations. But, my 
good Sir, you have been useful to us without being conscious 
of it ; you have inculcated that great Christian principle 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 409 

humility in so impressive a way in one of your sermons, that 
I feel greatly obliged to you for it. 

After the account I have given of myself, you may sup- 
pose your Agricultural Report is still lying among my 
papers. Believe me it has long been a hundred miles off, 
and in the hands of Lord Somerville. Indeed, ere now I 
should suppose it has reached its place of destination, the 
Board of Agriculture, where I anticipate its meeting with 
the reception it merits. 

The state of your drilled wheat, I hope will make con- 
verts of the surrounding peasantry. The difference between 
yours and theirs is this : yours had a plentiful larder to go to, 
while theirs was starved, or at least had not sufficient sup- 
plies to keep out the cold. It was that dreadfid frosty night 
which came suddenly about nine weeks ago, that made such 
havoc among vegetation. Its effects are every where visi- 
ble here. Pray do not part with youx free martin ; it will 
be a beavitiful animal, and docile and useful in your fields as 
the ox. I have dissected many ; but why this mingling of 
the sexes should arise under such circumstances, eludes all 
my guesses. Some of the tricks going forward among the 
inhabitants of the uterus I have long since pretty well 
made out ; but this is too much for me. I was the first 
who made the fact known (some thirty years ago) to Mr. 
Hunter. He soon went to work upon the subject, and the re- 
sult was an excellent paper in the Philosophical Transactions. 
It was re-pubhshed in his work on the Animal Economy. 

I want to have a deal of talk with you on matters of this 
sort before I go hence. Oh that you had but taken the Pe- 
dington farm ! But it is wrong to repine, all is right. We 
see through a mist, and shall till our eyes receive a new lus- 
tre. God bless you and yours ! 

Yours, my dear Sir, most faithfully, 

Edward Jenner. 
Berkeley, 5th April 1810. 

P. S. Your son has my begt wishes. From what I have 
heard of Mr. Freer, his situeition must be very promising. 



410 LIFE OF DR. JENNER 

To THE Rev. Dr. Worthington. 

My dear Sir, 

I received the inclosed by last night's post, and hasten to 
lay it before you, both for your credit and my own too. 
I am unfortunately a little given to procrastination ; and ray 
character, I have reason to apprehend, is beginning to be 
known some thirty miles north of me. But a word in exte- 
nuation — I am more apt to neglect my own affairs than those 
of my friends. This mode of conduct we philosophers can 
account for. A man will get censured for neglecting the 
latter ; but with regard to himself, he can easily accommo- 
date the matter. Having proved, then, by the inclosed certi- 
ficate from my Lord Somerville, how well I have executed 
the business entrusted to my care, I hope it will recommend 
me so strongly to your attention, that you wiU take me into 
your service whenever you can make me in the least degree 
useful. 

I suppose you are now in the midst of that pleasant 
branch of agriculture, potatoe-planting. What a gift from 
Heaven was this extraordinary vegetable — a ready-made 
loaf — and reserved too, till the hour when population, in 
these realms at least, began first to increase ; and then 
coming we scarcely know how. Away with Malthus and 
his drear)' speculations ! The skies are filled with Benevo- 
lence, and let population increase how it may, let us not 
distrust it, and suppose that men will ever pick the bones of 
each other. To descend a step or two, I find that at this 
season of the year and at the first coming of the potatoe, 
in order to have it in perfection at my table, I must deviate 
from that mode of cookery (certainly the best from October to 
March), which has been pointed out by the Irish, namely, put- 
ting it into cold water and suffering the water gradually to rise 
to the boiling heat ; but 7ioiv a plunge into boiling water at once 
is the thing, where it must remain till the process is finished. 
Steam I found equally bad witl^the cool regimen ; it renders 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 411 

a potatoe viscid and watery, which dressed in the other way- 
is mealy, and readily crumbles under the knife or spoon. 
If any thing further can add to the improvement, it is a little 
steaming, when the net is taken from the pot, under close 
cover. Will your cook pardon this impertinent intrusion 
upon her province ? 

Believe me truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 
Berkeley, 25 th April, 1810. 

From Lord Somerville to Dr. Jenner. 

Pardon me, my dear Doctor, for not replying sooner to 
your obliging letter ; but I have had a cold-street, hot-room, 
silk-stocking, champagne fever in London, which has con- 
fined me to the bed for some days, or you should have heard 
from me before. 

When my great sale of sheep is over, which will be in eight 
days, I shall have both leisure to present and pleasure in 
doing the needful with Dr. Worthington^s excellent Treatise; 
it now lies in my portfolio ready for action ; but I wish to 
be there when it is read. 

You keep aloof in this new Vaccine National Establish- 
ment, and wise you are in doing it, for Avell I know that the 
mean spirit which presides sometimes, of jealousy and in- 
trigue, is hostile to your nature ; and you are now enabled 
to keep a whip ready for the backs of those who play foul 
in it ; in this way you will be of twice the use you could 
otherwise be. In every sense of the word I am alive to 
every thing that can do you honour or profit. When you 
come to town you owe me a visit at this farm, which for 
purity of air and beauty of views can hardly be equalled. 

Ever very sincerely. 
My dear Sir, 

I am yours, 

SOMERVILLE. 

Fair-Mile Farm, Cohhamf Surrey. 



412 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Worthington. 

Berkeley, 4th May, 1810. 
My dear Sir, 

I have been favoured, since my last dispatch to Southend, 
with your neat little Essay on Vaccination and your obser- 
vations on dipping. Have you seen an account of some 
bold Vaccine transactions now going forward among the 
medical men of the county ? Their resolutions appear in 
the Gloucester and Cheltenham papers. Your county I 
hope will soon follow this laudable example. The small-pox 
will never be subdued, so long as men can be hired to 
spread the contagion by inoculation. 

With regard to the other subject you mention, be assured 
my thoughts have not been idle upon it, having lived man 
and boy much beyond half a century in a dipping country. 
Pyrton Passage, four miles only from this place, has been 
noted for this practice time immemorial; and true it is, I 
never saw or heard of a single case of hydrophobia after 
dipping in the Severn, or as our friend Westfaling has it, 
drowning; for so it is, as you shall hear. I once asked a 
long-experienced professor what length of time he kept his 
patients under water ? His reply was, " As to that I can^t 
tell, but I keep them under till they have done kicking, 
when I bring them up to recover their senses and get a 
little breath, and then down with them again, and so on to 
a third time, observing the same rule, not to take them up 
till their struggle is over." 

You see then what a shock the vital principle receives 
from this process. The modus operandi let us not trouble 
our heads about, if the fact can be established that it deadens 
the action of the inserted virus. I have wished to see how 
far it can be supported by analogy, by getting some vacci- 
nated patient dipped within a few days after the insertion of 
the vaccine lymph. At all events an inquiry so highly im- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 413 

portant should be taken up, and it cannot be in better hands 
than yours. 

The case of the unfortunate farmer is extremely interest- 
ing, and I look forward to your reports upon it with much 
anxiety. A person is certainly in more danger after receiv- 
ing the poison on the hand or the face than on other parts, 
for obvious reasons. The tooth must be wiped by the 
clothes before it can reach them. 

I expect to hear from my Lord Somerville as soon as your 
papers have been presented and read. 

Believe me most truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Worthington. 

London, Fladong^s Hotel, Oxford 
Street, June 2Qth, 1811. 
My DEAR Sir, 
A great bundle of letters has just reached me b)^ the 
Gloucester coach. Yours of the 20th is among the number, 
and if I do not, in spite of the worries of this shocking place, 
take immediate notice of it, what will you think of me ? I 
am much obliged to the bed of nettles ; they have introduced 
you to a very pleasant family, with whose ancestry I have 
heretofore played all the pranks you speak of. I have gone 
further, and entertained a tea-party by placing the young 
cuckoo, when about four days old, on the table, in its little 
twiggy cottage, where I have caused it to exhibit its won- 
derful performances of discarding any thing placed there not 
too ponderous for it to carry up to the edge of the nest and 
throw out. Pray be attentive to your young charge, as you 
will be able to confirm what I have said on this extraordi- 
nary subject. A little search may perhaps bring more nests 
to your view. 

I told Westfaling, in a conversation on dipping, that there 
might be bad dippers as well as bad vaccinators, for which 



414 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

there seems at present to be no allowance. Pray do not be 
deterred from prosecuting your inquiry. Yesterday I dined 
with Professor Davy. I wish you had been with us. His 
mind is all in a blaze. He seems to be one of those rare 
productions which nature allows us to see once in a score of 
centuries. We touched on hydrophobia. He started an 
ingenious idea, that of counteracting the effects of one mor- 
bid poison with another. What think you of a viper ? Not 
its broth, but its fang, as soon as the first symptom of disease 
appears from canination. If this should succeed, we must 
domiciliate vipers as Vv^e have leeches. But from this hint 
I should be disposed to try, under such an event, vaccina- 
tion ; as it can almost always be made to act quickly on the 
system, whether a person has previously felt its influence or 
not, or that of the small-pox. 

An answer to one of your questions. I am sure the 
cuckoo has nothing to do with hatching, as all the adults 
are off, while a great number of their eggs remain unhatched. 
I should put dogs quite out of the question in the new re- 
search, and confine myself totally to the human animal ; I 
mean, with respect to dipping. 

Success to your crops. I should like to see them before 
they fall beneath the sickle ; and do not yet quite despair. 
My stay here will be a few days longer only. You can 
never write too often, or too much to me ; but how can you 
put uj) with such shocking returns for your kindness ? 
When your cuckoo has gone through all his manoeuvres, 
pray give me your notes. 

Believe me. 

Most truly yours, 

E. Jemner. 

To Mr. E. Gardner, Frampton. 

Gloucester, Saturday, April I3th, 18 IG. 
Dear Gardner, 
I do not think you haA^e written to me since the time you 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 415 

promised to spend the Easter vacation at Berkeley. It 
would be a shock to you to stalk into the old cottage, and 
find nothing within it but chairs without associates, grates 
without fires, and, worse still, tables with nothing on them 
but their varnish. In good truth I am still at Gloucester, 
under the roof of my friend Baron, and have been detained 
here the whole of this tremendous assize. My intention is 
to quit this place (rendered dreary by the tragic scene at 
this instant about to be acted on the horrid platform) to- 
morrow, and go to Berkeley ; but what renders my return 
home a little uncertain is a bad catarrh, accompanied with 
sore throat and head ache. If Monday, then, was the day 
you fixed upon for coming to Berkeley, pray do not put it off; 
my motive for writing being nothing more than taking off 
the fear that you might possibly go to Berkeley and be dis- 
appointed, and, indeed, more than disappointed, for you 
might feel hurt at being neglected by an old friend. I 
should like for you to collect the feelings of the country re- 
specting the execution, as I must go deeply into the consi- 
deration of the case when we meet. They certainly did not 
ofo out with intent to commit murder. But it is somehow 
expected that the meanest individual in the state is to be 
acquainted with our penal laws and all their intricacies. But, 
in my opinion, this is unreasonable, for no general provision 
is made for engrafting this knowledge on the mind. An 
outline might be imparted by our clergy, by reading to their 
congregations four times a year a sketch of these laws ; at 
the same time they might be blended with moral instruction : 
so that the laws and the evil consequences of breaking them 
might be committed to memory at the same time. In short, 
the village peasant knows no more at present of the laws 
which are to act as restraints on his vicious inclinations — that 
is, when they move into paths of intricacy — than the village 
doctor does of those of the animal economy. We want a 
new school. Experience has shewn that the present system 
of tuition with respect to instructing children in the know- 



416 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ledge of the Creator is faulty in the extreme, and I have 
every reason to think, that the plan I have long proposed, 
and with which you are acquainted, if acted upon, would 
prove of incalculable importance to the rising generation. 

Dear Gardner, 

Truly yours, 

E. Jenner. 

P.S. I have every expectation of going home to-morrow. 



To THE Rev. W. Davies, Rockhampton. 

Dear William, 

I must wait patiently till I find an opportunity of 
going with you for the purpose of exploring the Breccia 
rocks in the neighbourhood of Thornbury. For this pur- 
pose I must have a clear day and a clear head, that is, I 
must seize on some lucky hour, if I can find it, when I can 
get rid of perplexity, and think of one thing at a time. If 
one could manage the rays of thought as easily as those of 
the sun, bring them to a focus, and to bear upon a particu- 
lar point, what clever fellows we should be ! Perhaps too 
clever for the scheme of Providence : so we must take things 
as they are, be humble, and be thankful. 

Your brother Edward, I find, is very soon going to town ; 
will you desire him to purchase for me, at some I'eputable 
shop, a few packets of good garden seeds, such as carrot, 
onion, lettuce, &c. &c. and the most dwarfish of all the dwarf 
peas ? There is a sort which grows scarcely higher than this 
sheet of paper, and are excellent bearers. I am going to 
Kingscote to-morrow, to see poor little Caroline. I fear, 
poor thing, the injury will prove too severe for her, and that 
she will sink from the extent of it. What pity it is, that 
precaution with regard to fire is scarcely ever attended to in 
our nurseries. A shower bath, constantly charged, should 
be ever ready as an instantaneous extinguisher. This I have 



-t*- 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 417 

been recommending very generally for many, many years, but 
I never heard that one was put up in consequence. Remote 
evil is seldom heeded. 

Adieu ! Aflfectionately yours, 

Edward Jenner. 
Berkeley, Jan. 14, 1818. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Wortiiington. 

Berkeley, January 26', 1818. 

You si^eak to me, my dear doctor, about indulging hope. 
I have almost done with this business, and it is very odd 
one should continue to grasp at it so long, when it is as slip- 
pery as a soaped pig's tail. Did you ever watch little boys 
running after butterflies? A pretty picture of Hope this. 
And now about corporal strength and animal spirits. 

The corporal is in tolerably good condition and fit for 
service ; but of the latter, if I give any account at all, it 
must be such a miserable one, that I will spare the feelings 
of a friend, and say nothing. 

What, poor Maria not well yet ? The fashionable remedy 
. is laurel leaves, made limp by the fire like the leaves of the 
cabbage, when used as an application. As for myself, I have 
not a fair chance, as I am tossed about in carriages from 
morning to night over roads I should suppose as bad as 
ever the coachman of Julius Csesar drove over. You little 
think what a condition this Swindon-batter'd shoulder of 
mine is in — seldom free from pain by day, and at night it 
often so terrifies poor quiet Morpheus, he won't come near 
me. What is all this about Beavan and the Blues ? 

I must not forget to tell you that I have a weekly stock 
of vaccine fluid, some of which shall become solid across the 
Atlantic whenever you will order it. A letter at the same 
time might be useful, as the matter (which I shall take care 
to mention) has not been many months taken from its ori- 
ginal source ; and all they have now in use in America has 

VOL. II. 2 E 



^ 



418 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

been passing there from arm to arm for nearly the fifth part 
of a century. 

Catherine is still on the hills at the ill-fated house of 
Kingscote, where she officiates as first nurse. I begin to think 
the burnt girl will recover. Poor dear Harriet's case re- 
mains undetermined. I shall never prevail on any one to 
keep a shower bath in some corner of a nursery, charged. 
Were a child on fire, it might be extinguished in an instant ; 
and, indeed, just as soon on a full grown female. Well ; 
such a letter as this for length has not been thrown off the 
nib of my pen for many a month. Shall you be ever able to 
get through it ? Certainly not, if I go on much longer ; so, 
adieu, my good doctor, and with kind regards to aU at the 
Albion, believe me most sincerely yours, 

Edward Jenxer, 

To THE Rev. Dr. Wortiiington. 

My dear Doctor, Berkeley, May 2, 1818. 

I suppose I am got into a sort of scrape with you, but it 
will be very strange if the day should not extricate me. 
Three letters from Swindon ! All prime, too — right genuine ; 
and not one answered yet. Too bad ! There is my confes- 
sion ; take it, and be merciful. 

You must be impatient to know something about my 
petition to the India House in favour of Mr. Roberts. This 
has been made some time since, but not the least notice has 
yet been taken of it. On this I put a construction so far 
favourable, that it is clearly under consideration. Observe, 
I did not make my application to the directors point blank ; 
for they are all under obligations to me, and consequently 
wovild have thrown my letter with a " pish " under their 
table, in a moment. It was made to a banker who is inti- 
mate with many of them, and who, on a former occasion, 
got me a cadetship for a young man of this place. I almost 
envy you when you are talking of the state of your fine 



LIFE OF DR. jennp:r. 419 

vegetables. I can get nothing but a few spring greens. 
Ragged jacks and jerusalenis I will show with any body ; 
but if you want a capital thing, get some Bucla kale- 
seed, and sow immediately. The grass, &c. which I put 
into trenches last summer in my kitchen garden, re- 
mains nearly in a state of perfect preservation. How 
is this ? I did it from a rule laid down in the works 
of the Horticultural Society ; which paper, by the way, 
was copied by the fair Emilia for you. Old John and 
I, at last, after about thirty years' association, are come 
asunder ; or rather we did separate, and are again forming 
something like an acquaintance with each other. The old 
Celt dug up all my precious beet-root, just as it was in high 
perfection, and conveyed it to the dung-heap. Within a 
week old John felt the loss of the pantry so much, that one 
half of him evaporated. I am daily expecting packets of 
seeds from Italy and the south of Spain. Nothing, you 
know, ripened here last year. When will our seas disgorge 
the polar ice ? If all of it is to make the tour of the At- 
lantic, what will become of us while this is about ? 

Wliat could destroy poor Griffiths ? It could not be 
fulness in the head. When his successor is established, and 
all the new arrangements are completed, then for a compli- 
mentary reply to a certain paper on the subject of flannel in 
contact with the skin. If ever taraxacum, the tooth of the 
lion, bit off the head of disease, it must have been at such a 
season as this. It never appeared to be more sharply set. 
" Farewell, a long farewell." I fear ^^ou have all taken to 
this place. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Worthington. 

Saturdaij niyht, Feb. 13, 1819. 

Yes, my good doctor, so it is, and so it ever will be. The 

laws enacted by that mighty Potentate, whose government will 

have no end, wall never be repealed. The poor dear woman, 

whose untimely loss we now deplore, had, it seems, for seve- 

2 E 2 



420 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

ral months past, those premonitory whisperings in her ear, 
which led her to beheve her days were nearly at an end. 
How often we witness this; and in those, who, like herself, 
were apparently in good health. My nephew carried his 
heavy load of affliction with a firm and steady step, and is 
making some admirable arrangements for the welfare of his 
young family. Emily, I believe, is acquainted with one, 
which seems to be highly promising. 

Ere now, I trust you are liberated from the dreary charge 
you took upon yourself in your own family ; but when you 
say you have been long watching over the afflicted domestic, 
do you really speak literally ? If so, I must say you have 
been unnecessarily bold. I saw it carried to an extreme in 
iliejirst case. Watching the progress of this epidemic as I 
have for several months past, I am warranted in saying that 
it is more contagious than any thing of the kind ever wit- 
nessed by me before, but far less destructive. The fatal arrow 
seems aimed at the brain ; and if we can so blunt its point 
that it shall not penetrate too deep, we have done every 
thing. You have got Bateman. He seems belter informed 
on the subject than any author I have met with ; but why 
he should entirely discard antimony from his remedies, I can- 
not conceive. We have all, perhaps, our prejudices. One 
thing I cannot help naming to you, as you have been very 
heedless about it ; and that is the use of the anti-pestilential 
vapour. From a wide range of observation, I can speak po- 
sitively of its guardian powers. We have at last imported 
the disease into this place. Henry Jenner, who, though lie 
has seen nearly half a century fly over his head, has not yet 
begun to think, perched himself in the midst of a poor family 
pent up in a small cottage. It was the abode of wretched- 
ness, had the addition of pestilence been wanting. He was 
infected, of course ; and his recovery is very doubtful. I am 
told to-day that he is very full of an eruption, the appear- 
ance of which stands midway between small -pox and 
chicken-pox. This has been spoken of by some of the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 421 

Dublin and Edinburgh authors. The Cheltenham Chro- 
nicle certainly appears here weekly, but I seldom see much 
more of it than its cover. On searching, I have found 
your second and third number, but shall defer my critique 
till I find the first. Why did you not mention your de- 
sign upon us sooner ? To say the truth, I begin to lose 
my relish for the inquiry ; and not only this, but all others. 
Yet why should I discard fossils ? they will soon be my 
associates. Never did I spend so cheerless, so wretched a 
winter. I am become a " sheer hulk," my masts and rigging 
all shot away. 

Old Nixon was a wonderful fellow ; but what this unnatu- 
ral season is to produce who can tell ? Its physical conse- 
quences will ere long appear. Nothing, I hope, will happen 
to destroy a certain vegetable yclepped Nicotiana ; if so, the 
little remnant of my comfort is snatched from my life, and 
all is lost ! 

Your whole house have the best wishes of, my dear doctor, 

Yours most truly, 
Edward Jenner. 

On looking, I perceive it is your middle paper that is miss- 
ing. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Worthington. 

Berkeley, Sept. 4, 181*>. 
My DEAR Doctor, 
It was not till within these three days, that I heard you had 
once more bent your steps towards your Gloucestershire 
dwelling. Some reports had sent you into France, and 
others had made you a wanderer among watering-places on 
our own shores ; but I am happy in the viva voce evidence 
of a reverend divine, who was your fellow-traveller, in find- 
ing that you are again breathing the air of our country. 
May I hope that ere long you will take a mouthful or two of 
that v.'hich sweeps over the meadows of our ever-green val- 
ley. Are you alone ? I hear nothing of your having com- 



422 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

. panions, save and except poor old Tartar, Minx, and her 
kitten. / am in perfect solitude, and have been so these six 
weeks. Mr. Fitzhardinge is grousing in the Highlands, and 
Catherine is in Yorkshire. 

My hot-house has been beset by a new species of white 
blight ; it differs somewhat from that which has so long beset 
our apple-trees ; but great has been the havoc it has made 
among the vines. Know you how to destroy vermin of this de- 
scription ? One occurrence is worth remarking : the trees at 
each end of the conservatory, which were exposed to frequent 
fanning by the opening of the doors, are in the highest vi- 
gour, free from vermin, and bearing most luxuriantly. It 
shews us how necessary ventilation is to vegetable life. As 
the affair between me and letter-writing is nearly come to a 
termination, I shall desire Stephen Jenner to make a fill up 
by throwing one of his sketches into the vacant page. 

Most truly yours, my dear doctor, 

Edward JeiNner. 

P. S. Stephen, I see, has played old scratch with the 
paper ; but it must go, and you must keep it till we send a 
better. He has done a country auction, and grou2:(ed about 
thirty figures. In my opinion, it is a production of uncom- 
mon merit. 

We are all at a loss for a precise direction. 

To Dr. Baron, Gloucester. 

Berkeley, Monday, Jan. 12, 182 J. 
My dear Baron, 
I am frequently hearing of your amencled health, and hope 
soon to find that you are wound up to your usual standard, 
and able, without the aid of wheels, to come and spend a 
day at the Chantry. If you do not come, let me have a 
line soon. 

I cannot get my nerves in good order. Certain sounds, 
such as I am frequently exposed to, still irritate them like 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 423 

an electric shock. The blunt sounds, such as those issuing 
from the bells in the tower, two pieces of wood striking each 
other — indeed, obtuse sounds of any kind — do not harm me ; 
but the sharp clicking of tea-cups and saucers, tea-spoons, 
knives and forks on earthen plates, so distract me, that I can- 
not go into society which has not been disciplined and learnt 
how to administer to my state of distress. But, my dear 
Baron, I will not repine, I have enough and enough of 
mercies to be thankful for ; and trust you never will find me 
ungrateful to the Almighty God who bestowed them. May 
you have his blessings ! Adieu, my dear friend. 

With best affections, most truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 
A letter of mine, which I never expected to have seen in 
our County Paper, appeared there this morning in a state of 
perfect nudity. For the benefit of the people in a district 
in Wiltshire, I allowed some of their chieftains, who ear- 
nestly entreated me, to publish it in the Devizes paper ; but 
it was preceded by a letter from the 'squire, and followed by 
another from Dr. Headly, a man of the first reputation and 
respectability in the county of Wilts. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Wortiiington. 

Berkeley, Feb. 24, 1821. 
I have Avritten but seldom to you lately, my dear doctor, 
for I have met with very little worth writing about ; at least 
very little in which you would feel interested. Yet you 
would have been plagued with a letter or two full of nothing- 
ness (excuse the paradox) had not my old ill luck pursued me. 
I rise in the morning tolerably active, and disposed to work 
with mind and muscle, and actually do work, though scarcely 
half an hour in the day in the way I could wish, from in- 
cessant thwartings and interruptions. What is to be done, 
then ? Those who understand all this, will not corrugate 
their faces at me; those who do not, will : but it must be borne. 



424 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

. Another thing, too, must be taken into the account; though I 
boast of my strength in a morning, yet evening seems to 
come before its time. My afternoon is all evening, and my 
evening midnight. Such are the uncontrollable workings of 
the old partners mind and matter (body and soul, if you 
will), after the firm has been very long established. 

I hear you like Bristol ; and that the people behave more 
than civilly to you — kind and attentive; that you have received 
civic honours, and I know not what. Is it so ? If you say 
yes, I shall be agreeably surprised at their civilky and dis- 
cernment. My late patient, I trust, has found benefit from 
the pleasant weather we have had so long, for though the 
nights have been a little frosty, the days have been deli- 
cious from the total absence of currents of air. My best 
affections to her and her sister. 

The practice of an humble submission to our misfortunes, 
or what we are apt to suppose such, is the best smoother of 
the rugged roads of life. But what am I about? stepping 
into a territory that belongs to you and not to me. Pardon 
my presumption, my dear doctor ; and believe me with best 
affections, 

Most truly yours, 
Edward Jenner. 

P. S. Mr. Langharne commonly goes down to Bristol 
every Wednesday; and I shall keep this till he sets off. His 
return is generally on a Friday or Saturday morning. I 
almost forgot to thank you for the snuffers ; capital, like the 
last patent corkscrew ; superior to the ne plus ultra. 

To THE Rev. Dr. Wobthington. 

Saturday, June 16, 1821. 
My dear Doctor, 
As I cannot apologise for myself for the long neglect of 
your numerous and intelligent letters, I must request the 
favour of you to do it for me. Neglect, do I say ? I should 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 425 



O 



not bring a false accusation against myself neither. It is 
the constant occupation of my mind on subjects that impe- 
riously demand attention^ that distracts and tears me away 
from what would be far more pleasant to my feelings. The 
pull is unequal, and go I must when the tug begins ; for the 
public have hold of one end of the rope, and an individual, 
only, of the other. You see, then, how the matter stands ; and 
I feel certain that you will plead for me if arraigned at the 
Inchbrook bar. 

You have been kind enougli to say a great deal to me on 
the score of health, and in two points I have profited 
materially by your monitions^ namely, exercise and diet. 
The mile before breakfast, briskly performed, is a capital 
prelude to the correct movements of the living machinery for 
the day, at least this puts all into right tune ; it resins the 
bow, and puts all the pegs and screws in their right places. 
Two miles before dinner, and a pretty long see-saw walk 
after, settles the account between me and my props, as far as 
the aiFair of exercise is concerned ; but how stands the ma- 
nagement of the interior ? Thus: — I indulge the natural de- 
mands of the stomach with larger supplies both of wine and 
animal food, even to the libation of two full glasses of bronti, 
and sometimes, on gcla days, to as large a potation of cider — 
wine glasses, mind me. The scoop is an utensil I cannot 
touch without burning my fingers. My sleep is sound, and 
I enjoy enough of it. I go to bed at eleven, and rise before 
eight. Once more, and I have done with my egotisms. The 
cHcks still annoy me ; but far more faintly than when you 
were here last. Thomas, as usual, daily plants his batteries; but 
though he seems to load his artillery to the very muzzles, the 
balls do not get through the cranium and penetrate the inte- 
rior. In addition to the remedial history, I should tell you, 
that commonly more than once a day I have taken a weak 
solution of carbonate of soda, which the learned among us 
now insist upon it, is the best and most wholesome alkali of 
the three. 



426 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

I wish you a pleasant voyage to the east. Shall you not 
be in town during the bustle of the king's crownation? The 
broad shadows, which the enemies of vaccination endea- 
voured to cast over it, are vanishing. Sunshine takes their 
place. Pray look over the Gloucester Journal for Monday 
next. I am told, that Mr. Richard Hill intends to say a 
word or two on the subject to some of the faculty in Wotton. 
Twenty in that small town already slain by the jooisoned 
arrow of Variola! Is not this too shocking? Can you for- 
bear saying a word or two to these murderous peoi^le, after 
you have seen what comes from the brain of the Right Rev. 
R. H. Look back and invoke the same genius of inspiration 
that nestled in your heart when you penned the pathetic 
appeal to the humanity of Cheltenham. You need not be 
in a hurry. I fear the mischief is not finished. These 
death-deeds will go on as long as some of the faculty in 
Wotton can get a fee for their perpetration. 

We will endeavour to keep your white terrier till you re- 
turn. The animal is promising, but, at present, in rather a 
shapeless state, which, I understand, is to be modelled into 
the beautiful, by the hand of Time. I have procured a brace 
of the Genii of your native isle, and prevailed upon them to 
be placed at your disposal, among your Penates. 

Not one word yet for poor Mary ; and on a rummage I 
can scarcely find one. The same monotony that is to be 
found in every sequestered village in the world dwells here. 
Among the locomotive corals very little variety is to be found. 
The fixtures shine in all their lustre, and passing downward 
in the scale, attract by their simplicity. Nature's primitive 
buildings are all constructed on the same plan ; the coral is 
as perfect as the man, as far as regards the stable part of the 
building. All that we see is shell, or analogous to it, fluids 
as well as solids. The vital principle is in the interior of the 
cabinet, under the lock of the DEITY. When this escapes, 
at once it falls into dilapidation, and is carried, particle by 
particle, by agencies visible and invisible, through all the 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 427 

regions of the air, earth, sea, and in the course of time lends 
its assistance in building new mansions, and in rebuilding, 
or rather rej^airing, the old. This for Mary. It is a slice otF 
the same loaf slie used to get in " days lang syne '^ for 
breakfast at the Chantry, sometimes pretty well baked, 
sometimes not so ; and this, I fear, has more crust than pith 
about it. 

You must be pretty well tired of me by this time. Adieu, 
my dear doctor. 

Believe me, most truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

The Rev. Dr. Worthington» 

Berkeley, Aug. 2, 1821. 
Want of ability, my dear doctor, and not inclination, has 
occasioned this seeming neglect of you. Here is the old 
apology come again, and I fear not for the last time. While 
you have been enjoying luxuries of all descriptions (among 
the rest the luxury of woe), I have been a fixture in this 
joyless spot, and here am likely to remain, till removed in 
one way or another. Perhaps if there were that extent of 
communication between soul and soul which may be known 
hereafter, it will be found that I have said a thousand things 
to you now in inaudible tones, since last we held converse 
in the ordinary way ; but your ear must be new modelled be- 
fore you can catch sounds of this description, that is, sounds 
issuing from the tongue of the mind. It almost makes me 
tremble to speak of sounds, for I am as susceptible as you 
ever saw me of those pointed sounds emanating from the 
utensils which spread over our dinner and breakfast tables. 
The blunt noises, such as issue from a peal of bells, I re- 
gard not. I stood at the foot of the tower a short time since, 
and regarded it no more than the hum of Gray^s beetle, which 
now enchants my garden every evening. The cry of hounds 
and the halloo of the huntsmen would still be music to me ; 
but the horrible click of a spoon, knife, or fork, falling upon a 



428 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

plate, gives my brain a kind of death blow. Though I soon 
scramble out, I am instantly engulfed as it were in an abyss 
of misery. You see, then, that I am almost driven out of 
society by this misfortune, if one may be allowed to call 
any thing a misfortune which occurs to us during our jour- 
ney through life. 

My feelings tell me that I shall not be able to notice many 
things you have communicated to me in your letters, for I 
begin to flag. Accept, then, this patchij scrap ; but ere I 
quite conclude, I must say a word or two respecting the 
land of St. David. I have a sort of mingled feeling about it, 
and so have you and my kind friends M. and E. for (why is 
it?) mortals of every description, from the sultan to the shoe- 
black, when pleasure enters the brain, cannot seal up the cre- 
vice through which pain creeps in at the same time, and vice 
versa. Till I made the inqviiry a day or two ago, I had no 
notion the distance from hence, with a carriage, to x'Vberga- 
venny was fifty miles ; but never mind that, when you are 
settled, should I be able, I think it highly probable you will 
see me there. I shall find no acquaintance but you and your 
household. An M. D. lived there not many years since, 
who came from Thetford in Norfolk. He was first at Chel- 
tenham, and there I knew him. You must understand by 
this, that I am not acquainted with any body at Abergavenny, 
u.nless this gentleman be still there. 

Adieu, my dear doctor ; with best wishes to my friends on 
the banks of the Inch, believe me truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

To Misses M. and E. Worthington, Cefn Cot- 
tage, Abergavenny. 

Confessionsto young ladies from Ryounff fellow, snch as I am, 
are no uncommon occurrences. Speak, Maria, and you, Miss 
Emily, are they ? You shall hear. What a blundering piece 
of work, then, did I make when my last dispatch was sent off 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 429 

to the Cefn. Instead of returning Dr. Baillie's letter, as I 
intended^ lo ! an epistle of the wandering doctor's (Pa's) was 
sent in its stead ; at least, I think so. I could not be quite 
at ease, touching this blockheady business, till you received 
an explanation ; but mind, both of you, it is not very likely 
my blunderings will stop here. The commander-in-chief, the 
director of all the forces combined, moral and physical, 
which form this vital machine, is himself disorderly. Mar- 
vel not, then, at deranged emanations, and in future expect 
no apologies. 

The chicken ; you shall have some to a certainty, and just 
those things you describe, made out of grain that passed 
through my own, my very own, hands. 

I am still in solitude here : Catherine at Bath, and Ro- 
bert lives at the castle. If it were not for a job or two I have 
promised to perform, I would cut the black cable that holds me 
here, weigh anchor, and sail at once for Goatland *. I could 
bring the poultry with me. What eggs you will have for a 
spring breakfast, if the doctor does not give a little check to 
their progress, by chopping the chicken's heads off for dis- 
turbing the regularity of his drill horticulture. Have you 
preserved some chrysanthemums for me ? As soon as any 
of the party can convey some information to me respecting 
the outlandish country you are got into, I hope they will. 
Wliat do you call the cottage ? Is the C in the Welsh lan- 
guage pronounced like the K ? 

Well, believe me, I as much intend paying a visit to the 
cottage, the sweet cottage, sprinkled with the dews (pretty !) 
from the sugar loaf, as I do to sign my name to this letter, 
and tell how truly and sincerely I am yours, 

Edward Jenneb. 

Berkeley, I5th Sept. 1821. 

In your next, say how many letters have been received 
from me at Cefn Cottage. 

* Wales. 



430 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

To Ills NIECE Miss Emily Kingscote^ now Lady 

Kennaway. 

Chantry Cottage, Oct. IG, 1822. 
My dear Emily, 

More rabbits from Kingscote ! So your mamma is not in 
dudgeon with me, that is certain ; but I should be out of 
humour with myself, if for an hour I had mentally neglected 
her ; nay, I have a great deal of intercourse with her. For 
I see what I hear, and all the accounts that reach me look 
as pleasant as I can reasonably expect. This is not too me- 
taphysical for your luminous mind to comprehend. 

Your cousin writes cheerfully to her relatives here, Susan 
and Caroline. We must all contribute and lend a hand to- 
wards the plantation of her flower garden, which she is lay- 
ing out most tastefully J and by what I hear, it is nearly 
one half the size of your morning room. " Prodigious !" 

I send this by James Hazen's mother. Her son, at one 
period, seemed to be travelling fast towards your church-yard. 
I had then the honour to be consulted ; and stopped his 
journey by the tartar emetic ointment. This is medical, and 
must go to your mamma. You see I am thought but little 
of in my own household. It must be so; or unerring lips 
would have spoken erringly. 

According to the Almanack, it is a long time to winter ; 
and I do not despair of coming to see you all before Caro- 
line can give me a snow ball. If I recollect rightly, she is 
an adept at this fun ; give my love to her, for all that. I like 
her mind, at present uncontaminated hj fine ladyism. Ex- 
cuse word-coining. 

To Dr. Baron, Gloucester. 

My dear Doctor, 
From the period of our first acquaintance to the present 
time, I have been convinced, from a thousand instances, of 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 43J 

your friendly attention ; and, I may venture to say, of your 
partiality to me. Though your firstpublication on tuberculous 
affections told this tale pretty plainly, yet I am still more highly 
gratified at seeing my name prefixed to your last work, under 
such high marks of kindness and distinction ; and the more 
so, as I well know that friendship only, powerfully as it ope- 
rates on the human mind, would not lead you one inch from 
the path of truth and sincerity. This gives a value to your 
dedication which I trust 1 shall know how to prize, and 
would, were it possible, rivet my esteem to you still more 
closely than before. Having been in possession of your 
work but a few days, I have not yet scarcely run over it in a 
cursory way, but I like the glance I have taken. My inten- 
tion is quietly to go through it ; and to commit to paper 
any remarks, should they occur, for your inspection. May 
you long, my dear fi'iend, in the calmness of peace of 
mind and health of body, enjoy the fruits of your la- 
bours and every earthly blessing. This is the sincere 
wish of 

Your affectionate and faithful friend, 

Edward Jenner. 
Chantry Cottage, Berkeley, '^rd Dec. 1822. 

To Miss Emily Kingscote. 

Berkeley, 10 Jan. 1823. 
My dear Emily, 
The carelessness of the carter is a little unlucky, as my let- 
ter to your mamma contains a line or two of a private nature, 
but not of any great consequence. Sooner or later, I dare say, 
it will find the place of its destination. You are very good 
in writing so kindly to me, after my seeming neglect of you 
all. You think me idle, no doubt. Ah ! my dear Emily, if 
you did but know the laborious work I have to go through, 
your opinion would soon be changed. In earlier days, in- 



432 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

deed at any period of my long life^ I do not think there 
ever was a period when I worked harder. It is no bodily 
exertion, of course, that I allude to ; but it is that which is 
far more oppressive, the toils of the mind. I am harassed 
and oppressed beyond any thing you can have a conception 
of. In the midst of these embarrassments I have not a 
soul about me who can afford me assistance, except, in- 
deed, my two good-humoured nieces, who copy letters for 
me, and would willingly do more if they could. When 
next I climb your icy mountains, do pray see if you and the 
ingenious inhabitants of the morning-room cannot devise 
some means to extricate me from my irksome situation. I 
have a thought : — a silver spoon lies in a small compass ; and 
a voyage to Botany Bay would be a happy exchange for me. 
Should I have your good wishes, Emily, as I passed over the 
ocean ? I know I should ; and you have mine, and your 
mamma, and all my good friends around you. 

Edward Jenner. 

To Mr. E. Gardner, Frampton. 

Berkeley, Jan. l.S, 1823. 
Dear Gardner, 
What a bustle this Frampton watchmaker makes. Your 
letter is delivered to me whilst I am eating my chop, and an 
answer demanded immediately ; and so, that disappointment 
in this respect may not add to your catalogue of sufferings, 
I quit my bone to pack up for you some vaccine matter, 
fresh and fine, from the arm of Edward Jenner, my young 
neighbour. With the scab I never fail, nor with the glasses, 
on which, if you hold them to the light, the inspissated mat- 
ter becomes visible. Moisten it with a small portion of cold 
water, and then insert it by three or four punctures, as if it 
were just taken from the arm. If you use the scab, moisten 
it with water on the back of a plate, and work it with a little 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 433 

water by means of a clean knife, then insert the matter. If 
you do not succeed with all this, I shall say you are no pupil 
of mine, or perhaps call you a bungler, or shall suspect that 
your patients have eruptions. I begin to fear I shall not see 
you at Berkeley this Christmas. " Where is Mr. Gardner ? " 
is the cry of my intimate neighbours. I have an attack from 
a quarter I did not expect, the Edinburgh Review. These 
people understand Uterature better than physic ; but it will 
do incalculable mischief. I put it down at 100,000 deaths, 
at least. Never was I involved in so many perplexities. 
Metaphysics are on the shelf; but, mind me, T do not con- 
ceive there is a single living particle of matter in the universe. 
The brain, ay, and the nerves, too, are dead as my hat. All 
life is in that something superadded to matter, the anima, dif- 
fused through matter, if you will ; but to speak like a che- 
mist, not chemically combined with it, not forming an inte- 
grant part, but merely influential. " There is something be- 
hind the throne greater than the throne itself.^' Susan and 
Caroline are at Ebley ; Catherine is very well, and I believe 
very happy. Edward Davies has been on a visit to her, and 
speaks highly of ber situation. 

Truly yours, 

Edward Jenner. 

To Master W. Davies, his Grand Nephew. 

This letter was written the day before Dr. Jenner' s fatal 
seizwe. It was, I believe, the last he ever penned. 

Chantry Cottage, 24 Jan. 1 823. 
My dear William, 

I hear by your father that you will return in a few days 
to Bristol. Be assured you will take with you my best 
wishes and affections, which I present to you with greater 
delight than at any former period, because you are more 
entitled to them, for I am happy to certify, that no boy could 
behave better than you did during your stay with me at the 
Chantry. Pursue this line of good conduct, my dear Wil- 

VOL. II. 2 F 



434 LIFE OF DR. .TENNER. 

liam, and you will be happy yourself, and make your father 
and every one who loves you happy too. 

Your affectionate uncle, 

Edward Jenner. 



Most of the following compositions are connected 
with incidents in Dr. Jenner's personal history. The 
first refers to his old gardener John Jones, who was 
in his service for nearly thirty years. He died in 
1 82 1 , and was followed to the grave by his indulgent 
master. The second brings before the reader two of 
his favourite animals. Minx and Tartar, who were 
the constant visitors of the parlour, each occupying 
a place on the hearth rug. The third is taken from 
a poem of considerable length, entitled Berkeley 
Fair, and contains a humorous account of his mu- 
seum. He introduces himself as the showman, and 
carries on the character in a very graphic manner. 
Two others arose from little occurrences in the do- 
mestic history of his daughter Catherine, and give 
pleasing illustrations of the writer's mind. The last 
is an enigma full of point, and capable of bearing a 
comparison with most similar compositions. 

On seeing an Old Man mowing. 

Ah, poor old John, with low bent back 

See he pursues his steady track ; 

The wild flowers tumbling at his blade. 

Prostrate before him fall, and fade. 

Yet httle reck'st thou, honest John, 

Intent thy 'customM work upon, 

Of that old mower, grisly Time, 

Though long hast thou gone by thy prime ; 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 435 

Witness thy grey locks loosely spread 

In lessening numbers o'er thy head. 

Thy wither'd cheek, thy tawny brow, 

Once smooth and fair, but furrow'd now. 

Yes, soon the keen edge of his scythe thou'lt feel : 

Look round, old John, 'tis close upon thy heel. 

Dialogue between Minx the Cat and Tartar the 

TERRIER Dog. 

Tartar. Well, Minxy, you've been out again, 
Killing poor birds for prog ; 

Minx. And you have kill'd the bantam hen, 
You have, you nasty dog. 

Tartar. How very clever and well bred ! 

You've much improved, I see; 
But think on what hangs o'er your head, 

Look up the willow tree. 
Suppose, now, I M a mind to tell 

What happ'd within this hour, 
Did I not see thy talons fell 

At work in yonder bower ? 
Too plain I heard the dying scream 

Of a poor robin there, 
Too plain I saw the life-blood stream. 

Whilst thou its limbs didst tear. 

Minx. Well, Tartar, if you go to that, 
I a sharp Avord could say ; 
Who was it kill'd the farmer's cat ? 

Now chew on that, I pray. 
How sheepish now thy looks appear, 

Thou drop'st thy ears and tail, 
As if thou thought'st the halter near — 
Ho ! ho ! I 've hit the nail. 

2 F 2 



436 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Tartar. Why talk, pray, of such stuff as this ; 
Why, 'twas but one old cat : 
It cost her but a few short moans — 
Now, Minxy, pray take that. 
Minx. Take that, indeed ! Who stole the fish 
The cook miss'd t' other day. 
And spoil'd entirely the dish ? 
Now hold your jaw, I pray. 
Tartar. What, not a word ? I see you 're fast. 
Yes, Mrs. Minx, you're dumb; 
Well, let us think of what is past, 
And mend for time to come. 

Extracts from Berkeley Fair. 

It opens thus .- — 

The sun drove off the twilight gray. 

And promised all a cloudless day ; 

His yellow beams danced o'er the dews, 

And changed to gems their pearly hues. 

The song-birds met on every spray. 

And sang as if they knew the day ; 

The blackbird piped his mellow note. 

The goldfinch strain'd his downy throat. 

To join the music of the plain 

The lark pour'd down no common strain ; 

The little wren, too, left her nest. 

And, striving, sang her very best ; 

The robin wisely kept away. 

His song too plaintive for the day — 

'Twas Berkeley Fair, and Nature's smile 

Spread joy around for many a mile. 

The rosy milkmaid quits her pail. 

The thresher now puts by his flail ; 

His fleecy charge and hazel crook. 

By the rude shepherd are forsook; 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 437 

The woodman, too, the day to keep, 
Leaves Echo undisturb'd in sleep : 
Labour is o'er — his fugged chain 
Lies rusting on the grassy plain. 

**^ ^^ ^^ ^f 

^^ *J^ ^* rf* 

**^ *^ *1* ^^ 

*^ ^P ^^ ^* 

Here, neighbours, are sights, such as never before 
Were seen at a Fair, and never may more. 
Myself and my partner have taken great pains 
To display all the wonders of fossil remains. 
Now at once, my good friends, you all may inspect 
Some remains of the ruins when Nature was wreck'd ; 
When mountains, vales, oceans, together were hurl'd. 
And dread desolation dash'd over the world. 
My cabinets all, the subject's terrific. 
Shall nothing contain which is not scientific ; — 
There's an encrinite's head, a cornu ammonis. 
And marquisites fit to adorn an Adonis ; 
Fine corals, all fossil, from Woodford's grand rock j 
And granites from Snowdon in many a block ; 
Alcyonites, too, we have join'd to our stock; 
Hippopotamus' bones, and the great alligator, 
And things most surprising thrown out of a crater ; 
All changed into flint are an elephant's jaws, 
The mammoth's vast teeth, and the leopard's huge paws ; 
There are beautiful agates wash'd up by the fountains, 
And crabs that were found on the tops of the moun- 
tains ; 
Asbestos, chert, chrysolite, quartz, hcematites. 
Madrepore, schistus, basalt, and pyrites ; 
Oolites, zoohtes, gryphites a store, 
Pentacrinites, chlorites, and many things more. 
All this we'll display to those who are willing — 
Though the sight's worth a crown — yet for one single 

shilling ! 
***** 



438 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

And now the clamours die away. 
The sun has sent a farewell ray ; 
The hills have lost their goldett hue, 
And wrapp'd themselves in mantle blue ; 
The showman's voice has lost its tone^^ 
The trumpet's clang becomes a moan ; 
The Giant now lays down his head, 
And Lady Morgan's gone to bed. 
The lions all begin to dose. 
And tigers seek a soft repose ; 
The customer no more is courted. 
And every standing is deserted : 
The Fair is o'er. But joys like these 
Lons: revel in a heart at ease. 
The milkmaid, as she skims her cream, 
Long on the happy time will dream ; 
And many a simple rustic swain 
Will strive to whistle out the strain. 
While raking up the new mown hay 
All in the merry month of May, 
That Jonathan's melodious bow 
Bade in his bosom ever glow ; 
And little girls and Httle boys 
Will for a moment quit their toys. 
And cling about their mother's knee. 
Asking when Fair again will be ; 
While every breast with hope will burn. 
To see the happy day return. 



From her Dormouse to Catherine Jenner, 1810. 



Start not, fair maid, to see a mouse 
Obtrude himself upon your house ; 
Not one of those sad elves am I 
Who pilfer cheese and spoil the pie. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 439 

Who through your chambers ever freaking. 
Disturb you with a nightly squeaking; 
Quite opposite am I in nature 
To this intolerable creature. 

My birth I boast beneath the bower 
Hard by the foot of yonder tower. 
Whose battlements o'erhang the place 
Long honour'd by a Ducie's race. * 
But now I 've left my leafy cell 
With you, dear Catherine, to dwell. 
No dainties seek, I pray, for me. 
My food grows on the hazel tree ; 
I ask but this, except a sup 
Of water from an acorn cup. 
Then for a house — oh ! any thing 
Will serve for this, that you can bring : 
Tliat little box, in which you place 
Your pearly trinkets and your lace. 
No clothes I want ; for, see, I'm drest 
By Nature in an ermine vest. 
Can looms that weave the satin fine, 
Produce a robe so fair as mine ? 
Ah ! no — for she will ne'er impart 
The means of rivalling her art ; — 
Some moss entwined with leaves of willow 
Will make an admirable pillow. 
You must not take it much amiss 
If I'm particular in this, 
For well you know I 'm one of those 
Who like whole months of soft repose ; 
And when you come to take a peep 
And find your little charge asleep, 

* Tortworth, Gloucestershire. 



440 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Pity 'twill be indeed to wake me, 

And from my dreams of you to take me. 

But tho' the hand that made my frame 

And my Catherine's were the same. 

Another time perhaps I may 

Expatiate on what I say ; 

But now I only can aiFord 

Just time enough to drop a word : 

Sometimes I dream that you 're surrounded 

By much temptation, and confounded 

Just for a moment, when arise 

The world's delights before your eyes ; 

But then, before I end my nap, 

I'm sure to see you take the map 

Which shews life's road and all its danger 

To every inquiring stranger ; 

The craggy rock, the deep morass. 

The precipice, the treacherous pass. 

And charm'd am I to see you steer 

By the just compass of Montier ; * 

Which ne'er will lead my Kate astray 

From Truth's undeviating way. 

Good bye — I know we shall agree. 

You will be ever kind to me ; 

And this shall be my constant plan. 

To please in every thing I can. 

To A Tom Tit 

who was fed every morning at the bed-room window of 
Catherine Jenner, at Cheltenham. 

Oh ! tell me m hy, my dearest Thomas, 
You stay'd so long this morning from us ? 

*■ Miss Jenner's governess. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 441 

I peepM at eighty at nine, at ten. 
And then I peep'd, and peep'd again. 
But oh ! my heart ! my pretty bird 
Was neither to be seen or heard ; 
Untouch'd the breakfast I had spread — 
Nice apple chopp'd, and crumbled bread ; 
Yes, and the cup I'd early dipp'd 
In the clear Chelt remain'd unsipp'd. 
Ah ! me, said I, some ruffian from me 
Has surely torn my darUng Tommy — 
Some murd'rous hawk, or ravenous kite, 
Hides him for ever from my sight. 
And, while thus wailing was your Kate, 
Methought I saw what sealed your fate. 
For to my window, now alas ! 
Some doA\Tiy feathers seem'd to pass ; 
Feathers so beautifully blue. 
They could belong to none but you ; 
But, sweet to teU, my grief, my sadness. 
Changed in a moment was to gladness. 
The joy I felt I cannot utter. 
When I beheld thy charming flutter ; 
Heard thy sweet voice upon the tree, 
And saw thee look, and look for me : 
But I must chide thee, dearest bird. 
Indeed I must, upon my word. 
Well, well, it sha'n't be now — but then. 
Tommy, ne'er serve me so again. 



Enigma. 

Through many an age did I sleep quite profound. 
Deep hidden from mortals, beneath the cold ground. 
As harmless and quiet as if I'd been dead. 
Till insulted by rapine, and dragg'd out of bed. 



442 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

Then, without any crime, by tyrannical power. 
Committed was I, under guard, to the Tower ; 
There stampt upon, cut, yet it gave me no pain. 
Though it made an impression that long will remain. 
At length I'd the luck from the place to escape. 
And now to all ranks dare exhibit my shape. 
When first I forth started, I own it with pride. 
His Majesty stuck very close to my side ; 
But, as I grew older, how hard is my case. 
The connexion he quits, and scarce shows me his face. 
Tho^ the great scarcely own me, the pallid-faced poor 
With pleasure behold me come out of a door. 
How oft may you hear them, in tones very pressing, 
Solicit my visiting them as a blessing ! 
I'm the ficklest fellow, perhaps, in the nation. 
For ever am shifting and changing my station ! 
Nay myself can I change too, without going far. 
For a gingerbread watch, or a quid for a tar. 
When alone I^m a pauper — a mate for a clown. 
Yet join'd to my comrades can purchase a crown : 
ril give a hint more, tho', perhaps, you may laugh — 
I'm one perfect whole, yet exactly a half.* 



The letters printed in this section of the work, in- 
dependent of the information which they convey re- 
specting the most remarkable phenomenon in the 
physical history of man, are worthy of observation, 
on account of the naturalness and simplicity of the 
style. There is an exquisite perception of propriety 
in the manner of expression, and an ease and freedom 
in the choice of words, which has seldom been ex- 
ceeded in any similar compositions. 

The subjoined meditations are of a very miscella- 

* Halfpenny. 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 443 

neous character, and are selected in order to afford 
specimens of the varied powers of the writer's mind ; 
and the tone of reflection in which he delighted to in- 
dulge, and with which his note books and his journals 
abound. 

It is possible that the surface of the earth, or more than 
the mere surface, forming the Berkeley district, may by one 
of those vast convulsions (which, it is plain, at distant 
periods threw the globe into the utmost disorder) have been 
covered with materials brought from very distant regions. 
The shells and corals found in the rocks at Gibraltar are 
similar to those found in the rocks at Thornbury, and so are 
the fragments of some of the stones. The coral, so abundant 
in the range of many miles, was never probably generated in 
the spot on which it now reposes : nor any of the families of 
stones which lie about the surrounding country. All might 
have been impelled forward at the same period, driven by the 
mighty, the irresistible torrents of the great deep rushing 
from their subterraneous prisons. That these corals, such 
as appear from the immense masses in which they are heaped 
together in the rocks of Woodford and of Falfield, have been 
forced from their original position, seems to admit of demon- 
stration from fragments of these identical corals being found 
among the Thornbury Breccia. This Breccia appears to con- 
sist of portions of rocks varying in size from a large block 
down to miscroscopic atoms ; and it appears to be the aggre- 
gation of these atoms which forms the cement which binds 
these fragments together. These fragments do not appear 
to belong to any rocks in our neighbourhood ; but seem to 
have been mingled together, and driven over an immense 
space, by one mighty sweep of that powerful element, water. 
Not only corals and shells are found among this Breccia, but 
even fragments of basalt itself. This, indeed, does not prove 
the basalt rocks to have moved forward with the general 
sweep ; as tliese might have been detached, and mixed with 
other fragments by passing onwards. 



444 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 



Observations on the Night-Blowing Primrose. 

Walking one evening in the early part of July in the 
garden of a gentleman at the west end of the town, my 
attention was drawn towards that curious plant the night- 
blowing primrose, which was growing abundantly and in 
great perfection in the borders. The petals of this plant, 
about the setting of the Sun, burst rather suddenly from the 
calyx in which they are involved during the day, and imme- 
diately display themselves in full expansion. In the morn- 
ing they are puckered up and withered, without a vestige of 
their beauty remaining. On contemplating this curious 
subject, one thing struck me as very singular — the apparent 
waste of that food (the nectarium) which affords nourish- 
ment to so many insects, and with which I found the plant 
plenteously stored. On visiting the spot again an hour after 
sunset, the subject still occupying my thoughts, the mys- 
tery was cleared up, and the scheme of nature most charm- 
ingly displayed. I now saw a considerable number of moths 
of various kinds hovering about every primrose bush, and 
passing from flower to flower, sucking through the proboscis 
the nutritious fluid so admirably prepared for them. Tliese 
moths lie dormant during the day. Should one of them be 
accidentally disturbed and compelled to take wing, it is at 
once beset and taken by those birds, which are eagerly look- 
ing out for insects for food for their young. Hence the 
necessity of some provision for their support about the 
commencement of twilight, when their enemies have retired 
to rest. It should be remarked, that the petals of many of 
those plants which afford the nectarium abundantly are open 
by day only, and are closed at night, as the jessamine, marvel 
of Peru — a species of geranium. The garden willows are 
night-blowing plants, and doubtless, in this respect, destined 
to answer the same purpose in the system of nature. Tliere 
are doubtless many other plants which afford nectar to the 
moth during the night besides the night-blowing primrose ; 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 445 

but I bring the above observation forward as illustrative of 
the economy of nature in preserving for the support of a 
tender insect, what to superficial observation appeared to be 
wasted ; the nectar aiforded by this plant being in its recep- 
tacle but for a few hours, and that during the night only. — 
April 7th, 1818. 



Physicians will probably find one great impediment to the 
progress of their art in the revolutions which take place in 
the course of diseases. 

The human body is a kind of commonwealth ; the seat of 
government does not seem confined to one director only, but 
to several, among which the brain is the chief. 

It is not an universal law that diseases of the stomach 
affect the head, and that those of the head affect the stomach. 
When W. destroyed himself by taking nearly half an ounce 
of arsenic, his head was free from pain, and the intellects 
clear, during the eleven hours of existence after he received 
the poison into his stomach. 

The human body is an immense laboratorj^, divided and 
subdivided into ten thousand compartments, the chief of 
which is the glandidar system. 

We are mistaken if we suppose that the stomach is the 
grand sufferer among the vital organs of the drunkard. No, 
it is the brain. Whoever mil consider the phenomena, will 
soon be convinced of this ; and from these phenomena may 
be deduced the crumbling down of the constitution, by the 
dilapidation of the vital organs. 

I want to do away with the whole stomach pathology at a 
sweep, and to place the brain upon the top of the lofty 
pedestal allotted to it ; to shew it as exercising a complete 
sovereignty over every vital action. 

Among the vulgar, the great, and the little vidgar, nothing 
is recounted or recorded of vaccination but its imperfections ; 
its benefits are passed by, and are often forgotten. Vacci- 



446 LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 

nation has to contend with more ignorance than any other 
process the faculty are engaged to attend to ; and in some 
instances for this reason : — if a failure take place, the vacci- 
nist is shielded, by declaring that it is vaccination itself that 
is imperfect, and no fault in his conducting the process. If 
vaccination ever fails, it must be owing co some peculiarity 
in the constitution. From the year 1762 to 1792, the num- 
ber that died of small-pox in the Danish dominions amounted 
to 9,728. About the year 1802 vaccination was first intro- 
duced, and the practice became general, but not universal ; 
however, fifty-eight persons only died of the small-pox to the 
year 1810. Vaccination, by command of the King, was now 
universally adopted, and small-pox inoculation prohibited. 
And from the year 1810 to the year 1819, not a single case 
of small-pox has occurred. 

One interesting trait in vaccination is, what every ob- 
server of its progress must have witnessed, namely, that 
every thing has worked together for its good. The oppo- 
nents have been greater instruments in facilitating its pro- 
gress than its promoters, by calling up inquiry, which has 
always ended in full proofs of its eflicacy. 

Vaccination has been extensively practised in this country, 
yet very imperfectly understood. 

What instance has occurred to throw a real slur on vacci- 
nation ? I pledge myself to this point. I could not pos- 
sibly go farther, than that in every instance it would afford 
security equal to the small-pox inoculation, if the rules I 
laid down were strictly observed. 

The Sacred Scriptures form the only pillow on which the 
soul can find repose and refreshment. 

The power and mercy of Providence is sublimely and 
awfully displayed in lightning and in tempest. It scarcely 
ever happens during what is called a thunderstorm but 
we hear of some human being suddenly losing his life by 
a flash from the Heavens. And when the tempest roars 



LIFE OF DR. JENNER. 447 

around us, we know that some destruction always follows. 
But how beautifully is power here seasoned with mercy ! 
We are shewn, that instead of partial chastisements, it might 
have been universal. The Almighty arm that struck pros- 
trate a single individual might at the same time have hurled 
his bolts on the heads of all. He that directed the storm to 
shew his mighty strength by partial destruction, shews every 
beholding eye, that at his fiat it might have swept oif every 
living thing. But how beautifully is it modified ! it goes 
just to the point, where every thing terrestrial seems upon 
the verge of universal wreck, and then mercifully softens 
into a calm. How sublime, how awful is this display of the 
power and mercy of God ! 

Our ordinary language shews us, as it were, unconsciously, 
our ideas of a compound existence, the subserviency of the 
body to the agency of the soul : — " I tore myself out of the 
house;" " I was out of my mind," i. e. my mind was out of me. 

" I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear, but now 
mine eye seeth thee." The above is appHcable to the sub- 
ject of reform in the education of children. The great book 
of the world is open to all eyes. My wish is, that every 
human being might be taught to read it. The poor man 
does not know what a rich library he is in possession of; 
that he has an equal right with the proudest monarch on the 
globe to have access to it. A sincere acquiescence in the 
dispensations of Pro\adence will check discomposure of 
mind beyond any thing. It will produce a calm in the 
midst of a storm. 

If we fear all things that are possible, we live without any 
bounds to our misery. 

The highest powers in our nature are our sense of moral 
excellence, the principle of reason and reflection, benevo- 
lence to our fellow creatures, and our love of the Divine 
Being. 



APPENDIX. 



No. I. 

Chronological List of Diplomas, Honours, Addresses, and 
various Communications from Public Bodies and distin- 
guished Individuals to Dr. Jenner, on his Discovery of Vac- 
cination. 

1801. Plymouth Dock. Feb. 20. — Address from Dr. Trot- 
ter, and forty-four medical officers of the Navy, subcribers to 
the Jennerian Medal. 

NovARA. May 29, — Address of respect and application for 
imbued threads, from the " Physician dele<;ated " of the de- 
partment de I'Agogna, (Cisalpine Republic.) Signed, Gautieri; 
Mantillari, Secretary. (In English). 

Paris. 16 Thermidor. — Address from the Bureau of the 
National Institute of France ; and thanks for the disserta- 
tion communicated to them. Signed, Coulomb, Pt. G. Cuvier, 
Sre. Delambre. 

GoTTlNGEN. Sept. 14. — Diploma of Fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety of Sciences at Gottingen. Signed, Henricus Augustus 
Wrisberg, Philosoph. et Medic. Doct. Britann. Regi a Consil. 
aula?. Medicina? et Anatom. Professor, publ ordinar, necnon 
Societat. reg. Getting, h. t. Pro Director, 

1802. Manchester Infirmary, Fei.— Certificate of the 
VOL. II. 2 G 



450 APPENDIX. 

success of Vaccine Inoculation, and complimentary Address 
thereupon. Signatures. Physicians : Thomas Percival, M-D. 
Physician Extraordinary, John Ferriar, M,D., Samuel Argent 
Barclay, M.D., James Jackson, M.D„ Edward Holme, M.D. 
— Surgeons : Wm. Simmons, John Bill, Alexander Taylor, 
M.D., R. W. Killer, M. Ward, G. Hamilton, J. Hutchinson, 
House Surgeon ; Thomas Henry, John Boutflower, Visiting 
Apothecaries. 

London. Feb. 20. — Diploma of Fellow of the Physical So- 
ciety of Guy's Hospital. Signed, Joannes Haighton, M.D., 
Thomas Walshman, M.D., Jacobus Curry, M.D., Ricardus 
Saumarez, Astley Paston Cooper, Thomas Hardy. 

Feb, 25 — Testimonial and Addi*ess from the Presidents and 
Members of the above Society. Signed by the six Presidents 
and one hundred and six Members. 

Edinburgh. March 7. — Diploma of Fellow of the Royal Me- 
dical Society of Edinburgh. Signed by four Presidents and 
twenty-live Fellows. 

Paris. 24 Ventose. — Diploma of Foreign Associate of the 
Medical Society of Paris. Signed, Thouret, President; Ali- 
bert. Secretaire-general. 

Tours. 30 Germinal. — Official Address from the Medical 
Society of Indre et Loire, Signed, Bouviat, D.M. M. Secre- 
taire-general de la Societe Medicale seante a Tours. 

Massachusetts. Mai/ 25. — Diploma of Fellow of the Ameri- 
can Society of Arts and Sciences in Massachusetts. Signed, 
John Adams, President ; Joseph Willard, Vice-President ; 
Attest. John Davis, John Quincy Adams, Secretaries. 

Paris. Juli/29. — Official Letter of respect and congratula- 
tion upon the general success of Vaccination in France, from 
the Central Committee of Vaccination. Signed, Thouret, Di- 
recteur de I'Ecole de Medicine, President ; Flusson, Secre- 
taire. Conveyed by Citizens Huzardand Parmentier ; and ac- 
companied ])y a Letter from the Secretary of the said Commit- 
tee. 

PowLowsK. Avynst 10. — Letter from the Dowager Empress 



APPENDIX. 451 

of Russia, signed " Marie," and accompanied by a ring set in 
diamonds. 

Tours. 2 Messidor. — Diploma of Corresponding Associate of 
the Medical Society of Tours. Signed, Bruneau, President; 
Bouriat, D. M. M. Secretaire-general. 

Avignon. 27 Brumalre — Appointment of Associate from a 
Society at Avignon. Signed, Fortia, Vice-President ; Hya- 
cinthe Morel, Sec. 

1803. March IG.— Diploma of Member of the Society of Me- 
dicine at Avignon. Signed, Voulonne, Med. President; G. 
Guerin, Secretaire; Clement, fils. Sec. Adj. 

London. August 11. — Freedom of the City of London, 
presented in a gold box of the value of one hundred guineas. 

Madrid. August 15. — Diploma of Fellow of the Royal Medi- 
cal and Economical Society of Madrid. Signed, Antonius 
Franseri, Pro-pra3ses ; Hippolytus Ruiz, Rei Pharmac. Cen- 
sor ; Liz. Philipus Soniova, Chirurgiaj Censor ; Joannes Penal- 
va, Scientiar. natural. Censor; Casimirus Ortega, in rebus ad 
exteros spectantibus a secretis ; Ignatius Maria Ruiz .... a se- 
cretis. 

Massachusetts. August 31 — Diploma of LL.D. from the 
Senate of Harvardian Cambridge University, Massachusetts. 
Signed, Josephus Willard, S. T. D., LL.D., Prasses ; Olive- 
rius Wendell, Simeon Howard, S.T. D, Johannes Lathrop, 
S. T. D., Eliphalet Pearson, LL.D., .lohannes Davis, Socii ; 
Ebenezer Storer, Thesaurarius. 

London. Sejjtember 14. — Diploma of Honorary Member of 
the Royal Humane Society of London. Signed, President, 
Stamford and Warrington ; Treasurer, John Coakley Lettsom, 
LL. D. M. D. 

Paris. 28 Vendemialre. — Diploma of Foreign Associate from 
the School of Medicine at Paris. Signed, Chaptal, President; 
Le Clerc, Secretaire. 

NiSMES. 21 Frimarie. — Diploma from the Society of Medi- 
cine, Departement du Gard. Signed, Vitalis, President ; J. 
R. Dubois, Presid. honor. 

2 G 2 



452 APPENDIX. 

1804. Dublin. Marc/*.— Freedom of the City of Dublin. 

Philadelphia. April 7. — Diploma of Member of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society at Philadelphia. Signed, Th. Jeffer- 
son, President; C. Wistar, Jun., R. Patterson, Vice-Presi- 
dents ; Benjamin Smith Barton. Attested, John Redman 
Coxe, Thomas C. James, Adam Seybert, Thomas H. Hewson, 
Secretaries. 

Edinburgh October 31. — Freedom of the City of Edin- 
burgh, transmitted by Sir William Fettes, Bart, of Wam- 
phray, Lord Provost; William Coulter, Archibald Campbell, 
John Turnbull and James Goldie, Esquires, Baillies ; John 
Muir, Esq. Dean of Guild ; Peter Hill, Esq. Treasurer; and 
the remanent Members of the Council. 

WiLNA. 16 Kal. Dec. — Diploma of Fellow of the Imperial 
University of Wilna, issued by command of the Emperor of 
Russia, Alexander I. Signed, Hieronymus Stroynowski, My. 
Josephus Mickiewicz, Decanus, Professorum ordinis scientia- 
rum Physicarum et Malhemat. Canonicus Cathedralis Samogi- 
tiensis, Mpp. ; Simon Malewski, Juris Nat. et Gen. Prof. Con- 
siliarius Aul. Seer. Imper. Univers. Vil. 

1806. Stockholm. March 31. — Diploma of Foreign Associ- 
ate of the Royal College of Physicians at Stockholm. Signed, 
Elias Salomons, D. Rung, Job. L, Odelius, Andreas Sparr- 
man. Job. Hardtman, C. Von Schulzenheim, L. Hedin, W. 
fiz. Hadstrom, J'oran Rooth, N. Almroth, Fredric Krey, 
Loco Secretarii, Conrad Eckerborn, 

Edinburgh. May 20. — Diploma of Honorary Fellow of 
the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh. 

1807. Valencia. March 5. — Diploma of Honorary Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Economical Society of Valencia. Signed, 
Juan Sanchez Cisneros, SSrio. pptuo. 

Liverpool. April 1. — Freedom of the Borough of Liverpool. 
Thomas Molyneux, Esq. Mayor. 

Stockholm. April 23. — Diploma of Foreign Associate of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm. 



APPENDIX. 453 

Fort George, Upper Canada. November 8, — Address of 
the Five Indian Nations, with a Wampum Belt. See Chapter 
IV. p. 104 of this Volume! 

1808. Munich. M«rcA 28.— Diploma of Fellow of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences at Munich. Signed, Jacohi, President ; 
Schlichtegroll, Gen. Seer. Moll. . . . 

Portsmouth, America. May 25. — Diploma from the Pre- 
sident and Fellows of the JVewhampshire Medical Society. 
Signed, L. Spalding, Secretary. 

Paris. June 20. — Diploma of Corresponding Member of the 
National Institute of France, in the class of the Physical and 
Mathematical Sciences. Signed, Le Secretaire perpetuel, G. 
Cuvier. 

Glasgow. September 1. — Freedom of the City of Glasgow, 
from the Hon. James Mackenzie, Lord Provost; James Denis- 
town, Nicol Brown, William Glen, John Ballantyne, and 
George Lyon, Esquires, Baillies ; James Black, Esq., Dean 
of Guild ; William Brand, Esq. Deacon Convenor, and the 
other Members of the Common Council. Jas. Reddie, Town 
Clerk. 

1809. KiRKALDY. April '21. — Freedom of the Burgh of 
Kirkaldy, with thanks for his discovery, from Walter Fergus, 
Esq. Provost ; Robert Brown and James Mackie, Esquires, 
Baillies; Michael Beveridge, Esq. Dean of Guild; and David 
Morgan, Esq. Treasurer, and the Common Council of the said 
Burgh; Will. Drysdale, Clk. 

1810. Manchester. April 27. — Diploma of Honorary 
Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Man- 
chester. Signed, by the Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and 
Secretaries; Thomas Henry, Edward Holme, John Dalton, 
William Henry, B. Gibson, William Johns, I. A. Ransome. 

1811. Palais de Rambouillet. May 13 and 19.— Diplo- 
ma of Foreign Associate of the Imperial Institute of France, in 



454 APPENDIX, 

the Class of the Physical and Mathematical Sciences, in the 
room of M. Maskelyne, deceased, and with approbation of His 
Majesty, the Emperor and King. Le Ministre Secretaire 
d'Etat, signe, le Conite Daru. Pour ampliation conforme, 
Le Secretaire perpetuel pour les Sciences mathematiques, De- 
lambre. 

1813. Oxford. December 'd. — Diploma of Doctor in Medi- 
cine of the University of Oxford, from the Chancellor, Mas- 
ters, and Scholars of that University. Seal inclosed in a gold 
box. 

1814. Bordeaux. July 1. — Diploma of the Royal Society 
of Medicine at Bordeaiix. Signed, Lapeyret, President ; G. 
M. Caillau. D. M. Prof. Royal Secretaire general. 

Brunn in Moravia. October 20. — Address of the Inhabi- 
tants of Briinn. Signed, Medicinae Doctor, Rincolini, Physi- 
cian Claviger, first Surgeon and Vacciner of Vaccine Institute 
at Briinn.* 

1815. Erlangen. January 20. — Address of Honorary Asso- 
ciate of the Physico-Medical Society of Erlangen. Signed, Dr. 
Chr. Fr. Harles, Soc. Director ; Dr. Adolph Henke, Secretar. 

1821. London. March 16. — Appointment of Dr. Edward 
Jenner to be Physician Extraordinary to the King of Great 
Britain. 

1822. Berlin. August 30. — Diploma of Foreign Correspon- 
dent to the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Berlin. 

This Document will close the List ; and is inserted for its ex- 
pressive simplicity. 

SociETAS Medico Chirurgica Berolinensis. 
Societas Sociuni Correspondentem Celeberrimum D. Jenner 
uno consensu elegit. 

Berolini, datum die 30 Aug. 1822. 

D. Hufeland, Pnieses. 

* See Chapter VI. p. 214 of this Volume. 



APPENDIX. 455 

The originals of nearly all these oflicial documents were 
found in the possession of Dr. Jenner at his decease ; and many 
other direct testimonials in favour of vaccination and its disco- 
verer are contained in Reports, Addresses, and Resolutions of 
thanks from Medical, Civil, and Military Authorities ; and the 
Catalogue might be greatly enlarged by the addition of com- 
mendatoi-y letters from exalted, noble, and scientific personages, 
which are almost innumerable. Many of the latter have been 
enumerated in Mr. Pruen's Comparative Sketch. 



No. II. 



In this place it was my intention to have inserted a copy of 
the Madrid Gazette, which was issued on the return of the expe- 
dition under Balmis, x\s, however, a pretty full analysis of that 
document has been given in the text,* I am unwilling to swell this 
volume by printing it. The same reason induces me to withhold 
Dr. Sacco's paper, to which a reference has been made at p. 234. 
I will only state that his experiments clearly show that vaccina- 
tion duly performed does not lose its influence by time ; that 
persons who had had small-pox, as well as those who had been 
vaccinated, were attacked by the varioloid disease. This mo- 
dified disease, when propagated by inoculation, at first produced 
a mild affection akin to the Variola3 Vaccinae. A second inocu- 
lation often produced the genuine Variolar. 

In these statements I can find nothing but additional confir- 
mation of the doctrines contained in these volumes touching the 
nature and influence of variolous diseases. 1 take tliis oppor- 
tunity of giving another illustration of the same truth. I have 
in this volume mentioned the Variolous Epizootic in Bengal, and 
the propagation of the genuine Variola? Vaccina? from that source. 
I have since received more recent intelligence from the same 
quarter, which proves that more extensive inoculations from the 
diseased cows have produced not the mild Vaccine Vesicle, but 

* Seep. 78 el seq. vol. ii. 



456 APPENDIX. 

an eruptive disease of the true variolous character.* When 
the black cattle in England were affected in 1780 with a destruc- 
tive variolous complaint, f there can be no doubt that ino- 
culation from this disease would have produced similar results. 
Dr. Jenner at a later period found the Variolae among the cows 
of a more mild and less malignant nature. He employed this 
mild virus, and with what success all the world knows. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my regret that 1 have 
employed the word grease in alluding to the disease in the 
horse. Variola Equina is the proper designation. It has no 
necessary connexion with the grease, though the disorders fre- 
quently co-exist.| This circumstance at first misled Dr. Jenner, 
and it has caused much misapprehension and confusion. 



No. III. 

List of Medals struck in honour of Vaccination. 

1801.— Medal presented by the Medical Officers of tlie Navy. 
Obverse, Apollo introducing a young seaman recovered from 
the vaccine inoculation to Britannia ; who in return extends a 
civic crown, on which is inscribed " Jenner ;" above, " Alba 
nautis Stella refulsit ; " below, 1801. On the reverse, an an- 
chor ; over it, " Georgio Tertiorege; " and under it, " Spencer 
duce." 

1803. — The Berlin Medal. Obverse, A child pointing with 
the forefinger of the right hand to the spot where vaccination 
is generally performed on the left arm. In the left hand the 
child holds a rose ; and there is, besides, a garland of roses and 

* See the Quarterly Journal of the Calcutta Medical and Physical Society, 
No. II. April, 1837. t See Vol. i. p. 214. * See Vol. i. p. 242. 



APPENDIX. 457 

a cornucopia. The inscription is " Edward Jenner's beneficial 
discovery of the 14th of May 1790." The Reverse states the 
object of the Medal in words to this effect: "In remembrance 
of protection afforded." Presented by Dr. Bremer. Berlin, 
1803. 

1804. — Gold Medal of the London Medical Society, inscribed 
•' E. Jenner. M.D. Socio suo eximio ob Vaccinationem explora- 
tam." 

The Napoleon Medal. One of the most beautiful of the 
series. Obverse, the head of the Emperor, with the inscrip- 
tion. Napoleon Empereur et Roi. Reverse, iEsculapius pro- 
tecting Venus. A small cow on one side, and the implements 
for vaccination faintly appearing on the other, with the inscrip- 
tion " La Vaccine, MDCCCIV." 

A Medal to promote and commemorate vaccination in the 
county of Sussex. It was ordered by Mr. Fuller, but I have 
never seen it. 

1807. — A Medal struck at Bologna bearing this inscription. 
" Aloysio Sacco Mediol. Med. et Chir. Prof. Jennerii ajmu- 
lo amici Bononienses, A. I. A. B. Ital. Reip. Cons." 

Another struck at Brescia, I believe, in the same year, in 
honour of the same cause. 

In Prussia, too, a medal, worth fifty gold ducats, was struck 
by order of the government, to be conferred on those who dis- 
tinguished themselves in the promotion of vaccination. On one 
side is a head of the King with the inscription, " Fredericus 
Gulielmus Rex, Pater Patriae." On the reverse is a cow with 
the Goddess of health, and the motto, " In te suprema salus." 
Round the edge, " Vaccinationis praemium. 

1818. — It was likewise intended that a Medal of Jenner 
should be struck at Paris, to form one of that series which 
commemorates " cles hommes illustres de tons les Pays." — I find 
a letter announcing this fact, dated Nov. 16, 1818. I cannot 
say whether the design has been executed. I suspect not. 



INDEX 



TO THE 



SECOND VOLUME. 



A. 

Adams, Dr. 368. 

Addington, Mr. 3G1, 303. 

Affections, cutaneous, interfering with vaccination, 270. 

America, progress of Vaccination in United States of, 1)4. 

Andersen, Dr. 371. 

Anstey, Christopher, Esq. his Latin Ode, 397. 

Anti-vaccinists, their exertions, 62. 

Arabians, early acquainted with Vaccination, 11. 

Armstrong, Mr. 365. 

Army, Vaccination in the, 241. 

Assize at Gloucester, 415. 

Association in Gloucestershire to promote Vaccination, 150. 

Other attempts of the kind, 153, 154. 
Astronomy, Lecturer on, at Berkeley, 293. 
Auban, Dr. of Constantinople, his account of the knowledge of 

Vaccination among the Arabians, 11. 
Austria, Emperor of, releases captives at the intreaty of Jeuner, 

115. 

increase of population in, 257. 

Avelin, Professor, of Berlin, 377. 

B. 

Baillie, Dr. his character, 306. 

Balmis, Dr. Francis Xavier, his expedition to carry Vaccina- 
tion to the Spanish Provinces in America, 78 et seq. 455. 

Banks, Sir Joseph, his letter, 167. 

Bankes, Mr. 329, 334. 

Barbosa, spreads Vaccination in the Brazils, 10. 

Barker, Mr. British Consul at Aleppo, his intelligence, 11. 

Baron, Dr. 389, 415, 422, 430. 

Barrow Hill described, 199. The Club, and Extract from a 
poem so entitled, 202. 

Barton, John, Esq. 260, note. 

Bedford, Duke of, his letter to Jenner, 60, 

John Yecnd, Esq. 290, 318. 



460 INDEX. 

Bengal, cows subject to Variolae, 228, 455. 
Benviston de Cliateauneuf, M. 258. 
Berard, M. 258. 
Berkeley, Earl of, his death, 147. 

Admiral, 334. 

• parish of, 371 . 

tower of the church of, 296. 

town of, Jenner's observation on it, 302, 

remarks on the geology of, 443. 

Berlin, diploma of Medico- Chirurgical Society of, presented to 

Jenner, 454. 
Bernard, Sir Thomas, 130, 144. 
Biddulph, Rev. T. T. 73. 
Birch, 359. 

Birds, observations on the migration of, 277. 
Blair, Mr. 108, 366. 
Blane, Sir Gilbert, his testimony in favour of Vaccination, 238. 

His proposal that Jenner should be buried in Westminster 

Abbey, 317. 
Blight, the white, 422. 

Bloomfield, Robert, the Poet, Jenner's present to him, 39. 
Blucher, General, 209. 

Board, Vaccine, their interference in behalf of Jenner, 7. 
Bodleian Library, 393. 
Bodoni, printers, 379. 
Boisragon, Dr. 218. 
Bonaparte, 392. 
Booker, Rev. Dr. 333. 
Boringdon, Lord, his bill respecting Small-pox inoculation, 

195, 387. 
Borlase, Dr. 346. 
Bourne, Sturges, Mr. 69. 
Boutlatz, Dr. his mission to spread Vaccination throughout the 

Russian Empire, 93. 
Brahmins oppose Vaccination, 12. 
Brazils, success of Vaccination in the, 10. 
Breccia, rocks of near Thornbury, 416. 
Bremer, Dr. 378. 
Bright, Mr. M. P., 320. 
British Forum, discussion at. 111. 

Museum, 303, 387. 

Brodum, Dr. 350. 

Bromfield, Mr. 401. 

Brown, Mr. his death, 324. 

Bryce, Mr. of Edinburgh, his plan to prevent Small-pox, 154. 

Brunn, letter and monument of the inhabitants of, 213. 

Buckland, Professor, 289. 

Burns, the Poet, character by Gardner of his life by Dr. Cur- 

rie, 204, note. 



INDEX. 461 

^' 
Calcraft, Miss, 158. 
Cam, Thomas, his musical talent, 292. 
Cambridge, Havardian University of, in Massachusetts, confer 

a degree on Jeuuer, 33. 
Canton, Vaccination there, 8.5. 
Casper, Dr. his Essay on the mortality of cliildren in Berlin, 

249, 256. 
Certificate of protection from Jenner, 116. 
Ceylon, Vaccination there, 15. Report from, 367- 
Chantry, the, described, 296, 422. 
Charlotte, Queen, 211. 
Chelsea, Royal Military Asylum, Report of Vaccination there, 

245, note. 
Cheltenham, the residence of Jenner in 1814, 212. 

Philosophical and Literary Society, 218. 

■ — Vaccinations there, 53, 264 

Chinese pamphlet on Vaccination, 356. 
Christie, Mr. 367. 

Dr. 385, 392. 

Christophe, Emperor of Hayti, 396. 

Circular letter of Jenner, on the influence of eruptive diseases, 

272. 
Clarence, Duke of, 401. 

Claus, William, Esq. his speech to the Five Nations, 102, 
Claviger, of Briinn, 214. 

Cleaver, Dr. William, Bishop of Chester, 274. 
Clinch, Rev, John. See Letters. 
Coley, Dr. 188, 
Cooke, Dr. 192. 
Coorg, Rajah of, 187. 
Corneiro, his pamphlet, 143. 
Cornwallis, Lord, 325. 
Corvisart, Baron, 38, 117- His request in favour of a prisoner 

of war, 367, 
Corunna, battle of, 361, note. 
Cother, Mr. of Cheltenham, 44. 
Courtney, Mr, 332. 
Crawford, Dr. 333, 
Creaser, Thomas, Esq, 318, 365. 
Cullum's baths at Lisbon, 179. , t^ t> 

Cup, curious antique, presented to Jenner by Dr. Reyss, 96. 



D. 



Dallas, Sir George, 356. 
Davies, Rev. William, 416. 
Davies, Rev. Edward, 318. 
Davies, Edward, Esq. 307, 384, 
Robert, Esq, 318, 



462 INDEX. 

Davy, Sir Humphrev, bis account of Jenner, 287, note, 384, 
414. 

Dean, Forest of, 201. 

De Carro, Dr. his intelligence respecting the progress of Vac- 
cination, 10, 377. 

Dessalines, 114. 

Dialect of Gloucestershire, 304. 

Diplomas, list of, presented to Jenner, 449. 

Dogs, paper on distemper in, 148. 

Drayton, Mr. S. B. bis verses on Worgan, 76. Portrait of 
Jenner, 77, note. 

Dublin Corporation, vote freedom of the city to Jenner, 33. 

Duncan, Dr. Andrew, eulogy on, 34. 

Dunning, Mr. bis tract, 19. Canon respecting two pustules, 
22. See also Letters. 

Duntisbourne, the seat of Dr. Baillie, described, 300. 

Dupin, Mr. 257. 

E. 

East Indies, Vaccination there, .345. 

Edinburgh Royal College of Physicians elect Jenner honorary 
Fellow, 95. 

. freedom of the city voted to Jenner, 34. 

Small-pox fatal there in 1818, 232. 

review on Vaccination, 138, note. 

Edmonds, Mr. his table of mortality, 251. 

Egremont, Lord, 55, 383. 

Ellenborough, Lord, his opinion of Vaccination, 190. 

Ellis, Mr. Joyner, a friend of Jenner, 312. 

Embling, Mr. 342, 344. 

Ernest, Prince, 401. 

Eruptions, artificial, 270. 

Evans, Dr. 29. 

Expedition, Spanish, progress of, 81 et stq. 

F. 

Farquhar, Sir Walter, 150. 

Ferryman, Rev. Mr. 297, 318. 

Finsbury Dispensary, 103. 

Five Nations, Vaccination introduced among them, 101. Their 

speech, 103. 
Fosbroke, Rev. T. D. his Ode to Hygeia, 174. 

Dr. John, 277, note, 318. 

Fox, Charles James, anecdote of, 305, 328. 

Fowler, Dr. of Salisbury, 108. 

France, National Institute of, elect Jenner a Corresponding 

Member, 107. And Foreign Associate, 100. 

Isle of, vaccination introduced there, 11. 

Franck, Professor, at Wilna, 10, 52, 53, 
Free-martin, 409. 
French, Dr. 231. 



INDEX. 463 

Friese, Dr. of Breslau, letter to Mr. Ring, 50. 

Fuller, John, Esq. M.P. his Bill to prevent the spreading of 

Small-pox, 153. 
Fulneck, near Leeds, 73. 

G. 

Gardner, Mr. Edward, 202, 331, 387. 

Garland, Mr. liberated by Bonaparte, 115, 117. 

Garrow, Mr. his advice upon libel, 181. 

Gemini, Dr. of Constantinople, 11. 

Gold, Mr. liberated by Bonaparte, 115, 117. 

Gooch, Captain, 370. 

Goldson, Mr. his opposition to Vaccination, IG, 338, 34C, 348. 

Gosling, Mr. 365. 

Goss, Mr. 357. 

Greendale Oak, allusion to the, 297. 

Grey, the Hon. Mr. 328. 

Grosvenor, the Hon. Robert, his case, 150, 207. 

Guise, Sir B. W., M.P. his motion for a monument to .Tenner, 

320 et seq. 
Gwinett, Mrs. had the small-pox five times, 205. 

H. 

Halford, Sir Henry, 156. 

Halifax, Rev. Robert, 203, 227, 289, 318. 

Hands, John, Esq. 318. 

Hawkins, Dr. 260, note. 

Haygarth, Dr. 168, 251. 

Hayley, Mr. 74. 

Heberden, Dr. 328. 

Hennen, Dr. his opinion of the preventive power of vaccination, 

235. 
Herpes, deranges the action of the vaccine pustule, 344. 
Hervey, Dr. 385, 393, 404. 
Hicks, Henry, Esq. 141, 203, 318. 

John Phillimore, Esq. 307, note. 

Thomas, Esq. 318. 

Hill, Rev. Rowland, the friend of Vaccination, 95. And a 

vaccinator, 99, note. 

Mr. Richard, 426. 

Hindoos, their jealousy of vaccination, 229. 

ladies, their gratitude, 356. 

Hobday, Mr. his picture of Jenner, 307, note. 

Hoffman, Dr. physician to the Elector of Mayence, his opinion 

of vaccination, 216. 
Holland, Lord, 325. 
Holloway, Thomas, Esq. engraver of cartoons of Raphael, 76, 

note. 
Home, Sir Everard, 364. 
Hookah presented by Duke of Sussex to .Jenner, 143. 



464 INDEX. 

Hope, Dr. 335, 337. 

Horse liable to variolous disease, 22.5, 456. Progress of equin 

virus traced, 226. 
Hospital, Siuall-pox, 163. 
Hunter, Mr. 409. 
Hussey, Dr. 385. 

Husson, Captain, his case, 164, 375. 
Hydatids, 407. 
Hydrophobia, dipping for, 412. 

I. 

Indians, Spanish American, their reception of Vaccination, 81. 

Five Nations, ditto, 101 et seq. 

Inoculation, Small-pox, bill for its regulation, 194. 

J. 

Jacobi, Baron, 115. 

Java, island of, 187. 

Jefferson, Mr. 94. 

Jenkins, Miss Eliza, of Stone, co. Gloucester, 170. 

Jenner, Dr. settles in London, 3. But returns into the country, 
4. His reply to timid projectors, 13 et seq. Publishes 
Tract on the varieties and modifications of the vaccine pus- 
tule, 21. Degrees and honours conferred upon him, 33 et 
seq. Interferes in behalf of prisoners of war, 37. His present 
to Robert Bloomfield, 39. Inoculates his son Robert with 
small-pox virus, and why, 45. His vaccination, 53. Re- 
newed application to parliament in his behalf, 55 et seq. and 
£20,000 voted to him, 68. Interview with the minister, and 
disappointment, 69, 70. Domestic pursuits, 71 et seq. Pa- 
tronises young Worgan, 72. Elected honorary fellow of 
Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 95. And cor- 
responding Member of National Institute of France, 107. 
Influence of his name, and certificates of protection current 
through the world, 115. His children attacked by typhus, 
118. Appointed Director of National Vaccine Establish- 
ment, and his memorial on that subject, 120. Introduction 
of the author to him, personal appearance and manners de- 
scribed, 136. Death of his son Edward, and effect produced 
upon him, 141, 144. Resident at Cheltenham, 147. His 
illness in 1811, 155. Gives evidence on the Berkeley Peer- 
age question, 162. Degree of M. D. conferred on him by the 
University of Oxford in 1813, 189. His rural life, habits, 
and pursuits, 199. Visits London for the last time in 1814, 
205. Interview with the Emperor of Russia and other dis- 
tinguished personages, 206. Effect of the death of Mrs. 
Jenner, 220. His evidence at Gloucester in the case of 
Berkeley poachers, 221. Kindness to the author, 222. Ill- 
ness in 1816, 223. Vaccinations in Cheltenham, 264. In- 
structions respecting do., 271. Circular letter in 1821, 272. 



INDEX. 465 

His last publication in 18-22, 270. Atteiuls the funeral of 
Dr. Parry, 277. Paper on the migration of birds, ib. 
Domestic habits, personal appearance, and character, 280 et 
seq. Marriage of his only daughter, 289. Her death, 290. 
First attacked with apoplexy in 1820, 308. Final opinion of 
vaccination, 311. Last attack and death in 1823, 314. Re- 
flections on his character, 314 et seq. Funeral, 318. Pro- 
posals for a monument to his memory, 319 ct seq. 

Jenner, Mrs. her health declines, 5, 103, 200. Attendant on her 
dying son, 140. Her last illness and death, 220. Traits in 
her character, 281. 

Miss, her marriage, 289. Death, 290. 

Rev. George, 289, 305, 318, 374, 370. 

Henry, Esq. vaccinated, 270, 314, 318, 354, 420. 

Stephen, 313, 422. 



Jones, John Gale, his message to Jenner, 307. 
Josephine, Empress, 38. 

K. 

Kahlert, Dr, of Prague, his work on Variolar Equina^, 232. 

Kelson, Mr. 331. 

Kidd, Dr. 190. 

Kite, Mr. 342, 348. 

King, Lord, 330. 

Kingscote, Col. 318. 

Col. N. 318. 

T. Esq. 318. 

Knight, Mr. 302. 
Knowles, Dr. 108. 

L. 

Lamb, Dr. 400. 

Langharne, Mr. 424. 

Lansdowne, Marquess of, his letter on the Spanish Expedition, 
77. 

La Place, his opinion of the VarioL'e, 201, note. 

Lausanne, curious account from a chronicle in the library of, 
42, note, 

Lawrence, his portrait of Jenner, 305. 

Leaper, Joseph, 389. 

Lefevre, Shaw, Esq., an Anti-vaccinist in the House of Com- 
mons, 07. 

Letters, and Extracts of, from Dr. Jenner to various cor- 
respondents, viz. Dr. Baron, 47, 54, 145, 101, 200, 221, 224, 
227, 290, 430. Lord Berkeley, 13 et seq. Sir Thomas 
Bernard, 144. Sir Gilbert Blane, 208. Robert liloomfield, 
39 Miss Calcraft, 158. Dr. Coley, 188. Dr. Cooke, 192. 
Rev. John Clinch, 324, 350. Rev. William Davies, 410. 
Master William Davies, 433. R. Dunning, Esq. 22 et seq. 
320 to 350 inclusive, 351 to 359 inclusive. Dr. Evans, 29 
VOL. II. 2 H 



466 INDEX. 

Dr. Fleming, 88. Mr. Edward Gardner, 414, 432. Henry 
Hicks, Esq. 32.5 to 329 inclusive. Miss E. Kingscote, 
430, 431. Dr. Lettsom, 69. James Moore, Esq. 361 to 400 
inclusive. Napoleon, 37. Thomas Paytherus, Esq. 359. 
John Ring, 141. Dr. Wortbington, 405 to 410 inclusive, 
413, 417, 418. Misses Wortbington, 428. Anonymous cor- 
respondents, 53, 75, 164, 264. 

Letters, and extracts of, to Dr. Jenner from various correspond- 
ents, viz. ; Sir Josepb Banks, 167. Sir Jobn Barrow, 85. 
Duke of Bedford, 60, 86. Admiral Berkeley, 178. Sir 
Tbomas Bernard, 130. Inbabitants of Briinn, 213. Do. of 
Calcutta, 87. S. T. Coleridge, tbe poet, 175. Baron Cor- 
visart, 117. Sir Alexander Cbricbton, 183. Dr. Franck. 
53. Mr, Edward Gardner, 203. Lieut. -Col. Gore, 105, 
Mr. Jefferson, 94. Marquess of Lansdowne, 77. Dr. Lett- 
som, 31. Dr. Parry, 146. Signor Gioacbino Ponta, 169. 
Rev. T. T. A. Reid, 274. Dr. Reyss, 96. Dr. Scott, 90. 
Lord Somerville, 413. Benj. Travers, esq. 6. Dr. Va- 
lentin, 132. 

Lines to tbe memory of Worgan, by J. B. Drayton, 76, note. 

from tbe Poem of Ponta, 172, 173. 

from do. of Py, 174. 

from do. of Rev. T. D. Fosbroke, 175. 

from do. of Gardner, 202, 203. 

on an Old Man Mowing, 434. 

Dialogue between Minx and Tartar, 435. 

Berkeley Fair, extracts from, 436, 437. 

from ber Dormouse to Catberine Jenner, 438. 

to a Tom Tit, 440. 

Enigma, 441. 

Linnaeus, pious expression of, 316. 

Lisle, Mr. 332. 

Liver disease in animals, 380. 

Lobenwein, professor of anatomy at Wilna, 52. 

Love to God, 448. 

M. 

Macao, vaccination at, 82. 

M'llwain, Mr. 108. 

M'Kenzie, Dr. 359. 

Mackintosh, Sir James, 261, note. 

M'Pberson, bis account of variola? among tbe Cows in Bengal, 

227 et seq. 
Madeira, report from, 368. 
Madrid Gazette, 77- 
Magazine, European, 329. 
Magistrates meeting, ludicrous scene at, 303. 
Manilla, account of vaccination from, 356. 
Manning, bust of Jenner by him, 97. 
Marcet, Dr. 377. 



INDEX. 467 

Maskelyne, Dr. 166. 
Maton, Dr. 136. 

Matthews, Dr. Member of ParliamentforHereford, his speech, 58. 

Mayalla, Dr. a convert to vaccination, 51. 

Medal, Napoleon, to commemorate vaccination, 35. 

others struck at Brescia and Bologna, 113. 

Medals struck in honour of Vaccination, 456. 

Medical men, hardships of, 301. 

Observer, a publication so called, 368. 

Medico Chirurgical Society, Transactions of, 148. 

Melon, Mr. 226, 388. 

Millman, Sir Francis, 182, 376. 

Milne, Dr. 371. 

Milton, 137, note. 

Miranda, General, 114. 

Missionaries, French, carry vaccine virus to Pekin, 84. 

Moore, James, Esq. Author of the History of Small-pox, 119, 
125, 126, 182, 349, 369, 383, 394. 

Morhall, Mr. 218. 

Morpeth, Lord, 56 

Morris, Edward, Esq. moves in the Commons for a double re- 
muneration to Jenner, 67. 

Mortality, English, German, and French, tables of, 247, 248. 
London bills of for 1837, 255. 

Moseley, Dr. his pamphlet, 349, 352, 354, 359. 

Mothers, British, their plan for a tribute of gratitude, 210. 

Moyle, Mr. 344, 346. 

Murat, King of the Two Sicilies, 169. 

Murray, Charles, 384, 386, 389. 

N. 

Napoleon, Emperor, his expression respecting Jenner, 38. Re- 
leases captives at his intreaty, 115, 117. Encourages vaccina- 
tion, 132. His abdication, 205. 

National Vaccine Establishment, their Report in 1811, 157. 
Fruits of their well-timed efforts, 163, 398. 

Nelmes, Sarah, 303. 

Norris, , 403. 

Northcote, his portrait of Jenner, 365. 

Note-books of Jenner, 311. 

Nottingham, report from, 367. 

O. 

Oldenburg, Duchess of, 206. 

Ophthalmia, cure of, 405. 

Orloff, Count, 209. 

Oxford University confers degree of M.D. upon Jenner, 189. 

P. 

Paris, plaster of, cast of cicatrix, 349, 



468 INDEX. 

Parr, Dr. 32. 

Parry, Dr. of Batli, 146, 218. His illness, 223. And funeral, 277. 

Dr. Charles, 318. 

Miss Augusta Bertie, inscription by Jenner inlier Bible,295. 

Pastor, Francis, carries vaccination to the province of Tobasca, 79. 

Paytherus, Thomas, Esq. 373, 374. 

Pearson, Mr. his treatise on vaccination translated into Chinese, 

83, 359. 
Dr. silenced by Dr. Lettsom, 32. 

Peel, Mr. Secretary, 321. 

Pegge, Sir Christopher, 190. 

Pennington, Sir Isaac, opposes vaccination, 43. 

Pepys, Sir Lucas, 118, 121. 

Perceval, the Right Hon. Spencer, (30. 

Persian Ambassador, 371. 

Peru, fate of the expedition to vaccinate, 80, 

Petion, Emperor of Hayti, 39G. 

Petty, Lord Henry, his interview with Jenner, 50. Speecli in 
the House of Commons, 57, 68. 

Philippine Isles, account from, 356. 

Phipps, first vaccinated patient, 304. 

Physicians, Royal College of, in London, recommend vaccina- 
tion, 66. Collect information respecting it, 80. Their treat- 
ment of Jenner, 191. Their report, 357, 359. 

Physicians, Royal College of, in Edinburgh, 95, 320. 

Placards, on the walls of London, 111. 

Plague, supposed to be controlled by vaccination, 12. 

Platofl; the Hetman, 209. 

Plumptre, Rev. James, advocates vaccination in a sermon dedi- 
cated to Jenner, 40. His exertions, 47. 

Mrs. Anne, 42, note. 

Poachers, affray between a gang and the gamekeepers of Lord 
Segrave, 22l'. Their trial at Gloucester, 222. 

Ponta, Gioachino, his poem on the Triumph of Vaccination 
analysed, 169, 171. 

Population, increase of in several countries of Europe, 257. 

Potatoes, method of cooking, 410. 

Powell, his case, 113. 

Prayer of Jenner, 295. 

Price, Sir Uvedale, 298. 

Prichard, Dr. of Bristol, 234, note. 

Primrose, night-blowing, 444. 

Prince of Wales' Island, vaccination at, 345. 

Py, his poem on vaccination, 173. 

Pruen, Rev. Thomas, 318. 

Prussia, inoculation in, 378. 

Kino- of, his interview with Jenner, 209. 

R. 

Raffles, Sir Stamford, 187. Visits Jenner at Berkeley, 189. 



INDEX. 460 

Ramsden, Dr. note in his sermon, 43. 

liedesdale, Lord, 196. 

Reed, Rev. T. A 274, 385 

Report of Parliamentary Committee on Vaccination, remarks 

upon, 133. 
Reyss, Dr. 96. 
Rickman,Mr. 259. 
Rigby, Mr. 384. 

Rigodit, euseigne de vaisseau, 367, 369. 
Rincolini, Dr. of Briinn, 214. 

Ring, Mr. 108, 123, 141, 361, 377, 378, 383, 394, 395, 397. 
Ringwood, in Hampshire, transactions at, 108, et seq. 
Roberton, Mr. his work on children, 247, 249. 
Roberts, petition in his favour, 418. 
Rome, King of, vaccinated, 166, 
Rose, Hon. George, 108, 117, 121, 360, 376. 
Rowley, Dr. William, his appeal, 63, 352. 
Russia, Report from, 382. 

Emperor and Empress Dowager of, promote vaccina- 
tion, 52. And establish it, 92. 

Emperor of, his ukase on Vaccination, 184. 

his interview with Jenner, 207. 



S. 

Sacco, Dr. his vaccinations, 99, 112, 337. His view of the 
protection afforded by the genuine vaccine, 234, note, 379. 

Salvani, Don Francis, sub-conductor of the Spanish expedition, 
79. 

Saunders, Dr. 361. 

Sawahs, Jennerian, lands set apart for supporting vaccination in 
Java, 187. 

Saye, print by, 335. 

Sciatica, cure of, 399. 

Scindia, Dowrat Row, orders his child to be vaccinated, 12. 

Scott, Dr. of Bombay, his communications respecting the pro- 
gress of vaccination, 10. 

Scriptures, veneration of Jenner for the, 295, 446. 

Segrave, Lord, his application to Queen Charlotte, 211. His 
resolute and judicious conduct, 222, 318. 

Severn, river, scenery of it described, 200. 

Sharpe, the engraver, 308, note. 

Shoolbred, John, 350. 

Shrapnell, Henry, 227, 308, 314, 318. 

Sidmouth, Lord, 399. 

Sims, Dr. 31. 

Skelton, Mr. 148. 

, the engraver, 308, note, 

Skipton, Mr. 231. 

Small-pox, association to prevent, 150 el seq. 



4/0 INDEX. 

Small-pox, epidemic in 1818, 232. 

case of inoculated and natural in the same subject 

after vaccination, 26, note. 

paper on secondary, 149. 



Smith, Anker, engraver of a profile of Jenner, 77. 

Mr. William, 68. 

Society, Royal Jennerian, 5. 

Medical, of London, vote a gold medal to Jenner, 31. 

Soemmering, Dr. 215. 

Somerville, Lord, 409 et seq. 

Sounds, effects of certain, 423, 427. 

Spain, King of, releases prisoners of war at the intercession of 
Jenner, 115. 

Spallanzani, University of Pavia spared from plunder out of 
respect to him, 35. 

Spens, Dr. 95. 

Squirrel, 352. Real author of a publication under that name, 
368. 

St. Helena, island of, first receives vaccination from the expedi- 
tion under Balmis, 79. 

St. James's, anecdote of Jenner in the drawing room at, 291. 

Statue of Jenner by Sievier in Gloucester cathedral, 320. 

Staunton, Sir George, his translation of a Treatise on Vaccina- 
tion into the Chinese language, 84. 

Strongbow, ivy plucked from his tomb at Tintern Abbey, 296. 

Sudeley parish, case of a poor family there, 342. 

Surgeons, College of, in Edinburgh, 320, 

Sussex, Duke of, 142, 143. 

Sweden, effects of vaccination in, 253. 

T. 

Tench, Colonel, 332. 

Thompson, Dr. 234. 

Thouret, Dr. 132. 

Travers, Benjamin, Esq. letter of, 6. 

Trotter, Dr. 38. 

Trye, Charles Brandon, Esq. his character, 151, note, 

350. 
Tubercle in the lungs, 407. 

V. 

Vaccine, la Decouverte de la, a poem, 173. 

Vaccinia, II Trionfo della, do., 379. 

Vaccination, its progress in various parts of the world, 10 et seq. 
50 et seq. Conveyed to Spanish America, 78. Patronised 
by sovereign powers, 98 et seq. Establishment for spreading 
it throughout the British dominions, 117 et seq. Reports of 
it from the Havannah, Caraccas, Spanish America, Milan, 
and Vienna, Russia and the East Indies, 182 et seq. 187. 



INDEX. 471 

Vaccination, reports of failure in, 13 f^ seq. 

— causes of failure assigned by Jenner,233. 

summary of facts relating to, 242 et seq. 

Jenner's final opinion of it, 311. 

■ questions respecting it, 372. 

curious fact relating to it, 403. 

• medals struck in its honour, 456. 

Valentin, Dr. of Nancy, his scheme for honouring and recom- 
pensing Jenner, 106. 

W. 

Wales, Princess of, 140. 

Walker, John, 389. 

AVampum, belt and string of, presented by the Five Nations, to 
Jenner, 104. 

Washington, General, 138, note. 

Waterhouse, Professor, 381. 

Watt, Dr. his statement respecting the mortality of children, 
248, 392. 

Westbury Cliff, a favourite haunt of Jenner, 201. 

Westcote, Mr. 108. 

Westfaling, Thomas Brereton, Esq. 412, 413. 

Whitbread, Mr. 69. 

Wickham, Dr. released by Napoleon, 38. 

Wilberforce, Mr. his suggestions respecting vaccination, 59. 
Letter, 395. 

Willan, Dr. his book, 363, 370, 404. 

Williams, Mr. released by Napoleon, 38. 

Wilna, University of, elect Jenner an honorary member, 10. 

Wincanton, in Somersetshire, the residence of French pri- 
soners, 367. 

Windham, Mr. 69. 

Windsor, Mr. 396. 

Wingfield, Mr. 362. 

Wood, Dr. 352. 

Mr. a friend of Jenner, 206, note. 

Woodville, 373. 

Woolcombe, Mr. 336. 

Worgan, John Dawes, account of, 72 et seq. 

Worthington, Dr. a friend of Jenner, 309, 318. See Letters. 

Wrottesley, Lady Charlotte, 362. 

Y. 

Yeates, Dr. 86, 340. 
Yonge, Mr. 332. 
York, Duke of, 95, 383. 



WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



I. An INQUIRY illustrating the Nature of Tuberculated 

Accretions of Serous Membranes, and the Origin of 
Tubercles and Tumours in diflerent Textures of the Body, 
8vo. with Engravings. 

II. ILLUSTRATIONS of the Inquiry respecting Tuber- 
culous Diseases, 8vo. with coloured Plates. 

III. DELINEATIONS of the Origin and Progress of va- 
rious Changes of Structure which occur in Man and some 
of the Inferior Animals, being the continuation of Works 
already published on this subject, 4to. with many Plates. 



J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, 25, PARLIAMENT-STREET. 



R 


Baron, John 


489 


The life of Edward Jenner 


J5B3 




V.2 




Biological 




^ Medical 





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